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Final Vocab - Flashcards

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Class:GHIST 225 - U S HISTORY [C4AE]
Subject:General Education History
University:James Madison University
Term:Fall 2010
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Arms race increase of big weapons due to expanded apprehension of the cold war. Included the atomic energy commission, h-bombs, and atomic weapons stockpiling
Atlantic Charter (1941) a statement between Britain and the US intended as a post WWII blueprint for the world and turned out to be the foundation for many international agreements. Some points angered Japanese leaders (open sea)
Axis Powers (late 1930s-45) In WWII, the alliance of Germany, Italy, and later Japan
Berlin Wall (1961) barrier constructed by the german democratic republic that completely cut off west berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin. Built in 1961.
Generated by Koofers.com
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) overturned the "separate" but equal doctrine that justified Jim Crow laws
Central Intelligence Agency (1947) a civilian intelligence agency responsible for providing national security intelligence to senior US policy makers. The national Security Act of 1947 established the CIA
Civilian Conservation Corps (1933-42) New Deal Program. Public work relief program for unemployed men age 18-25, providing unskilled manual labor related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural regions of the US from 1933-1942
Civil Rights Act of 1964 a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against blacks and women, including racial segregation. Established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Generated by Koofers.com
Cold War (1947-1991) the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II between the Communist World, primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies, and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States and its allies.
Containment United States policy using military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to stall the spread of communism, enhance America-s security and influence abroad, and prevent a "domino effect".
D-Day (June 6, 1944) The day allied forces landed on the beaches of Normandy, France, leading to the defeat of Germany.
Desert Storm The Persian Gulf War (August 2, 1990- February 28, 1991), commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from thirty-four nations led by the United States and United Kingdom, against Iraq.
Generated by Koofers.com
Detente A relaxation of tensions between the US and the Soviet Union that was begun by President Nixon
Disfranchisement/ Disenfranchisement the revocation of the right of suffrage (the right to vote) of a person or group of people, or rendering a person's vote less effective, or ineffective. Occurred during the reconstruction era to many former slaves (part of counter-reconstruction)
Domino Theory (1950s - 80s) a foreign policy theory during the 1950s to 1980s, promoted at times by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect.
Dust Bowl (1930-1936) The Dust Bowl or the Dirty Thirties was a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936 (in some areas until 1940). Record temperatures and overgrazed/over tilled land. Many flew to California and were known as "Okies"
Generated by Koofers.com
Emergency Banking Act of 1933 Allowed a plan that would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive. Spearheaded by FDR as part of the New Deal
Fair Deal 1945, President Truman addressed Congress and presented a 21 point program of domestic legislation outlining a series of proposed actions in the fields of economic development and social welfare. Ended up failing. Included: expansion of social security, federa aid to education, higher minimum wage, national plan for medical insurance, etc.
Fireside Chats The fireside chats were a series of thirty evening radio speeches given by United States President Franklin D in which he explained his actions directly to the American people
Fourteen Points (1918) A speech delivered by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe (WWI).
Generated by Koofers.com
Freedom Summer (1964) a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters. Registered 1,600 new voters and caused the signing of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which lawed out literacy tests and provided federal voting registrars in low turn-out ares.
Gilded Age (1869-1896) the era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction eras of the late 19th century
Gospel of Wealth an essay written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 that described the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich. Belief that God ordains people to amass wealth and use it to further God's purposes. Justified concentration of wealth as long as the rich used their money responsibly
Grandfather Clause an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply to all future situations. (Late 19th Century) came into effect after voting rights were extended to African Americans. The clause exempted those whose ancestors had the right to vote before the civil ear, effectively excluding former slaves.
Generated by Koofers.com
Great Depression (Late 1920's- Late 1930's) a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II.
Great Migration The mass movement of African Americans from the south to the north during WWI
Great Society (1960's) Liberal reform program of President Johnson. Program included civil rights legislation, increased public spending to help the poor, medicare and medicaid programs, education legislation, etc.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) following 2 attacks in the USS Maddox, President Johnson received authorization from Congress to "take any means necessary" to protect American security. This included military matters in Vietnam
Generated by Koofers.com
Haymarket Square Uprising (1886) violent encounter between police and protesters in Chicago. Led to the execution of 4 protesters. It scared the public with the specter of labor violence and demonstrated governments support of industrialists over workers
Hiroshima (1945) First city in history to be destroyed by a nuclear weapon when the US dropped an atomic bomb on it at 8:15 am on August 6, 1945, near the end of WWII
Ho Chi Minh (1945-1969) Vietnamese Marxist revolutionary leader who was prime minister and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). He formed theDRV and led the Viet-Cong during the Vietnam War until his death.
Homestead Act (1862) Offered 80 million acres to settlers to encourage settlement out west.
Generated by Koofers.com
Hooverville Popular name for shanty towns built by homeless people during the Great Depression, named after President Hoover
Imperialism (19th Century) Important idea in the late 19th century due to demands for economic expansion, evolution of the US as a super power, responsibility for helping others, etc. Imperialism in US is an expansion on Manifest Destiny
Iron Curtain (1945-1989) Symbolized the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1989.
Isolationism A foreign policy adopted by a nation in which the country refuses to enter into any alliances, foreign trade or economic commitments, or international agreements, in hopes of focusing all of its resources into advancement within its own borders while remaining at peace with foreign countries by avoiding all entanglements of foreign agreements.
Generated by Koofers.com
Jim Crow Laws (1876-1965) State and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans.
Korean War (1953) War between North Korea (Soviet Union backed) and South Korea (United Nations backed). War was result of the political division of Korea by agreement of the victorious allies at the end of the Pacific War
Ku Klux Klan (1870-74) Organized group of white supremacist that strove to end Republican rule, restore white supremacy, and end black equality
League of Nations (1918) Point 14 of the 14 Points. Woodrow's proposal to establish an international organization to guarantee the territorial integrity of independent nations
Generated by Koofers.com
Lend-Lease Program (1941) the program by which the US provided arms and supplies to the Allies in WWII before joining the fight
Levittown Levittown is the name of some large suburban developments created in the United States of America by William Levitt and his company Levitt & Sons. Featured large numbers of similar houses that could be easily and cheaply built and have a rapid recovery of costs
