Koofers

Exam #2 (N. Am, M. Am, S. Am) - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:GEOG 06111 - World Regional Geography
Subject:Geography
University:Rowan University
Term:Spring 2013
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(N. AM) African-American Internal Migration
  • Originated in the south (near Louisiana) and went toward the cities (Philadelphia, Detroit, LA, San Fran, Boston, Chicago)
Alberta Resources
  • Oil drawn from deposits of tar sand
Asian International Migration
  • 350 thousand over the Pacific ocean
Canada's Language Distribution
  • French Canada (Maritime)
Generated by Koofers.com
Canadian Devolution/Quebec
  • 1995- Voted to divide Quebec, but lost the vote
Defining Realm Characteristics
  • European Norms
  • Anglo-American (English Language/Christian Faith)
  • Federal States
  • Highly Urbanized
  • Mobile Populations (Internal)
  • High Incomes
  • Plural Societies
                  Complexity
                  Cultural Pluralism
Economic Sectors (4 Types)
  • Primary- Raw Materials (Resource Extraction)
  • Secondary- Manufacturing
  • Tertiary- Services
  • Quaternary- Information/Management
Distribution of Sectors
  • US-  65% Quaternary
  • Canada- 74% Tertiary/Quaternary
Generated by Koofers.com
Example of Primary Sector
  • Agriculture/Energy in the US
Example of Secondary Sector
  • Industry
  • Location Factors
Example of Tertiary/Quaternary Sector
  • Technopole
European Settlement Patterns
  • A: New England Culture- "Yankee"
  • B: Mid-Atlantic Culture
  • C: Tide Water Culture
                       Expanded into much of the plantation cultures
Generated by Koofers.com
European Settlement Patterns (Part 2)
  • 1820-1980
  • Migration Reasons:
                Economic
                Cultural
                Environmental
  • Push/Pull Factors (Push: 1840- Irish Potato Famine/Pull: Economic Opportunity)
  • 1840- British Isles
  • 1880- Germany/Scandinavia
  • 1920- SE Europe
  • 2000- Latin America/Asia
First Nations
  • Amerindian
  • Native Americans
Hispanic International Migration
  • From Mexico/Northern South America
Main Street
  • Canada's National Core
  • Quebec, Montreal, Windsor, Toronto
Generated by Koofers.com
Minority Distribution
  • Native Americans:  West  <1%
  • African Americans:  SE 13%
  • Hispanic:  SW 16%
  • Asian:  West 5%
Minority Growth/Size

