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Test 4 - Flashcards

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Class:GEOG 1401 - Physical Geography
Subject:GEOGRAPHY
University:Texas Tech University
Term:Spring 2010
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spring tide the highest tides occur every two weeks when the moon and sun align
neap tide One week after each spring tide the moon and sun are at right angles and the lowest high tide occurs.
Factors of wave size -strength of wind -how long it blows -the distance over which they have had to develop (called fetch)
swash Swash (uprush and backwash), in geography, is the water that washes up on shore after an incoming wave has broken.
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wave refraction As waves approach the shore, the topography of the bottom can change the direction the waves travel. When waves approach a beach, they usually arrive at an angle to the coastline. As the waves begin to touch the bottom, they get slowed, but not all of the wave touches at the same time
Beach Drift water hits beach at an angle other than 90 degrees. when it comes back down it is at right angles to the beach
longshore drift Longshore drift, sometimes known as drifting, longshore current, LSD (not common as it typically refers to a drug) or littoral drift is the movement of sediments, most often sand, along a coast parallel to its shoreline.
headland If the resistance of the rocks varies along a coast, portions of the rock will be eroded faster than others. A headland is a point of land, usually high, that extends out into a body of water.
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arch If the waves break through a weak point in the headland and creates...an arch
stacks As the arch continues to be eroded, the top finally falls, leaving two stacks.
summer beach gentle slope from gentle waves
winter beach steep dropoff with submarine bar off cost from strong waves. result is short beach
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spit a projection of the beach into the water
barrier beach A shoal, sandbar (or just bar in context), or gravebar is a somewhat linear landform within or extending into a body of water, typically composed of sand, silt or small pebbles. If the spit grows all the way across the indentation
barrier islands Barrier islands, a coastal landform and a type of barrier system, are relatively narrow strips of sand that parallel the mainland coast.
submergent coast Submergent coastlines are stretches along the coast that have been inundated by the sea due to a relative rise in sea levels.
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emergent coasts Where the land has risen relative to the sea
fiord Geologically, a fjord ( or ) is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides, created in a valley carved by glacial activity.
ria river valleys are frequently flooded, leaving indentations in the coastline
soil creep In geology, solifluction, also known as soil fluction, is a type of mass wasting where waterlogged sediment moves slowly downslope, over impermeable material.
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fall (soil movement) this is when pieces of rock break off of a wall and drop down. They tend to accumulate at the base of the cliff in a talus slope. Like sand on a dune, talus slopes build up to their angle of repose, which is roughly 35°.
slide (soil movement) If rock layers have a weak connection between them and a slope is steep, then the upper layer may slide over the lower one.
Slump (soil movement) Most slumps occur on thick cohesive soils, like a thick clay soil on a hillside. The material moves usually from heavy rains adding weight. The movement is generally on a spoon-shaped surface with the upper surface tilting back as it moves down and the lower part spreading out down the slope.
Flows (soil movement) In flows the material moves like a fluid- becoming mixed up in the process. It is not unusual for a slide or slump to end up as a flow. In most flows, the material is saturated with water, but dry flows also occur.
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Karst Karst is the term used to describe terrain with distinct features resulting from the solution of rocks. It is also used to describe the processes involved.
Types of rocks involved with karst Limestone is the most common rock type involved, but other rock types are also dissolved by water, like gypsum, dolomite and salt.
Sinkholes Sinkholes are closed depressions caused by the solution of rocks
Solution sinkholes Solution sinkholes form when water dissolves the surface rock, creating a depression.
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Collapse sinkholes Collapse sinkholes form when water flowing underground erodes a cavity in the rock. As the cavity gets bigger, the overlying rock or soil will eventually fall in to the hole.
Tower karst As sinkholes grow, they may merge together to form more complicated features. After enough erosion has occurred, there may be only remnant hills left of the area between sinkholes.