Manhattan Project The codename for a project conducted during World War II to develop the first atomic bomb, before the Germans or the Japanese.
Marshall Plan (1948) A massive foreign aid program to Western Europe of $17 billion over 4 years, beginning in 1948. Named after Secretary of State George Marshall. The program restored economic prosperity and stabilized democracy and capitalism.
Generated by Koofers.com
McCarthyism McCarthyism is a term used to describe the making of accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence. Derived from Senator Joe McCarthy and his accusations during the 2nd Red Scare
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) A political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system.
Muckrakers A muckraker is, primarily, a reporter or writer who investigates and publishes truthful reports involving a host of social issues, broadly including crime and corruption and often involving elected officials, political leaders and influential members of business and industry. Popular during the Progressive Era because they helped spark the reform movements of their day.
NAACP (1909) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Established in 1909 to fight for African American civil rights through legal action.
Generated by Koofers.com
NATO (1949) An intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
NSC-68 Influential National Security Council document arguing communism was a monolithic world movement from the Kremlin and advocating military back-up to counteract.
Nativism A backlash against immigration by white native-born Protestants. Could be based on racial prejudice, religion, politics, and economics.
Neutrality US policy of impartially during World Wars I and II
Generated by Koofers.com
New Deal (1933-36) FDR's program designed to bring about economic recovery and reform during the Great Depression
19th Amendment (1920) Passed in 1920, the constitutional guarantee of a woman's right to vote.
Nonviolent Resistance The practice of achieving socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. (Martin Luther King, Gandhi, sit-ins, etc.)
Open Door Policy (1899) policy set forth in 1899 by Secretary of State John Hay preventing further pardoning of China by European Powers, and protecting the principal of free trade
Generated by Koofers.com
Poll Tax (Late 19th Century) a tax that emerged as part of the Jim Crow Laws. Along with the Grandfather Clause, the tax made it difficult or impossible for African Americans to vote due to costs.
Populist Party (1892) Political party established in 1892 by the independent 3rd parties of the time, it aimed at reforms that the major political parties had ignored: sought to inflate the national currency, have government ownership of railroads, telegraph, and telephone system, subtreasury system, graduated income tax, electoral reform (change the way we vote), etc.
Progressive Era (1890s-1920s) The Progressive Era in the United States was a period of social activism and reform that flourished from the 1890s to the 1920s.
Prohibition (1919-1933) the practice of prohibiting the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. Established by the 18th Amendment in 1919 and repealed by the 21st amendment in 1933.
Generated by Koofers.com
Public Works Administration (PWA) (1933) New Deal Program. $3.3 billion to prime economic pump by stimulating heavy industry. Ended up not working but the Lincoln Tunnel, AC Carriers, etc. emerged from it.
Red Scare (1919-1920) Marked by widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism, as well as the effects of radical political agitation in American Society and especially n the American Labor Movement
Roe vs. Wade (1973) Landmark decision of the US Supreme Court that says that the constitutional right to privacy extended to a woman's decision to have an abortion.
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904) Roosevelt's extension of the Monroe Doctrine asserted a right of the United States to intervene to "stabilize" the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts.
Generated by Koofers.com
Rural Electrification Administration (REA) (1935) New Deal Program. Created in 1935 with the primary goal of promoting rural electrification
SALT The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union (the Cold War superpowers) on the issue of armament control.
Scopes Trials (1925) Trial of John Scopes for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution in a Tennessee public school
Second New Deal (1935) Term used by commentators at the time, and historians ever since, to characterize the second stage of the New Deal programs of President Franklin D.
Generated by Koofers.com
Second Red Scare (1947-1957) Occurred after WWII, coinciding with increased popular fear of communists espionage consequent to a Soviet Eastern Europe, the Berlin Blockade, confessions of spying for the Soviet Union, etc.
Settlement Houses (1880s-peak at 1920s) Community centers in which mainly middle-class women sought to meet the needs of recent immigrants to urban centers
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) Law passed to break up trusts and monopolies. Rarely enforced except against labor unions and most of its power was stripped by the supreme court. Began federal attempts to end unfair business practices.
Sit-Down Strikes A form of non-violent protest in which civil rights activist occupy seats in a segregated establishment
Generated by Koofers.com
Social Darwinism Darwin based ideology that justified the concentration of wealth and lack of governmental protection of the weak via natural selection and survival of the fittest
Social Security Act New Deal Program. Introduced old age pensions, unemployment insurance, and aid to dependent women and children and handicapped. Changed the social contract between the government and the citizen.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) New Deal Program. Constructed dams in 7 states along the TN river. Controlled flooding, improved navigation and generated cheap energy. Paid for itself, increased income X 10, and saved thousands of farms.
Tet Offensive (1968) A military campaign during the Vietnam War that began on January 31, 1968. Forces of the Viet Cong and the People's Army of Vietnam (the North Vietnamese army), fought against the forces of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), the United States, and their allies. US repelled offensive, but received criticism from the American public because they were told the war was almost over.
Generated by Koofers.com
Treaty of Versailles (1919) The peace treaty that (officially) ended WWI
Truman Doctrine (1947) A speech by President Truman in March, 1947 that set the course of US foreign policy for the next generation, painting international affairs as a struggle between free democratic governments and tyrannical communist governments; advocating American intervention to protect democratic governments. Save "free" countries (Greece & Turkey) from surrounding communist pressure
United Nations (1945) An international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. Founded in 1945 to replace the League of Nations, among other things.
War on Poverty (1964) Proposed by Lyndon B. Johnson in response to a national poverty rate around 19%. The speech led US Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act, part of Johnson's "Great Society"
Generated by Koofers.com
Watergate (1972) During the 1972 presidential campaign, burglars, tied to the Nixon party, were caught installing eavesdropping devices in Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate Complex in DC. Led to Nixon's resignation in 1974
Warsaw Pact (Realized in 1955) A mutual defense treaty subscribed to by 8 communist states in Eastern Europe (opposed NATO)
Welfare Capitalism (1880s- 1920s) the policies of large, usually non-unionized, companies that have developed internal welfare systems for their employees.
Works Progress Administration (WPA) New Deal Program. Intended to spend money on wages, not to capitol projects. Built or improved 20,000 hospitals, schools, airports, and playgrounds. Employed 3 million people at a time.
Generated by Koofers.com
Zimmerman Telegram (1917) Telegram from the German Foreign Minister, Arnold Zimmerman, to the German ambassador to Mexico pledging a Mexican-German alliance against the US, which helped bring the US into WWI
Generated by Koofers.com

