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Exam #1 - Flashcards

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Class:GLY 120 - SUSTAINABLE PLANET GLY OF NAT RESOURCES
Subject:Geological Sciences
University:University of Kentucky
Term:Spring 2010
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What are minerals? A mineral: naturally occurring inorganic solid *a definite chemical composition *regular atomic structure *distinctive physical properties
Is Water a Mineral? Yes
Is Coal a Mineral? No, it is an organic sedimentary rock
The most common mineral on Earth’s surface quartz
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World Population Growth Rate 1.4%
Double World's Growth Double = 72 / growth rate
Impact: world pop. growth on Farmland *Food is a renewable resource *Finite amount of land that is cultivatable = 7.9 billion acres *1.3 acres per person of the present population
Impact:world pop. growth Non-food resourses *Large numbers of people require vast quantities of water, energy, minerals & other consumable commodities *Exponential growth in the consumption of resources
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Impact:world pop. growth on Water * Freshwater resources -> become critical commodities * 1.4 billion: no access to clean, fresh water. * 1.1 billion: limited access to clean drinking water
Renewable Resources Consist of organic materials & derivatives. All others are not replenished by natural processes. Some organic materials consumed faster than produced: forests
Easter Island Overpopulated and deforested: Soil erosion and loss of agricultural base
The universe began with... When? the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago
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How old is our solar system? 4.65 billion years old
Where do Ores come from? *Non-fuel resources (ores) -> Earth's Mantle *They have been moved by superheated water and precipitated (dumped) when the water cools = Ore Deposits
Lithosphere *Strong rigid outer layer *uppermost mantle & crust
Athenosphere lower weaker mantle region
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What does plate tectonics explain? geologic distribution of: *earthquakes *volcanoes *mountains *mineral resources
Divergent Plate Boundary • constructive margins *Mid-ocean ridges • seafloor is elevated • seafloor spreading *Continental rifts – East African Rift • splits landmasses • extensional forces
Convergent Plate Boundary Subduction Zones • destructive margins • older portions of oceanic plates are returned to the mantle • on surface = ocean trench • average angle = 45°
Convergent Plate Boundary Ocean-Ocean Japan • one slab layer descends • Volcanoes often form on ocean floor • If they emerge = volcanic island arc
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Convergent Boundary Ocean-Continent South America (Andes), Pacific NW (Cascades) • oceanic slab sinks into athenosphere • descending plate -> partial melting of mantle rock = magma • volcanic mountain arcs
Convergent Boundary Continent-Continent *Africa -North America (200 Ma) *India-Asia (10 Ma) • no Subduction • = mountains (Alps) (Appalachians) (Himalayas)
Transform Plate Boundary • Conservative Margins • no new lithosphere created or destroyed a. Mid-ocean ridges • Fracture Zones = mid-oceanic ridge / ocean crust b. Continental: very few
___ pulls subducting slab down into mantle Gravity
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Mechanical Weathering breaking of rocks ->smaller pieces • Thermal affects >Freezing/thawing water >Heating/cooling rock • Impact -> transportation • Pressure • wedging/plants
Chemical Weathering What is it? • Breaks down rock components & internal structures of minerals • Most important agent: water * transport of ions & molecules involved in chemical processes
Contact Metamorphism *magma intrudes through rock *heat, pressure and fluids released surrounding the igneous intrusion changes rocks
Skarns *Metallic ores formed by contact metamorphism *deposited by fluids of adjacent rocks
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Regional Metamorphism *When Continents collide = heat and pressure *Changes the rocks -> harder and more durable
Minerals are ___ in conditions formed Stable
Minerals start to breakdown... *when they come in contact with/are exposed to air and water *they are no longer stable
Magma and Volcanoes *occur in subduction zones *volcanic ore deposits
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Placer Deposits *Decomposed rock (gravel/sand) transported and sorted by *water to a new location *gold
Ore Part of the resources that be economically and legally extracted at a given time
Hydrothermal Systems fluids:move up:cools:deposits metal ores **Occur: *Mid-Ocean Ridges *Igneous Intrusions **Fluids: *from the intrusion *nearby groundwater *seawater in cracks in ocean crust
The Hydrothermal System is similar to ___? The Volcanic System
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Black Smoke *Ocean spreading *Hydrothermal fluids:seawater circulates:cracks:oceanic crust *Fluid dissolves: transports metals & sulphur. *Hot fluids:cooled rapidly;sulfide minerals f
Processes of Chemical Weathering Dissolution Oxidation Hydrolysis Alterations
Chemical Weathering Dissolution acid in water
Chemical Weathering Oxidation electrons are lost
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Chemical Weathering Hydrolysis reaction with water Hydrogen ions attack and replace other ions
Chemical Weathering Alteration decomposition of unstable minerals retention of stable minerals physical change: rounding of corners
Resources from Weathering *Soils *Clays *Sand & Gravel *Metallic Ores: >Bauxite >Titanium Ore >Silicon Ore
Diagenesis The change into rock ie: sand into rock
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Lithification Diagenesis of sediment. How coal and petroleum are formed.