Pacific Hinge
  • Focus on developments on the West
Rain Shadow
  • Rain on one side of a mountain, and on the other side is dry
  • Windward: Wet
  • Leeward: Dry
  • Example: Rocky Mountains
Generated by Koofers.com
Religious Distribution
  • United Church:  Canada
  • Mormon:  Intermontain West (Utah)
  • Baptist:  SE
  • Lutheran:  N Central
  • Roman Catholic:  SW, NE
  • 3/4 of US say they are Christian
  • 15% of US say they follow no faith
St. Lawrence Seaway
  • An extension into the Great Lakes
  • Includes Southern Quebec
Technopole
  • Centralization of technologies
  • Usually in cities
US Population Movement
  • In the US: 310 million
  • US is the 3rd largest in population/area
  • In Canada: 35 million
  • Canada is the 2nd largest in the world in area
  • California: 38 million
  • NJ: 9 million
  • Wyoming: 500,000 (Smallest population)
Generated by Koofers.com
M. Am Altitudinal Zonation
  • Vertical pattern of climate (as you get higher in altitude, it gets colder)
  • Tierra Caliente
  • Tierra Templada (Where most of the population lives)
  • Tierra Fria
  • Tierra Helada
  • Tierra Nevada
Archipelago
  • A set of islands grouped closely together, usually referred to as a chain
Caribbean Modern Cultures
  • European & Asian
  • Cuba: Spanish
  • Jamaica: African/British
  • Haiti: African/French
  • Dom. Rep: Spanish/African
  • Puerto Rico: US Territory
Chiapas
  • Devolution
  • Mayan & Mestizo (European/Mestizo) Culture
  • Poorest Mexican state
  • Demanding more autonomy
  • Zapatista Insurrection
                   -Mayan Chiapas
                            -Outside markets
                            -Churches
Generated by Koofers.com
Defining Realm Characteristics
  • Fragmented (Physically/Politically)
  • Diverse culturally
  • Poverty is endemic
  • About 200 million people in 2013
Dominican Republic
  • Spanish and African cultures
  • Environment
  • Resources
  • Tourism
  • Corruption
  • Instability
  • Remittances (Haiti)
                    -Money sent back home to family to home country
Greater Antilles
  • Cuba
  • Jamaica
  • Haiti/Dom.Rep
  • Puerto Rico
Hacienda Plantation Economies
  • Hacienda: Self-sufficient economy with Spanish origin
  • Plantation: Commercial, mono-crop with N. European origin
Generated by Koofers.com
Haiti
  • African/French population
  • Corruption
  • Remittances
Isthmus
  • Narrower strip of land connecting two larger land bodies
Land Bridge
  • Mexico
  • Central America
Lesser Antilles
  • Insular
  • Windward/Leeward Islands
  • Trinidad & Tobago
  • African
  • British
  • Indian
  • Chinese
  • Caribbean's leading oil producer
Generated by Koofers.com
Mainland Description
  • Mexico
  • Yucatan Peninsula
  • "Euroamerans"
Mainland-Rimland Theory
  • Mainland: Mexico/Yucatan Peninsula
  • Rimland: Islands
Maquiladora
  • An assembly plant that pioneered the migration of industries in the 1970's.
                   Electronic equipment
                   Auto parts
                   Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez (on the border)
               
Advantages/Disadvantages of Maquiladoras
  • Advantages:
                    Mexico gains jobs
                    Owners benefit from cheaper labor costs, saving costs
  • Disadvantages:
                    Regional development
                    Development of an international growth corridor
Generated by Koofers.com
Mestizo
  • European/Mestizo culture
  • Chiapas
  • Guatemala
  • El Salvador
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
Mexico City
  • Primate city
  • 30 million people
  • Largest world agglomeration
Mexico's Future
  • End violence
  • Reduce inequality
  • Promote NAFTA southward
  • Improve social issues
  • Improve US relations
  • Build dry canal
Mullato
  • Blend of African/European
Generated by Koofers.com
NAFTA
  • North American Free Trade Agreement
  • A trade agreement between Canada, the US & Mexico
  • Higher standard of living
  • More jobs for Mexicans
  • Mexican exports increase sales
Rimland Description
  • Islands
  • "EuroAfricans"
Tierra Templada
  • Where most of the population lives
  • Coffee
  • Corn
  • Wheat
  • Vegetables
Tourism
  • State/economic options
  • Clean industry
  • Educational
  • Disjunctive development (low wages)
  • Degrades fragile environmental resources
  • Inauthentic representations of native cultures
Generated by Koofers.com
Transculturation
  • When the new society is being transformed by the native society
Trinidad
  • Located in the Lesser Antilles
  • African, British, Indian, Chinese cultures
  • Caribbean's leading oil producer
S. Am Altiplano
  • Inca Empire domain
  • Between the Andes Mountains
  • Amerin
Amazon Basin