Travertine deposits These features form because water saturated with calcium carbonate seeps into the cavern. The amount of CaCO3 the water can hold is determined by the amount of CO2 dissolved in the water. When the water comes in contact with the air in the cave, it loses CO2, so it can no longer hold as much CaCO3. The calcium carbonate precipitates out and is deposited either on the ceiling or if the water has dripped before the precipitation, it is deposited on the floor. These deposits grow over time.
elastic deformation This is where the rock is compressed, but if the stress is removed, the rock will return to its original shape.
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plastic deformation Moderate stress leads to plastic deformation, where the rock slowly flows to a new shape. Even if the stress stops, the rock will maintain its new shape.
rupture The application of a strong stress often leads to rupture, where the rock breaks.
plateau If a region is uplifted and the force is equal over the entire area, then a plateau results.
dome If the uplifting force is concentrated at one place, then a dome may result. Here the center of the area is raised up and the surrounding land is deformed plastically to create a dome shape. Domes are sometimes caused by upwelling magma pushing up on the surface.
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basin The opposite of a dome, created when an area sinks
Folding Folding occurs when compression from the sides causes plastic deformation of rock layers. The folds generally either warp up or down in the middle of a section of rock. Upwarping creates anticlines and downwarping creates synclines. If there is only one half of a fold, it is called a monocline.
faults Movement along a rock break Along faults, the rock masses on either side are moving in different directions. Typically, the stress on the rock builds up over time with no movement until a threshold is reached and the rock can no longer hold back.
normal fault If the relative movement is vertical (one side goes up and the other goes down) and the side going up moves away from the other side.
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reverse fault If the two sides are being pushed together, causing the side going up to rise over the side going down.
transform fault If the movement is horizontal
oblique fault If the movement is both horizontal and vertical
horst If there are two normal faults paralleling each other and if the rock in between rises
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graben A graben is a depressed block of land bordered by parallel faults.
cuestas If there is a series of weak rocks with resistant rocks in between, then valleys will tend to exist where the weak rocks are exposed and hills where the strong ones are. This can arise if there are layers of rock that have been tilted and each layer is exposed
caprock Where rock layers are horizontal, the resistant rock can serve to protect the underlying rock layers from erosion.
mesa Where a flat topped hill with a caprock on top exists because everything else has been eroded away around it
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butte A very narrow mesa
drainage patterns the pattern a drainage network takes when viewed from the air
dendritic drainage pattern The tributaries look like branches on a tree. In this case there is no control from the rock.
radial drainage pattern If there is a hill formed by the bedrock, like a volcano or dome where the streams flow away from a central point.
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centripetal drainage pattern Where there is interior drainage, the streams all converge on the playa
trellised drainage pattern In areas with much folding, there will be short tributaries coming off of the ridges and larger streams in the troughs.
rectangular drainage pattern Some rocks are fractured in a rectangular fashion and streams develop on the fractures
deranged drainage pattern In formerly glaciated regions, there may not have been time for an organized drainage pattern to develop and the streams can flow in many directions and there may be many lakes in the area.
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batholith A batholith is a large emplacement of igneous intrusive (also called plutonic) rock that forms from cooled magma deep in the earth's crust.
dike sometimes magma cools as it is moving toward the surface in cracks in the crustal rock if the crack was vertical
sill sometimes magma cools as it is moving toward the surface in cracks in the crustal rock if the crack was horizontal
Pahoehoe lava that flows quickly and spreads out. When it cools, it has a relatively smooth surface
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aa when lava flows more slowly and escaping gas breaks up the upper surface. The result is a very rugged and jagged surface, hence the name, which sounds like a barefoot Hawaiian walking over the sharp rock.
Fissures Cracks out of which the lava flows
shield volcano results when free flowing lava spreads out over great distances and builds up a wide volcano with gentle slopes.
Cinder cones Cinder cones are hills of pyroclastic material which fell back down around the vent. They are typically smaller features, perhaps a hundred meters high and a few hundred meters in diameter.