Potosi, Bolivia was an example of... Exploitation driven by exploration and imperial colonialism.
Earliest resources used? *Water *Salt *Rocks
First metals used by humans? When? *Gold *Copper *17 thousand years ago
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Peak use of resources in history? Greek and Roman empires
The Romans invented... Concrete
How many Potosi, Bolivia deaths? What from? *est. 8 million *Mine Collapse *CO2 Poisoning *Mercury Poisoning *Silicosis *Diseases
Which rocks were used to make tools? *Flint *Obsidian *Quartz *"F.O.Q. Rocks"
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Dark Ages Mining Mineral Resource needs = reusing. Only thing mined was salt.
How much Bauxite is imported to US? All of it
US copper production is... half of what it used to be
Percent of imported crude oil? 60%
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Most US Crude Oil imported from? Canada
US has ___ of the molybenum reserves. half
Mineral Resources supplied domestically ha decreased
Surface Impact of Underground Mines *Waste Rock Piles *Collapse Subsidence *Acidic Mine Drainage *Mining Fires
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Impacts of Extraction Wells *spills *release of gases *lowering of water table *surface subsidence
Acidic Mine Drainage *iron sulfide minerals: pyrite and marcasite *exposed to moist air = oxidation *form sulfuric acid
The leading contributor to acid rain is High-sulfur coal power plants
Metal Extraction Waste is higher than the quantity of metal extracted.
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Air Pollution *CO2 *NOx *SOx *Water Vapor *Fine Particulate
CO2 Air Pollution Carbon Dioxide: contributes to Greenhouse Effect
NOx Air Pollution *Photochemical Smog *sunny urban areas w/ lots of autos *NO2(emitted by autos) + Sunlight = NO (Nitrogen Oxide) + O *O + O2 = O3 (Ozone)
SOx Air Pollution *Due mainly to Industry/power plants *Sulfur Dioxide *Contributes to acid rain
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Thermal Inversion *Temp of lower atmosphere increases in altitude instead of decreases *Traps warm pollutant gases under warm air layer = severe air pollution
Greenhouse Effect *CO2 levels rising and traps infrared (heat) energy *Atmosphere is warming
CFCs *Used as propellants in aerosols *In upper atmosphere -> react with and destroy ozone
Low Level Nuclear Waste * Sealed in metal drums or concrete and buried *Uranium Mines = Radon *Nuclear Power Plants *Laboratories *Hospitals
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High Level Nuclear Waste *High level of radioactivity *Stored in stainless steel tanks on site at power plants
Radon *Derived from uranium-rich rocks *released naturally and from mining
Industrial Chemical Disposal *Unlined dumps, trenches and pits *"Secure" landfills *Deep-well disposal *Incineration *Chemical Treatment
Industrial Chemical Problems *Chemicals accumulate in organisms and become more concentrated up the food chain *Heavy Metals *PCBs
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Municipal Solid Waste is mostly... paper
Almost all Municipal Solid Waste can be... recycled
Ocean Dumping *Ceased in 1991 *Now Illegal *still used for dumping dredge spoils
US % of World's non-organic waste 50%
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Municipal Waste Disposal Land *Open Dumps *Sanitary Landfills
Problems with Open Dumps *Leachate *Wind Dispersal *Vermin *Aerobic Decomposition (CO2 and SO2)
Sewage Treatment has an adverse effect on. *water supplies *water environments
Sanitary Landfill Goals *Low permeability (no leachate) *Use of plastic or clay liners *Impermeable covers/caps
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Septic Systems require Leaching Field
Constructed Wetlands *used for discharged of waste water *prevents waste from leaching into groundwater *plants assist biological treatment of water > convert nitrates > roots filter
Example of unfiltered trench waste disposa Love Canal, New York
What was in Love Canal? Industrial chemicals
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 What are minerals? A mineral: naturally occurring inorganic solid
*a definite chemical composition
*regular atomic structure
*distinctive physical properties
 Is Water a Mineral?Yes
 Is Coal a Mineral?No, it is an organic sedimentary rock
 The most common mineral on Earth’s surfacequartz
 World Population Growth Rate1.4%
 Double World's GrowthDouble = 72 / growth rate
 Impact: world pop. growth on Farmland*Food is a renewable resource
*Finite amount of land that is cultivatable = 7.9 billion acres
*1.3 acres per person of the present population
 Impact:world pop. growth Non-food resourses*Large numbers of people require vast quantities of water, energy, minerals & other consumable commodities
*Exponential growth in the consumption of resources
 Impact:world pop. growth on Water* Freshwater resources -> become critical commodities
* 1.4 billion: no access to clean, fresh water.