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 Arms raceincrease of big weapons due to expanded apprehension of the cold war. Included the atomic energy commission, h-bombs, and atomic weapons stockpiling
 Atlantic Charter(1941) a statement between Britain and the US intended as a post WWII blueprint for the world and turned out to be the foundation for many international agreements. Some points angered Japanese leaders (open sea)
 Axis Powers(late 1930s-45) In WWII, the alliance of Germany, Italy, and later Japan
 Berlin Wall(1961) barrier constructed by the german democratic republic that completely cut off west berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin. Built in 1961.
 Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) overturned the "separate" but equal doctrine that justified Jim Crow laws
 Central Intelligence Agency (1947) a civilian intelligence agency responsible for providing national security intelligence to senior US policy makers. The national Security Act of 1947 established the CIA
 Civilian Conservation Corps(1933-42) New Deal Program. Public work relief program for unemployed men age 18-25, providing unskilled manual labor related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural regions of the US from 1933-1942
 Civil Rights Act of 1964a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against blacks and women, including racial segregation. Established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
 Cold War (1947-1991) the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II between the Communist World, primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies, and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States and its allies.
 Containment United States policy using military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to stall the spread of communism, enhance America-s security and influence abroad, and prevent a "domino effect".
 D-Day(June 6, 1944) The day allied forces landed on the beaches of Normandy, France, leading to the defeat of Germany.
 Desert StormThe Persian Gulf War (August 2, 1990- February 28, 1991), commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from thirty-four nations led by the United States and United Kingdom, against Iraq.
 Detente A relaxation of tensions between the US and the Soviet Union that was begun by President Nixon
 Disfranchisement/ Disenfranchisementthe revocation of the right of suffrage (the right to vote) of a person or group of people, or rendering a person's vote less effective, or ineffective. Occurred during the reconstruction era to many former slaves (part of counter-reconstruction)
 Domino Theory (1950s - 80s) a foreign policy theory during the 1950s to 1980s, promoted at times by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect.
 Dust Bowl (1930-1936) The Dust Bowl or the Dirty Thirties was a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936 (in some areas until 1940).