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Composite volcanoes Result from a combination of lava and pyroclastic material erupting from the same vent. Most large volcanoes on continents are composite, like Mount St. Helens and the other volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest
caldera On very large composite volcanoes, sometimes the magma below the crater (the hole at the top of a volcano) sinks down and the crater collapses, leaving a large depression
nuée ardente Where there is much gas mixed with the ash and dust in a pyroclastic explosion coming out of a side vent on a volcano, the material can act as a hot cloud that avalanches down the mountainside at 50 km/hr
lahars A lahar is a type of mudflow or landslide composed of pyroclastic material and water that flows down from a volcano, typically along a river valley.
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soil the organic and inorganic material located above bedrock and capable of supporting life
residual material weathered bedrock that stays in place
transported material weathered elsewhere, eroded and deposited at its present location.
decomposers The organic matter in soils is mostly derived from dead plant matter, which is eaten by many types of decomposers, bacteria, fungi, algae, insects, worms, and various other critters and converted to humus.
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humus The organic matter in soils is mostly derived from dead plant matter, which is eaten by many types of decomposers, bacteria, fungi, algae, insects, worms, and various other critters and converted to humus.
Soil texture Soil texture is the combination of particle sizes present in a soil.
loams Soils with significant amounts of clay, sandy, and silty soils
cation exchange capacity In soil science, cation exchange capacity (CEC) is the capacity of a soil for ion exchange of cations between the soil and the soil solution. Therefore, is a measure of fertility.
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leaching downward movement of minerals through soil
biomes large ecosystems characterized by particular types of plants and animals
vertical zonation changes in environment as altitude increases
Tropical Rainforest Vegetation: plants must compete for sunlight Soil: oxisols Climate: Streams: perennial and have little seasonal variation
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Tropical Savanna Vegatation: mostly grasslands, often with sporadic trees. Soil: much more fertile than in the rainforests Climate: Streams: Stream discharge will have distinct seasonal variation. In fact,the streams may dry up during the dry season, making them intermittent.
Tropical Seasonal Forest & Scrub transitional from tropical rainforest to savanna Vegatation: Some trees become deciduous. The forest is much lower and less dense than in the rainforest. Streams: discharge is seasonal, but not as much as in savanna regions. There is a season of low rainfall, and the vegetation must adapt to it.
Midlatitude Broadleaf & Mixed Forest Climate: moist, continental climates with relatively hot summers and cold winters Soil: mostly alfisols and altisols Vegetation: broadleaf deciduous, mixed with coniferous Streams: perennial (flows all year)
Needleleaf Forest and Montane Forest also called boreal forest and taiga Climate: marine west coast Soil: several Vegetation: needleleaf trees become more dominant, such as pine, spruce and fir. Streams: Often the small streams will be dry in the winter and larger ones are perennial, but ice covered during the winter.
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Temperate Rainforest Climate: marine west coast Soil: Vegetation: lush forests are a mix of needleleaf and broadleaf trees growing in this wet environment Streams: perennial
Mediterranean Shrubland Climate: little or no rain int he summer Vegetation: Shrubs dominate these areas and they are adapted to dry conditions with waxy leaves that reduce water loss Streams: Most streams are intermittent, dry in the winter.
Midlatitude Grasslands Climate: steppe Soils: mollisols Vegetation: generally too dry for trees; taller and shorter grass depending on water Streams; small ephemeral, larger ones perennial
Deserts Climates: Bw Soils: aridisols Vegetation: some plants have deep taproots to get down to groundwater Streams: tend to be ephemeral; exotic streams: streams in desert from a source elsewhere
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Tundra Climate: Tundra (Et) and Highland (H) climates Soil: gelisols Vegetation: low plants cover the ground Streams: like D climates, small streams dry in water, large ones perennial and ice covered in winter; peak runoff in summer Arctic: poor drainage and perma frost Alpine: high mountains
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 spring tidethe highest tides occur every two weeks when the moon and sun align
 neap tideOne week after each spring tide the moon and sun are at right angles and the lowest high tide occurs.