* 1.1 billion: limited access to clean drinking water
 Renewable ResourcesConsist of organic materials & derivatives. All others are not replenished by natural processes. Some organic materials consumed faster than produced: forests
 Easter IslandOverpopulated and deforested: Soil erosion and loss of agricultural base
 The universe began with... When?the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago
 How old is our solar system?4.65 billion years old
 Where do Ores come from?*Non-fuel resources (ores) -> Earth's Mantle
*They have been moved by superheated water and precipitated (dumped) when the water cools = Ore Deposits
 Lithosphere*Strong rigid outer layer
*uppermost mantle & crust
 Athenospherelower weaker mantle region
 What does plate tectonics explain?geologic distribution of:
*earthquakes
*volcanoes
*mountains
*mineral resources
 Divergent Plate Boundary• constructive margins
*Mid-ocean ridges
• seafloor is elevated
• seafloor spreading
*Continental rifts – East African Rift
• splits landmasses
• extensional forces
 Convergent Plate BoundarySubduction Zones
• destructive margins
• older portions of oceanic plates are returned to the mantle
• on surface = ocean trench
• average angle = 45°
 Convergent Plate Boundary Ocean-OceanJapan
• one slab layer descends
• Volcanoes often form on ocean floor
• If they emerge = volcanic island arc
 Convergent Boundary Ocean-ContinentSouth America (Andes), Pacific NW (Cascades)
• oceanic slab sinks into athenosphere
• descending plate -> partial melting of mantle rock = magma
• volcanic mountain arcs
 Convergent Boundary Continent-Continent*Africa -North America (200 Ma)
*India-Asia (10 Ma)
• no Subduction
• = mountains (Alps) (Appalachians) (Himalayas)
 Transform Plate Boundary• Conservative Margins
• no new lithosphere created or destroyed
a. Mid-ocean ridges
• Fracture Zones = mid-oceanic ridge / ocean crust
b. Continental: very few
 ___ pulls subducting slab down into mantleGravity
 Mechanical Weatheringbreaking of rocks ->smaller pieces
• Thermal affects
>Freezing/thawing water
>Heating/cooling rock
• Impact -> transportation
• Pressure
• wedging/plants
 Chemical Weathering What is it?• Breaks down rock components & internal structures of minerals
• Most important agent: water
* transport of ions & molecules involved in chemical processes
 Contact Metamorphism*magma intrudes through rock
*heat, pressure and fluids released surrounding the igneous intrusion changes rocks
 Skarns*Metallic ores formed by contact metamorphism
*deposited by fluids of adjacent rocks
 Regional Metamorphism*When Continents collide = heat and pressure
*Changes the rocks -> harder and more durable
 Minerals are ___ in conditions formedStable
 Minerals start to breakdown...*when they come in contact with/are exposed to air and water
*they are no longer stable
 Magma and Volcanoes*occur in subduction zones
*volcanic ore deposits
 Placer Deposits*Decomposed rock (gravel/sand) transported and sorted by *water to a new location
*gold
 OrePart of the resources that be economically and legally extracted at a given time
 Hydrothermal Systemsfluids:move up:cools:deposits metal ores
**Occur:
*Mid-Ocean Ridges
*Igneous Intrusions
**Fluids:
*from the intrusion
*nearby groundwater
*seawater in cracks in ocean crust
 The Hydrothermal System is similar to ___?The Volcanic System
 Black Smoke*Ocean spreading
*Hydrothermal fluids:seawater circulates:cracks:oceanic crust
*Fluid dissolves: transports metals & sulphur.