Generated by Koofers.com
Barrio/Favela
  • "Neighborhood"
  • Urban community
  • Low income
  • Inner city
Columbia Insurgency
  • By McColl
  • Devolutionary process within a country
  • 1.  Contention
  • 2. Equilibrium
  • 3. Counter offensive
                         Government of country trying to get their country back
Cultural Distribution/Spheres
  • Tropical Plantation
                   Extension of mainland / rimland theory
                   Coastal
  • European-Commercial
  • Amerind-Subsistence
                   Altiplano
  • Mestizo-Transitional
                   Skirts altiplano (interior)
  • Undifferentiated
                   Interior
                   Southern tip
                   Sparse population
Defining Realm Characteristics
  • Location
  • Physiography
  • Population
  • Cultural Pluralism
  • Regional Economic Interaction
Generated by Koofers.com
Economic Associations
  1. Mercosur (S. countries, except Chile)
  2. Andean community (Western)
  3. S. American Community of Nation
  4. Group of Three (G-3)
                     Formed in 1995
                     Mexico, Venezuela, and Columbia
                     A Free Trade association which aims to phase out all tariffs by 2005
        5. NAFTA
                     Launched by US, Mexico and Canada in 1994
                     Seeking to expand into S. America to include Chile (crops)
Growth Pole
  • Aims to promote growth in hinterlands
  • Augmented by investment support in an attempt to spread economic activities and benefits
  • Sets of "ripples" of development
Insurgent State
  • A devolutionary process within a country
Land Alienation
  • Famine
  • Poverty
  • Migration
  • Little Agricultural Diversity
Generated by Koofers.com
Plate Tectonic Location
  • On the west coast
Population Distribution
  • Periphery- Inland (Altiplano)
  • Cultural Pluralism
  • Regional Economic Interaction
  • Urban (80%)
Pre Columbian Civilizations
  • The Inca Empire
                 Massive cultural hearth
                 Altiplano (high plains)
                 Europeans came in, dispersed
                 Land alienation
Religion
  • Shamanism (Ecuador)
  • 90% Christianity
Generated by Koofers.com
South America's Future
  • Need for stability
  • Cultural inequality
  • Socioeconomic polarization (growth gap)
  • The shadow of the United States
  • China calling (largest trade partner)
The Guianas
  • Rimland and S. America
  • African and Indian cultures
Venezuela
  • Llanos
  • Lake Maracaibo
  • Orinoco River
  • Angel Falls
  • Oil producing state (one of the 5 largest in the world)
  • Mestizo & Roman Catholic population
Colombia
  • Exports
  • Cocaine- leading economic activity
  • Violence
  • Spanish
  • The insurgent state
Generated by Koofers.com
Ecuador
  • Main exports
  • Transit country for cocaine originating
  • Shamanism
Peru
  • Capital & Primate City: Lima
  • Economic activities
  • Inca Empire hearth
Bolivia
  • La Paz- Administrative capital
  • Landlocked
  • Main exports: tin and zinc
  • Illegal production
Brazil's World Rankings
  • Population: 5th
  • Territory: 5th
  • Economy: 8th
  • Industrial Base: 7th
Generated by Koofers.com
Brazil
  • Population: 200 million
  • Portuguese
  • Substantial mineral resources
  • Roman Catholic
  • Sao Paulo
  • Rio De Janerio
  • Brasilia
Sao Paulo
  • Largest city in Brazil
  • Leading industrial producer
  • Most European part of Brazil
  • Agricultural production and expansion
  • Fazenda
                   Coffee plantation
  • Immigration
  • On the Atlantic
Rio De Janeiro
  • 11.5 million population
  • Portuguese cultural hearth
  • Cultural leader
Brasilia
  • Capital of Brazil
  • Forward capital
  • Development
Generated by Koofers.com
Chile
  • 16 million population
  • Elongated state
  • Exports
  • 95% White / European
  • Amerin, Mestizo, Middle East
  • Spanish
  • Christian
Argentina
  • 40 million population
  • 90% urbanized
  • Buenos Aires: A classic primate city
  • Pampas- fertile plains
  • Patagonia- Southern plateau
  • Exports are varied
  • 95% white, remainder Mestizo
  • Christian
  • Spanish, but many others
Paraguay
  • Transition zone
  • Over 90% Mestizo
  • Landlocked
  • Poor economy
  • Triple Frontier
                     An area with dominant terrorist organization (Hezbollah) in Paraguay, Brazil & Argentina
The CBD

Generated by Koofers.com
The Disamenity Sector
  • Penetrating toward the CBD for work
  • Low income
The Elite Residential Sector
  • Upper Class
The Zone of Maturity
  • Middle class
The Zone of Situ Accretion
  • Depressions
  • Poverty
Generated by Koofers.com
Triple Frontier
  • An area of dominant terrorist organization (Hezbollah) in Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina
Uneven Development