 Factors of wave size-strength of wind
-how long it blows
-the distance over which they have had to develop (called fetch)
 swashSwash (uprush and backwash), in geography, is the water that washes up on shore after an incoming wave has broken.
 wave refractionAs waves approach the shore, the topography of the bottom can change the direction the waves travel. When waves approach a beach, they usually arrive at an angle to the coastline. As the waves begin to touch the bottom, they get slowed, but not all of the wave touches at the same time
 Beach Driftwater hits beach at an angle other than 90 degrees. when it comes back down it is at right angles to the beach
 longshore driftLongshore drift, sometimes known as drifting, longshore current, LSD (not common as it typically refers to a drug) or littoral drift is the movement of sediments, most often sand, along a coast parallel to its shoreline.
 headlandIf the resistance of the rocks varies along a coast, portions of the rock will be eroded faster than others.

A headland is a point of land, usually high, that extends out into a body of water.
 archIf the waves break through a weak point in the headland and creates...an arch
 stacksAs the arch continues to be eroded, the top finally falls, leaving two stacks.
 summer beachgentle slope from gentle waves
 winter beachsteep dropoff with submarine bar off cost from strong waves. result is short beach
 spita projection of the beach into the water
 barrier beachA shoal, sandbar (or just bar in context), or gravebar is a somewhat linear landform within or extending into a body of water, typically composed of sand, silt or small pebbles.

If the spit grows all the way across the indentation
 barrier islandsBarrier islands, a coastal landform and a type of barrier system, are relatively narrow strips of sand that parallel the mainland coast.
 submergent coastSubmergent coastlines are stretches along the coast that have been inundated by the sea due to a relative rise in sea levels.
 emergent coastsWhere the land has risen relative to the sea
 fiordGeologically, a fjord ( or ) is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides, created in a valley carved by glacial activity.
 riariver valleys are frequently flooded, leaving indentations in the coastline
 soil creepIn geology, solifluction, also known as soil fluction, is a type of mass wasting where waterlogged sediment moves slowly downslope, over impermeable material.
 fall (soil movement)this is when pieces of rock break off of a wall and drop down. They tend to accumulate at the base of the cliff in a talus slope. Like sand on a dune, talus slopes build up to their angle of repose, which is roughly 35°.
 slide (soil movement)If rock layers have a weak connection between them and a slope is steep, then the upper layer may slide over the lower one.
 Slump (soil movement)Most slumps occur on thick cohesive soils, like a thick clay soil on a hillside. The material moves usually from heavy rains adding weight. The movement is generally on a spoon-shaped surface with the upper surface tilting back as it moves down and the lower part spreading out down the slope.
 Flows (soil movement)In flows the material moves like a fluid- becoming mixed up in
the process. It is not unusual for a slide or slump to end up as a flow. In most flows, the material is saturated with water, but dry flows also occur.
 KarstKarst is the term used to describe terrain with distinct features resulting from the solution of rocks. It is also used to describe the processes involved.
 Types of rocks involved with karstLimestone is the most common rock type involved, but other rock types are also dissolved by water, like gypsum, dolomite and salt.
 SinkholesSinkholes are closed depressions caused by the solution of rocks
 Solution sinkholesSolution sinkholes form when water dissolves the surface rock, creating a depression.
 Collapse sinkholesCollapse sinkholes form when water flowing underground erodes a cavity in the rock. As the cavity gets bigger, the overlying rock or soil will eventually fall in to the hole.
 Tower karstAs sinkholes grow, they may merge together to form more complicated features. After enough erosion has occurred, there may be only remnant hills left of the area between sinkholes.