*Hot fluids:cooled rapidly;sulfide minerals f
 Processes of Chemical WeatheringDissolution
Oxidation
Hydrolysis
Alterations
 Chemical Weathering Dissolutionacid in water
 Chemical Weathering Oxidationelectrons are lost
 Chemical Weathering Hydrolysisreaction with water
Hydrogen ions attack and replace other ions
 Chemical Weathering Alterationdecomposition of unstable minerals
retention of stable minerals
physical change: rounding of corners
 Resources from Weathering*Soils
*Clays
*Sand & Gravel
*Metallic Ores:
>Bauxite
>Titanium Ore
>Silicon Ore
 DiagenesisThe change into rock
ie: sand into rock
 LithificationDiagenesis of sediment.
How coal and petroleum are formed.
 Potosi, Bolivia was an example of...Exploitation driven by exploration and imperial colonialism.
 Earliest resources used?*Water
*Salt
*Rocks
 First metals used by humans? When?*Gold
*Copper
*17 thousand years ago
 Peak use of resources in history?Greek and Roman empires
 The Romans invented...Concrete
 How many Potosi, Bolivia deaths? What from?*est. 8 million
*Mine Collapse
*CO2 Poisoning
*Mercury Poisoning
*Silicosis
*Diseases
 Which rocks were used to make tools?*Flint
*Obsidian
*Quartz
*"F.O.Q. Rocks"
 Dark Ages MiningMineral Resource needs = reusing.
Only thing mined was salt.
 How much Bauxite is imported to US?All of it
 US copper production is...half of what it used to be
 Percent of imported crude oil?60%
 Most US Crude Oil imported from?Canada
 US has ___ of the molybenum reserves.half
 Mineral Resources supplied domestically hadecreased
 Surface Impact of Underground Mines*Waste Rock Piles
*Collapse Subsidence
*Acidic Mine Drainage
*Mining Fires
 Impacts of Extraction Wells*spills
*release of gases
*lowering of water table
*surface subsidence
 Acidic Mine Drainage*iron sulfide minerals: pyrite and marcasite
*exposed to moist air = oxidation
*form sulfuric acid
 The leading contributor to acid rain isHigh-sulfur coal power plants
 Metal Extraction Wasteis higher than the quantity of metal extracted.
 Air Pollution*CO2
*NOx
*SOx
*Water Vapor
*Fine Particulate
 CO2 Air PollutionCarbon Dioxide: contributes to Greenhouse Effect
 NOx Air Pollution*Photochemical Smog
*sunny urban areas w/ lots of autos
*NO2(emitted by autos) + Sunlight = NO (Nitrogen Oxide) + O
*O + O2 = O3 (Ozone)
 SOx Air Pollution*Due mainly to Industry/power plants
*Sulfur Dioxide
*Contributes to acid rain
 Thermal Inversion*Temp of lower atmosphere increases in altitude instead of decreases
*Traps warm pollutant gases under warm air layer = severe air pollution
 Greenhouse Effect*CO2 levels rising and traps infrared (heat) energy
*Atmosphere is warming
 CFCs*Used as propellants in aerosols
*In upper atmosphere -> react with and destroy ozone
 Low Level Nuclear Waste* Sealed in metal drums or concrete and buried
*Uranium Mines = Radon
*Nuclear Power Plants
*Laboratories
*Hospitals
 High Level Nuclear Waste*High level of radioactivity
*Stored in stainless steel tanks on site at power plants
 Radon*Derived from uranium-rich rocks
*released naturally and from mining
 Industrial Chemical Disposal*Unlined dumps, trenches and pits
*"Secure" landfills
*Deep-well disposal
*Incineration
*Chemical Treatment
 Industrial Chemical Problems*Chemicals accumulate in organisms and become more concentrated up the food chain
*Heavy Metals
*PCBs
 Municipal Solid Waste is mostly...paper
 Almost all Municipal Solid Waste can be...recycled
 Ocean Dumping*Ceased in 1991
*Now Illegal
*still used for dumping dredge spoils
 US % of World's non-organic waste50%
 Municipal Waste Disposal Land*Open Dumps
*Sanitary Landfills
 Problems with Open Dumps*Leachate
*Wind Dispersal
*Vermin
*Aerobic Decomposition (CO2 and SO2)
 Sewage Treatment has an adverse effect on.*water supplies
*water environments
 Sanitary Landfill Goals*Low permeability (no leachate)
*Use of plastic or clay liners
*Impermeable covers/caps
 Septic Systems requireLeaching Field
 Constructed Wetlands*used for discharged of waste water
*prevents waste from leaching into groundwater
*plants assist biological treatment of water
> convert nitrates
> roots filter
 Example of unfiltered trench waste disposaLove Canal, New York
 What was in Love Canal?Industrial chemicals
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