Record temperatures and overgrazed/over tilled land.

Many flew to California and were known as "Okies"
 Emergency Banking Act of 1933Allowed a plan that would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive. Spearheaded by FDR as part of the New Deal
 Fair Deal 1945, President Truman addressed Congress and presented a 21 point program of domestic legislation outlining a series of proposed actions in the fields of economic development and social welfare. Ended up failing.

Included: expansion of social security, federa aid to education, higher minimum wage, national plan for medical insurance, etc.
 Fireside ChatsThe fireside chats were a series of thirty evening radio speeches given by United States President Franklin D in which he explained his actions directly to the American people
 Fourteen Points(1918) A speech delivered by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe (WWI).
 Freedom Summer(1964) a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters.

Registered 1,600 new voters and caused the signing of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which lawed out literacy tests and provided federal voting registrars in low turn-out ares.
 Gilded Age (1869-1896) the era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction eras of the late 19th century
 Gospel of Wealthan essay written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 that described the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich.

Belief that God ordains people to amass wealth and use it to further God's purposes. Justified concentration of wealth as long as the rich used their money responsibly
 Grandfather Clause an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply to all future situations.

(Late 19th Century) came into effect after voting rights were extended to African Americans. The clause exempted those whose ancestors had the right to vote before the civil ear, effectively excluding former slaves.
 Great Depression (Late 1920's- Late 1930's) a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II.
 Great Migration The mass movement of African Americans from the south to the north during WWI
 Great Society (1960's) Liberal reform program of President Johnson. Program included civil rights legislation, increased public spending to help the poor, medicare and medicaid programs, education legislation, etc.
 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) following 2 attacks in the USS Maddox, President Johnson received authorization from Congress to "take any means necessary" to protect American security. This included military matters in Vietnam
 Haymarket Square Uprising (1886) violent encounter between police and protesters in Chicago. Led to the execution of 4 protesters. It scared the public with the specter of labor violence and demonstrated governments support of industrialists over workers
 Hiroshima(1945) First city in history to be destroyed by a nuclear weapon when the US dropped an atomic bomb on it at 8:15 am on August 6, 1945, near the end of WWII
 Ho Chi Minh(1945-1969) Vietnamese Marxist revolutionary leader who was prime minister and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). He formed theDRV and led the Viet-Cong during the Vietnam War until his death.
 Homestead Act(1862) Offered 80 million acres to settlers to encourage settlement out west.
 HoovervillePopular name for shanty towns built by homeless people during the Great Depression, named after President Hoover
 Imperialism(19th Century) Important idea in the late 19th century due to demands for economic expansion, evolution of the US as a super power, responsibility for helping others, etc.