Union of South American Nations
  • Continent-wide free trade zone that will unite two existing free-trade organization Mercosur and the Andean community with complete integration expected in the next two years
                     World's 5th ranking economic power
                     World's 4th largest population
                     27% of the world's freshwater sources
                     95% single religion
                     Mutually intelligible language (Spanish and Portuguese)
Urbanization
Generated by Koofers.com

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 (N. AM) African-American Internal Migration
  • Originated in the south (near Louisiana) and went toward the cities (Philadelphia, Detroit, LA, San Fran, Boston, Chicago)
 Alberta Resources
  • Oil drawn from deposits of tar sand
 Asian International Migration
  • 350 thousand over the Pacific ocean
 Canada's Language Distribution
  • French Canada (Maritime)
 Canadian Devolution/Quebec
  • 1995- Voted to divide Quebec, but lost the vote
 Defining Realm Characteristics
  • European Norms
  • Anglo-American (English Language/Christian Faith)
  • Federal States
  • Highly Urbanized
  • Mobile Populations (Internal)
  • High Incomes
  • Plural Societies
                  Complexity
                  Cultural Pluralism
 Economic Sectors (4 Types)
  • Primary- Raw Materials (Resource Extraction)
  • Secondary- Manufacturing
  • Tertiary- Services
  • Quaternary- Information/Management
 Distribution of Sectors
  • US-  65% Quaternary
  • Canada- 74% Tertiary/Quaternary
 Example of Primary Sector
  • Agriculture/Energy in the US
 Example of Secondary Sector
  • Industry
  • Location Factors
 Example of Tertiary/Quaternary Sector
  • Technopole
 European Settlement Patterns
  • A: New England Culture- "Yankee"
  • B: Mid-Atlantic Culture
  • C: Tide Water Culture
                       Expanded into much of the plantation cultures
 European Settlement Patterns (Part 2)
  • 1820-1980
  • Migration Reasons:
                Economic
                Cultural
                Environmental
  • Push/Pull Factors (Push: 1840- Irish Potato Famine/Pull: Economic Opportunity)
  • 1840- British Isles
  • 1880- Germany/Scandinavia
  • 1920- SE Europe
  • 2000- Latin America/Asia
 First Nations
  • Amerindian
  • Native Americans
 Hispanic International Migration
  • From Mexico/Northern South America
 Main Street
  • Canada's National Core
  • Quebec, Montreal, Windsor, Toronto
 Minority Distribution
  • Native Americans:  West  <1%
  • African Americans:  SE 13%
  • Hispanic:  SW 16%
  • Asian:  West 5%
 Minority Growth/Size