 Travertine depositsThese features form because water saturated with calcium carbonate seeps into the cavern. The amount of CaCO3 the water can hold is determined by the amount of CO2 dissolved in the water. When the water comes in contact with the air in the cave, it loses CO2, so it can no longer hold as much CaCO3. The calcium carbonate precipitates out and is deposited either on the ceiling or if the water has dripped before the precipitation, it is deposited on the floor. These deposits grow over time.
 elastic deformationThis is where the rock is compressed, but if the stress is removed, the rock will return to its original shape.
 plastic deformationModerate stress leads to plastic deformation, where the rock slowly flows to a new shape. Even if the stress stops, the rock will maintain its new shape.
 ruptureThe application of a strong stress often leads to rupture, where the rock breaks.
 plateauIf a region is uplifted and the force is equal over the entire area, then a plateau results.
 domeIf the uplifting force is concentrated at one place, then a dome may result. Here the center of the area is raised up and the surrounding land is deformed plastically to create a dome shape.

Domes are sometimes caused by upwelling magma pushing up on the surface.
 basinThe opposite of a dome, created when an area sinks
 FoldingFolding occurs when compression from the sides causes plastic deformation of rock layers. The folds generally either warp up or down in the middle of a section of rock.

Upwarping creates anticlines and downwarping creates synclines.

If there is only one half of a fold, it is called a monocline.
 faultsMovement along a rock break

Along faults, the rock masses on either side are moving in different directions. Typically, the stress on the rock builds up over time with no movement until a threshold is reached and the rock can no longer hold back.
 normal faultIf the relative movement is vertical (one side goes up and the other goes down) and the side going up moves away from the other side.
 reverse faultIf the two sides are being pushed together, causing the side going up to rise over the side going down.
 transform faultIf the movement is horizontal
 oblique faultIf the movement is both horizontal and vertical
 horstIf there are two normal faults paralleling each other and if the rock in between rises
 grabenA graben is a depressed block of land bordered by parallel faults.
 cuestasIf there is a series of weak rocks with resistant rocks in between, then valleys will tend to exist where the weak rocks are exposed and hills where the strong ones are. This can arise if there are layers of rock that have been tilted and each layer is exposed
 caprockWhere rock layers are horizontal, the resistant rock can serve to protect the underlying rock layers from erosion.
 mesaWhere a flat topped hill with a caprock on top exists because everything else has been eroded away around it
 butteA very narrow mesa
 drainage patternsthe pattern a drainage network takes when viewed from the air
 dendritic drainage patternThe tributaries look like branches on a tree. In this case there is no control from the rock.
 radial drainage patternIf there is a hill formed by the bedrock, like a volcano or dome where the streams flow away from a central point.
 centripetal drainage patternWhere there is interior drainage, the streams all converge on the playa
 trellised drainage patternIn areas with much folding, there will be short tributaries coming off of the ridges and larger streams in the troughs.
 rectangular drainage patternSome rocks are fractured in a rectangular fashion and streams develop on the fractures
 deranged drainage patternIn formerly glaciated regions, there may not have been time for an organized drainage pattern to develop and the streams can flow in many directions and there may be many lakes in the area.
 batholithA batholith is a large emplacement of igneous intrusive (also called plutonic) rock that forms from cooled magma deep in the earth's crust.
 dikesometimes magma cools as it is moving toward the surface in cracks in the crustal rock if the crack was vertical
 sillsometimes magma cools as it is moving toward the surface in cracks in the crustal rock if the crack was horizontal
 Pahoehoelava that flows quickly and spreads out. When it cools, it has a relatively smooth surface
 aawhen lava flows more slowly and escaping gas breaks up the upper surface. The result is a very rugged and jagged surface, hence the name, which sounds like a barefoot Hawaiian walking over the sharp rock.
 FissuresCracks out of which the lava flows
 shield volcanoresults when free flowing lava spreads out over great distances and builds up a wide volcano with gentle slopes.
 Cinder conesCinder cones are hills of pyroclastic material which fell back down around the vent. They are typically smaller features, perhaps a hundred meters high and a few hundred meters in diameter.
