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Class:GLY 130 - DINOSAURS & DISASTERS
Subject:Geological Sciences
University:University of Kentucky
Term:Fall 2010
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What are the two species of Mesozoic Non-Dinosaur MARINE Reptiles? Ichthyosaurs and Plesiosaurs
Describe the Ichthyosaurs (appearance, found where/when) - dolphin like with peg teeth and short neck - found in England during the Triassic period - soft part preservation shows placental, squids, and fins - largest found in Canada
Describe Plesiosaurs - diverse with sharp teeth - Loch Ness Monster
What is Liopleurdon? a type of Plesiosaur common in the Jurassic
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What is the only type of Mesozoic Non-Dinosaur SKY reptile? Give information. - Pterosaurs - Triassic to Jurassic - Shape of mouth is related to diet - Quetzalcoaltus - largest flying creature of all time, found in Mexico
What does Dromaeosaurs mean? Raptor
Describe the Velociraptor - Bird like and fast, some with feathers - Worked together in packs - Jurassic Park movie vs. actual fossils - FIghting dinosaur fossil
Tyrannosaurs Rex - Largest meat eating dinosaur in N. America - 27 skeletons found, 8 near complete - Sue & Stan - most well-known skeletons - Bone injuries show regrowth & infections - Bone CAT scans show heavy skulls, great eyesight and sense of smell - Serrated teeth
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Spinosaurs - Extended spines on back with crocodile-like faces - One skeleton found, almost 49 feet long, destroyed in an allied bombing
Carnotaurs - Short arms, short face, large horns
Charcarodontasaurs and Gigantosaurs (similar) - Large arms, hands with 3 claws - Descendent of Allosaur, bigger - Skull is bigger than T-Rex, no complete skeletons found
What is the 5th major extinction? End Cretaceous (K-T) extinction
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What are the MAJOR theories that are said to have caused this extinction? - Volcanic Eruptions - Meteor/Asteroid Impact - Tsunami
Volcanic Eruptions - Deccan Traps in India, similar to Siberian traps - Lava flows up to 2,400 m thick could have wiped out the majority of dinosaurs
How would a meteor impact cause a mass extinction? - The blast would cause huge waves and heat - The sun would eventually be blocked out by dust and debris - There would be a climate change unable to sustain plant life - Herbivores would die off, followed by carnivores
Why is Iridium significant? - Iridium is an element only found in meteories - Iridium found in the earth's bedrock dated back to the K-T extinction
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Tsunamis - Tsunamis would be caused by tectonic movements OR an impact - Crater found in Mexico has evidence of tektites in it (shocked quartz is the same, found in craters)
What is the Cenozoic Era commonly referred to as? The "Age of Mammals"
Adaptive Radiation The evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage
How does Adaptive Radiation occur? - Development of new characteristics - Development of new behavior - A combination of the two above - Older characteristics being picked up
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How does one survive a mass extinction? - BASICALLY, by not being selective .. or more specifically .. - being versatile - global distribution - rapid breeding - eat anything
What four things does Adaptive Radiation show? - Rapid evolution - Stabilization of evolutionary rates - High rates of extinction - Relative stability
Diatryma and Gastormis - large flightless birds - large beak, sharp talons, top land predator
Unithatheres and Titanotheres - rhino-sized mammals with small brains
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Andrewsarchus - wolf-like mammals with hooves
Morpous - arms like a primate, limb claws like a sloth - knuckle walker
Entelodonts - toothed and tusked giant pigs
Ambulocetus - "walking whale" - otter like carnivore that was semi-aquatic
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Hyracotherium - oldest known horse, lived in forests
Indricotherium - largest land mammal of all time - extinct genus of hornless elephants
What two things influenced mammal evolution in the Cenozoic Period? - climate and tectonics
Ice Age - advance of ice sheets from polar regions to equatorial regions across continents
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Which Ice Age is the most studied? Quatenary
What is the evidence for an ice age? - glacial sediments (til) and landforms far away from modern glaciers - scratches on bed rock - evidence of dramatic sea level changes - isostacy (crustal rebound from weight of ice)
Hominid Members of the family hominidae which include chimps, gorillas, orangutangs and modern humans
Australopitheus - first hominid - found in Africa - four species - Lucy - position of skull on body tells us how it walked
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Homo Erectus - first widespread humans found in N. African China and Europe - evidence of tool and fire use
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalus - Germany - Typical 'caveman' appearance - Complex culture - No evidence of speaking
Homo Sapiens Sapiens - also called 'Cromagnon' - smarter and more adaptable - inter-breeding to kill of the Neanderthals - 5 traits
What are the 5 traits of the Cromagnons? - brain enlargement in short time period - stood more upright - increased ability to grasp with thumb and fingers - increased eyesight - delayed development and continued growth of the skull and brain after birth is due to neoteny (retention of juvenile characteristics well into maturity)
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Smilodons - Sabre Toothed Tigers