 Pacific Hinge
  • Focus on developments on the West
 Rain Shadow
  • Rain on one side of a mountain, and on the other side is dry
  • Windward: Wet
  • Leeward: Dry
  • Example: Rocky Mountains
 Religious Distribution
  • United Church:  Canada
  • Mormon:  Intermontain West (Utah)
  • Baptist:  SE
  • Lutheran:  N Central
  • Roman Catholic:  SW, NE
  • 3/4 of US say they are Christian
  • 15% of US say they follow no faith
 St. Lawrence Seaway
  • An extension into the Great Lakes
  • Includes Southern Quebec
 Technopole
  • Centralization of technologies
  • Usually in cities
 US Population Movement
  • In the US: 310 million
  • US is the 3rd largest in population/area
  • In Canada: 35 million
  • Canada is the 2nd largest in the world in area
  • California: 38 million
  • NJ: 9 million
  • Wyoming: 500,000 (Smallest population)
 M. Am Altitudinal Zonation
  • Vertical pattern of climate (as you get higher in altitude, it gets colder)
  • Tierra Caliente
  • Tierra Templada (Where most of the population lives)
  • Tierra Fria
  • Tierra Helada
  • Tierra Nevada
 Archipelago
  • A set of islands grouped closely together, usually referred to as a chain
 Caribbean Modern Cultures
  • European & Asian
  • Cuba: Spanish
  • Jamaica: African/British
  • Haiti: African/French
  • Dom. Rep: Spanish/African
  • Puerto Rico: US Territory
 Chiapas
  • Devolution
  • Mayan & Mestizo (European/Mestizo) Culture
  • Poorest Mexican state
  • Demanding more autonomy
  • Zapatista Insurrection
                   -Mayan Chiapas
                            -Outside markets
                            -Churches
 Defining Realm Characteristics
  • Fragmented (Physically/Politically)
  • Diverse culturally
  • Poverty is endemic
  • About 200 million people in 2013
 Dominican Republic
  • Spanish and African cultures
  • Environment
  • Resources
  • Tourism
  • Corruption
  • Instability
  • Remittances (Haiti)
                    -Money sent back home to family to home country
 Greater Antilles
  • Cuba
  • Jamaica
  • Haiti/Dom.Rep
  • Puerto Rico
 Hacienda Plantation Economies
  • Hacienda: Self-sufficient economy with Spanish origin
  • Plantation: Commercial, mono-crop with N. European origin
 Haiti
  • African/French population
  • Corruption
  • Remittances
 Isthmus
  • Narrower strip of land connecting two larger land bodies
 Land Bridge
  • Mexico
  • Central America
 Lesser Antilles
  • Insular
  • Windward/Leeward Islands
  • Trinidad & Tobago
  • African
  • British
  • Indian
  • Chinese
  • Caribbean's leading oil producer
 Mainland Description
  • Mexico
  • Yucatan Peninsula
  • "Euroamerans"
 Mainland-Rimland Theory
  • Mainland: Mexico/Yucatan Peninsula
  • Rimland: Islands
 Maquiladora
  • An assembly plant that pioneered the migration of industries in the 1970's.
                   Electronic equipment
                   Auto parts
                   Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez (on the border)
               
 Advantages/Disadvantages of Maquiladoras
  • Advantages:
                    Mexico gains jobs
                    Owners benefit from cheaper labor costs, saving costs
  • Disadvantages:
                    Regional development
                    Development of an international growth corridor
 Mestizo
  • European/Mestizo culture
  • Chiapas
  • Guatemala
  • El Salvador
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
 Mexico City
  • Primate city
  • 30 million people
  • Largest world agglomeration
 Mexico's Future
  • End violence
  • Reduce inequality
  • Promote NAFTA southward
  • Improve social issues
  • Improve US relations
  • Build dry canal
 Mullato
  • Blend of African/European
 NAFTA
  • North American Free Trade Agreement
  • A trade agreement between Canada, the US & Mexico
  • Higher standard of living
  • More jobs for Mexicans
  • Mexican exports increase sales
 Rimland Description
  • Islands
  • "EuroAfricans"
 Tierra Templada
  • Where most of the population lives
  • Coffee
  • Corn
  • Wheat
  • Vegetables
 Tourism
  • State/economic options
  • Clean industry
  • Educational
  • Disjunctive development (low wages)
  • Degrades fragile environmental resources
  • Inauthentic representations of native cultures
 Transculturation
  • When the new society is being transformed by the native society
 Trinidad
  • Located in the Lesser Antilles
  • African, British, Indian, Chinese cultures
  • Caribbean's leading oil producer
 S. Am Altiplano
  • Inca Empire domain
  • Between the Andes Mountains
  • Amerin
 Amazon Basin