 Composite volcanoesResult from a combination of lava and pyroclastic material erupting from the same vent. Most large volcanoes on continents are composite, like Mount St. Helens and the other volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest
 calderaOn very large composite volcanoes, sometimes the magma below the crater (the hole at the top of a volcano) sinks down and the crater collapses, leaving a large depression
 nuée ardenteWhere there is much gas mixed with the ash and dust
in a pyroclastic explosion coming out of a side vent on a volcano, the material can act as a hot cloud that avalanches down the mountainside at 50 km/hr
 laharsA lahar is a type of mudflow or landslide composed of pyroclastic material and water that flows down from a volcano, typically along a river valley.
 soilthe organic and inorganic material located above bedrock and capable of supporting life
 residual materialweathered bedrock that stays in place
 transported materialweathered elsewhere, eroded and deposited at its present location.
 decomposersThe organic matter in soils is mostly derived from dead plant matter, which is eaten by many types of decomposers, bacteria, fungi, algae, insects, worms, and various other critters and converted to humus.
 humusThe organic matter in soils is mostly derived from dead plant matter, which is eaten by many types of decomposers, bacteria, fungi, algae, insects, worms, and various other critters and converted to humus.
 Soil textureSoil texture is the combination of particle sizes present in a soil.
 loamsSoils with significant amounts of clay, sandy, and silty soils
 cation exchange capacityIn soil science, cation exchange capacity (CEC) is the capacity of a soil for ion exchange of cations between the soil and the soil solution. Therefore, is a measure of fertility.
 leachingdownward movement of minerals through soil
 biomeslarge ecosystems characterized by particular types of plants and animals
 vertical zonationchanges in environment as altitude increases
 Tropical RainforestVegetation: plants must compete for sunlight
Soil: oxisols
Climate:
Streams: perennial and have little seasonal variation
 Tropical SavannaVegatation: mostly grasslands, often with sporadic trees.
Soil: much more fertile than in the rainforests
Climate: Streams: Stream discharge will have distinct seasonal variation. In fact,the streams may dry up during the dry season, making them intermittent.
 Tropical Seasonal Forest & Scrubtransitional from tropical rainforest to savanna

Vegatation: Some trees become deciduous. The forest is much lower and less dense than in the rainforest.
Streams: discharge is seasonal, but not as much as in savanna regions. There is a season of low rainfall, and the vegetation must adapt to it.
 Midlatitude Broadleaf & Mixed ForestClimate: moist, continental climates with relatively hot summers and cold winters
Soil: mostly alfisols and altisols
Vegetation: broadleaf deciduous, mixed with coniferous Streams: perennial (flows all year)
 Needleleaf Forest and Montane Forestalso called boreal forest and taiga

Climate: marine west coast
Soil: several
Vegetation: needleleaf trees become more dominant, such as pine, spruce and fir.
Streams: Often the small streams will be dry in the winter and larger ones are perennial, but ice covered during the winter.
 Temperate RainforestClimate: marine west coast
Soil:
Vegetation: lush forests are a mix of needleleaf and broadleaf trees growing in this wet environment
Streams: perennial
 Mediterranean ShrublandClimate: little or no rain int he summer
Vegetation: Shrubs dominate these areas and they are adapted to dry conditions with waxy leaves that reduce water loss
Streams: Most streams are intermittent, dry in the winter.
 Midlatitude GrasslandsClimate: steppe
Soils: mollisols
Vegetation: generally too dry for trees; taller and shorter grass depending on water
Streams; small ephemeral, larger ones perennial
 DesertsClimates: Bw
Soils: aridisols
Vegetation: some plants have deep taproots to get down to groundwater
Streams: tend to be ephemeral; exotic streams: streams in desert from a source elsewhere
 TundraClimate: Tundra (Et) and Highland (H) climates
Soil: gelisols
Vegetation: low plants cover the ground
Streams: like D climates, small streams dry in water, large ones perennial and ice covered in winter; peak runoff in summer

Arctic: poor drainage and perma frost
Alpine: high mountains
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