Imperialism in US is an expansion on Manifest Destiny
 Iron Curtain (1945-1989) Symbolized the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1989.
 Isolationism A foreign policy adopted by a nation in which the country refuses to enter into any alliances, foreign trade or economic commitments, or international agreements, in hopes of focusing all of its resources into advancement within its own borders while remaining at peace with foreign countries by avoiding all entanglements of foreign agreements.
 Jim Crow Laws(1876-1965) State and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans.
 Korean War(1953) War between North Korea (Soviet Union backed) and South Korea (United Nations backed). War was result of the political division of Korea by agreement of the victorious allies at the end of the Pacific War
 Ku Klux Klan (1870-74) Organized group of white supremacist that strove to end Republican rule, restore white supremacy, and end black equality
 League of Nations (1918) Point 14 of the 14 Points. Woodrow's proposal to establish an international organization to guarantee the territorial integrity of independent nations
 Lend-Lease Program (1941) the program by which the US provided arms and supplies to the Allies in WWII before joining the fight
 LevittownLevittown is the name of some large suburban developments created in the United States of America by William Levitt and his company Levitt & Sons.

Featured large numbers of similar houses that could be easily and cheaply built and have a rapid recovery of costs
 Manhattan Project The codename for a project conducted during World War II to develop the first atomic bomb, before the Germans or the Japanese.
 Marshall Plan(1948) A massive foreign aid program to Western Europe of $17 billion over 4 years, beginning in 1948.

Named after Secretary of State George Marshall.

The program restored economic prosperity and stabilized democracy and capitalism.
 McCarthyism McCarthyism is a term used to describe the making of accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence.

Derived from Senator Joe McCarthy and his accusations during the 2nd Red Scare
 Montgomery Bus Boycott(1955) A political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system.
 Muckrakers A muckraker is, primarily, a reporter or writer who investigates and publishes truthful reports involving a host of social issues, broadly including crime and corruption and often involving elected officials, political leaders and influential members of business and industry.

Popular during the Progressive Era because they helped spark the reform movements of their day.
 NAACP(1909) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Established in 1909 to fight for African American civil rights through legal action.
 NATO(1949) An intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
 NSC-68Influential National Security Council document arguing communism was a monolithic world movement from the Kremlin and advocating military back-up to counteract.
 NativismA backlash against immigration by white native-born Protestants. Could be based on racial prejudice, religion, politics, and economics.
 NeutralityUS policy of impartially during World Wars I and II
 New Deal (1933-36) FDR's program designed to bring about economic recovery and reform during the Great Depression
 19th Amendment(1920) Passed in 1920, the constitutional guarantee of a woman's right to vote.
 Nonviolent ResistanceThe practice of achieving socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. (Martin Luther King, Gandhi, sit-ins, etc.)
 Open Door Policy (1899) policy set forth in 1899 by Secretary of State John Hay preventing further pardoning of China by European Powers, and protecting the principal of free trade
 Poll Tax(Late 19th Century) a tax that emerged as part of the Jim Crow Laws. Along with the Grandfather Clause, the tax made it difficult or impossible for African Americans to vote due to costs.
 Populist Party(1892) Political party established in 1892 by the independent 3rd parties of the time, it aimed at reforms that the major political parties had ignored:

sought to inflate the national currency, have government ownership of railroads, telegraph, and telephone system, subtreasury system, graduated income tax, electoral reform (change the way we vote), etc.
 Progressive Era(1890s-1920s) The Progressive Era in the United States was a period of social activism and reform that flourished from the 1890s to the 1920s.
 Prohibition (1919-1933) the practice of prohibiting the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. Established by the 18th Amendment in 1919 and repealed by the 21st amendment in 1933.
 Public Works Administration (PWA) (1933) New Deal Program. $3.3 billion to prime economic pump by stimulating heavy industry. Ended up not working but the Lincoln Tunnel, AC Carriers, etc. emerged from it.
 Red Scare(1919-1920) Marked by widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism, as well as the effects of radical political agitation in American Society and especially n the American Labor Movement
 Roe vs. Wade(1973) Landmark decision of the US Supreme Court that says that the constitutional right to privacy extended to a woman's decision to have an abortion.
 Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904) Roosevelt's extension of the Monroe Doctrine asserted a right of the United States to intervene to "stabilize" the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts.
 Rural Electrification Administration (REA)(1935) New Deal Program. Created in 1935 with the primary goal of promoting rural electrification
 SALTThe Strategic Arms Limitation Talks refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union (the Cold War superpowers) on the issue of armament control.
 Scopes Trials (1925) Trial of John Scopes for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution in a Tennessee public school
 Second New Deal (1935) Term used by commentators at the time, and historians ever since, to characterize the second stage of the New Deal programs of President Franklin D.
 Second Red Scare(1947-1957) Occurred after WWII, coinciding with increased popular fear of communists espionage consequent to a Soviet Eastern Europe, the Berlin Blockade, confessions of spying for the Soviet Union, etc.
 Settlement Houses(1880s-peak at 1920s) Community centers in which mainly middle-class women sought to meet the needs of recent immigrants to urban centers
 Sherman Anti-Trust Act(1890) Law passed to break up trusts and monopolies. Rarely enforced except against labor unions and most of its power was stripped by the supreme court. Began federal attempts to end unfair business practices.
 Sit-Down Strikes A form of non-violent protest in which civil rights activist occupy seats in a segregated establishment
 Social DarwinismDarwin based ideology that justified the concentration of wealth and lack of governmental protection of the weak via natural selection and survival of the fittest
 Social Security ActNew Deal Program. Introduced old age pensions, unemployment insurance, and aid to dependent women and children and handicapped.

Changed the social contract between the government and the citizen.
 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)New Deal Program. Constructed dams in 7 states along the TN river.

Controlled flooding, improved navigation and generated cheap energy. Paid for itself, increased income X 10, and saved thousands of farms.
 Tet Offensive(1968) A military campaign during the Vietnam War that began on January 31, 1968. Forces of the Viet Cong and the People's Army of Vietnam (the North Vietnamese army), fought against the forces of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), the United States, and their allies.

US repelled offensive, but received criticism from the American public because they were told the war was almost over.
 Treaty of Versailles(1919) The peace treaty that (officially) ended WWI
 Truman Doctrine(1947) A speech by President Truman in March, 1947 that set the course of US foreign policy for the next generation, painting international affairs as a struggle between free democratic governments and tyrannical communist governments; advocating American intervention to protect democratic governments.

Save "free" countries (Greece & Turkey) from surrounding communist pressure
 United Nations(1945) An international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace.

Founded in 1945 to replace the League of Nations, among other things.
 War on Poverty(1964) Proposed by Lyndon B. Johnson in response to a national poverty rate around 19%. The speech led US Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act, part of Johnson's "Great Society"
 Watergate(1972) During the 1972 presidential campaign, burglars, tied to the Nixon party, were caught installing eavesdropping devices in Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate Complex in DC.

Led to Nixon's resignation in 1974
 Warsaw Pact(Realized in 1955) A mutual defense treaty subscribed to by 8 communist states in Eastern Europe (opposed NATO)
 Welfare Capitalism (1880s- 1920s) the policies of large, usually non-unionized, companies that have developed internal welfare systems for their employees.
 Works Progress Administration (WPA)New Deal Program. Intended to spend money on wages, not to capitol projects. Built or improved 20,000 hospitals, schools, airports, and playgrounds. Employed 3 million people at a time.
 Zimmerman Telegram(1917) Telegram from the German Foreign Minister, Arnold Zimmerman, to the German ambassador to Mexico pledging a Mexican-German alliance against the US, which helped bring the US into WWI
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