 Barrio/Favela
  • "Neighborhood"
  • Urban community
  • Low income
  • Inner city
 Columbia Insurgency
  • By McColl
  • Devolutionary process within a country
  • 1.  Contention
  • 2. Equilibrium
  • 3. Counter offensive
                         Government of country trying to get their country back
 Cultural Distribution/Spheres
  • Tropical Plantation
                   Extension of mainland / rimland theory
                   Coastal
  • European-Commercial
  • Amerind-Subsistence
                   Altiplano
  • Mestizo-Transitional
                   Skirts altiplano (interior)
  • Undifferentiated
                   Interior
                   Southern tip
                   Sparse population
 Defining Realm Characteristics
  • Location
  • Physiography
  • Population
  • Cultural Pluralism
  • Regional Economic Interaction
 Economic Associations
  1. Mercosur (S. countries, except Chile)
  2. Andean community (Western)
  3. S. American Community of Nation
  4. Group of Three (G-3)
                     Formed in 1995
                     Mexico, Venezuela, and Columbia
                     A Free Trade association which aims to phase out all tariffs by 2005
        5. NAFTA
                     Launched by US, Mexico and Canada in 1994
                     Seeking to expand into S. America to include Chile (crops)
 Growth Pole
  • Aims to promote growth in hinterlands
  • Augmented by investment support in an attempt to spread economic activities and benefits
  • Sets of "ripples" of development
 Insurgent State
  • A devolutionary process within a country
 Land Alienation
  • Famine
  • Poverty
  • Migration
  • Little Agricultural Diversity
 Plate Tectonic Location
  • On the west coast
 Population Distribution
  • Periphery- Inland (Altiplano)
  • Cultural Pluralism
  • Regional Economic Interaction
  • Urban (80%)
 Pre Columbian Civilizations
  • The Inca Empire
                 Massive cultural hearth
                 Altiplano (high plains)
                 Europeans came in, dispersed
                 Land alienation
 Religion
  • Shamanism (Ecuador)
  • 90% Christianity
 South America's Future
  • Need for stability
  • Cultural inequality
  • Socioeconomic polarization (growth gap)
  • The shadow of the United States
  • China calling (largest trade partner)
 The Guianas
  • Rimland and S. America
  • African and Indian cultures
 Venezuela
  • Llanos
  • Lake Maracaibo
  • Orinoco River
  • Angel Falls
  • Oil producing state (one of the 5 largest in the world)
  • Mestizo & Roman Catholic population
 Colombia
  • Exports
  • Cocaine- leading economic activity
  • Violence
  • Spanish
  • The insurgent state
 Ecuador
  • Main exports
  • Transit country for cocaine originating
  • Shamanism
 Peru
  • Capital & Primate City: Lima
  • Economic activities
  • Inca Empire hearth
 Bolivia
  • La Paz- Administrative capital
  • Landlocked
  • Main exports: tin and zinc
  • Illegal production
 Brazil's World Rankings
  • Population: 5th
  • Territory: 5th
  • Economy: 8th
  • Industrial Base: 7th
 Brazil
  • Population: 200 million
  • Portuguese
  • Substantial mineral resources
  • Roman Catholic
  • Sao Paulo
  • Rio De Janerio
  • Brasilia
 Sao Paulo
  • Largest city in Brazil
  • Leading industrial producer
  • Most European part of Brazil
  • Agricultural production and expansion
  • Fazenda
                   Coffee plantation
  • Immigration
  • On the Atlantic
 Rio De Janeiro
  • 11.5 million population
  • Portuguese cultural hearth
  • Cultural leader
 Brasilia
  • Capital of Brazil
  • Forward capital
  • Development
 Chile
  • 16 million population
  • Elongated state
  • Exports
  • 95% White / European
  • Amerin, Mestizo, Middle East
  • Spanish
  • Christian
 Argentina
  • 40 million population
  • 90% urbanized
  • Buenos Aires: A classic primate city
  • Pampas- fertile plains
  • Patagonia- Southern plateau
  • Exports are varied
  • 95% white, remainder Mestizo
  • Christian
  • Spanish, but many others
 Paraguay
  • Transition zone
  • Over 90% Mestizo
  • Landlocked
  • Poor economy
  • Triple Frontier
                     An area with dominant terrorist organization (Hezbollah) in Paraguay, Brazil & Argentina
 The CBD

 The Disamenity Sector
  • Penetrating toward the CBD for work
  • Low income
 The Elite Residential Sector
  • Upper Class
 The Zone of Maturity
  • Middle class
 The Zone of Situ Accretion
  • Depressions
  • Poverty
 Triple Frontier
  • An area of dominant terrorist organization (Hezbollah) in Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina
 Uneven Development

 Union of South American Nations
  • Continent-wide free trade zone that will unite two existing free-trade organization Mercosur and the Andean community with complete integration expected in the next two years
                     World's 5th ranking economic power
                     World's 4th largest population
                     27% of the world's freshwater sources
                     95% single religion
                     Mutually intelligible language (Spanish and Portuguese)
 Urbanization
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"