La Brea Tar Pits & Big Bone Lick - natural preservation of several extinct animals including mammoths, mastadons, sloths and bison
Sixth Extinction Pleisotocene mammals killed off by humans (theory by Paul Martin)
What are the three types of possible human extinction? - hunting and direct exploitation - introduction of alien species - destruction and fragmentation of habitat
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 What are the two species of Mesozoic Non-Dinosaur MARINE Reptiles?Ichthyosaurs and Plesiosaurs
 Describe the Ichthyosaurs (appearance, found where/when)- dolphin like with peg teeth and short neck
- found in England during the Triassic period
- soft part preservation shows placental, squids, and fins
- largest found in Canada
 Describe Plesiosaurs- diverse with sharp teeth
- Loch Ness Monster
 What is Liopleurdon?a type of Plesiosaur common in the Jurassic
 What is the only type of Mesozoic Non-Dinosaur SKY reptile? Give information.- Pterosaurs
- Triassic to Jurassic
- Shape of mouth is related to diet
- Quetzalcoaltus - largest flying creature of all time, found in Mexico
 What does Dromaeosaurs mean?Raptor
 Describe the Velociraptor- Bird like and fast, some with feathers
- Worked together in packs
- Jurassic Park movie vs. actual fossils
- FIghting dinosaur fossil
 Tyrannosaurs Rex- Largest meat eating dinosaur in N. America
- 27 skeletons found, 8 near complete
- Sue & Stan - most well-known skeletons
- Bone injuries show regrowth & infections
- Bone CAT scans show heavy skulls, great eyesight and sense of smell
- Serrated teeth
 Spinosaurs- Extended spines on back with crocodile-like faces
- One skeleton found, almost 49 feet long, destroyed in an allied bombing
 Carnotaurs- Short arms, short face, large horns
 Charcarodontasaurs and Gigantosaurs (similar)- Large arms, hands with 3 claws
- Descendent of Allosaur, bigger
- Skull is bigger than T-Rex, no complete skeletons found
 What is the 5th major extinction?End Cretaceous (K-T) extinction
 What are the MAJOR theories that are said to have caused this extinction?- Volcanic Eruptions
- Meteor/Asteroid Impact
- Tsunami
 Volcanic Eruptions- Deccan Traps in India, similar to Siberian traps
- Lava flows up to 2,400 m thick could have wiped out the majority of dinosaurs
 How would a meteor impact cause a mass extinction?- The blast would cause huge waves and heat
- The sun would eventually be blocked out by dust and debris
- There would be a climate change unable to sustain plant life
- Herbivores would die off, followed by carnivores
 Why is Iridium significant?- Iridium is an element only found in meteories
- Iridium found in the earth's bedrock dated back to the K-T extinction
 Tsunamis- Tsunamis would be caused by tectonic movements OR an impact
- Crater found in Mexico has evidence of tektites in it (shocked quartz is the same, found in craters)
 What is the Cenozoic Era commonly referred to as?The "Age of Mammals"
 Adaptive RadiationThe evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage
 How does Adaptive Radiation occur?- Development of new characteristics
- Development of new behavior
- A combination of the two above
- Older characteristics being picked up
 How does one survive a mass extinction?- BASICALLY, by not being selective
.. or more specifically ..
- being versatile
- global distribution
- rapid breeding
- eat anything
 What four things does Adaptive Radiation show?- Rapid evolution
- Stabilization of evolutionary rates
- High rates of extinction
- Relative stability
 Diatryma and Gastormis- large flightless birds
- large beak, sharp talons, top land predator
 Unithatheres and Titanotheres- rhino-sized mammals with small brains
 Andrewsarchus- wolf-like mammals with hooves
 Morpous- arms like a primate, limb claws like a sloth
- knuckle walker
 Entelodonts- toothed and tusked giant pigs
 Ambulocetus- "walking whale"
- otter like carnivore that was semi-aquatic
 Hyracotherium- oldest known horse, lived in forests
 Indricotherium- largest land mammal of all time
- extinct genus of hornless elephants
 What two things influenced mammal evolution in the Cenozoic Period?- climate and tectonics
 Ice Age- advance of ice sheets from polar regions to equatorial regions across continents
 Which Ice Age is the most studied?Quatenary
 What is the evidence for an ice age?- glacial sediments (til) and landforms far away from modern glaciers
- scratches on bed rock
- evidence of dramatic sea level changes
- isostacy (crustal rebound from weight of ice)
 HominidMembers of the family hominidae which include chimps, gorillas, orangutangs and modern humans
 Australopitheus- first hominid
- found in Africa
- four species
- Lucy
- position of skull on body tells us how it walked
 Homo Erectus- first widespread humans found in N. African China and Europe
- evidence of tool and fire use
 Homo Sapiens Neanderthalus- Germany
- Typical 'caveman' appearance
- Complex culture
- No evidence of speaking
 Homo Sapiens Sapiens- also called 'Cromagnon'
- smarter and more adaptable
- inter-breeding to kill of the Neanderthals
- 5 traits
 What are the 5 traits of the Cromagnons?- brain enlargement in short time period
- stood more upright
- increased ability to grasp with thumb and fingers
- increased eyesight
- delayed development and continued growth of the skull and brain after birth is due to neoteny (retention of juvenile characteristics well into maturity)
 Smilodons- Sabre Toothed Tigers
 La Brea Tar Pits & Big Bone Lick- natural preservation of several extinct animals including mammoths, mastadons, sloths and bison
 Sixth ExtinctionPleisotocene mammals killed off by humans (theory by Paul Martin)
 What are the three types of possible human extinction?- hunting and direct exploitation
- introduction of alien species
- destruction and fragmentation of habitat
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