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Test 3 - Flashcards

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Class:GOVT 101 - Power and Politics in America
Subject:Government
University:Christopher Newport University
Term:Fall 2009
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Legislative Oversight A committee's investigation of government agencies to ensure they are acting as congress intends.
Majority Party The party with the most seats in the house of Congress
Midterm Loss The tendency for the presidential party to lose congressional seats in off-year elections
National Lawmaking The creation of policy to address the problems and needs of the entire nation
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Norms Informal rules that govern behavior in Congress.
Pocket Veto Presidential authority to kill a bill submitted within 10 days of the end of a legislative session by not signing it.
Policy Enterpreneurship Practice of legislators becoming experts and taking leadership roles in specific policy areas
Policy Representation Congressional work to advance the issues and ideological prefrences
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Pork Barrel Public works projects and grants for specific districts paid for by general revenues
Racial Gerrymandering Redistricting to enhance or reduce the chances that a racial or ethnic group will elect members to the legislature
Reapportionment A reallocation of congressional seats every 10 years following the census
Redistricting Process of dividing states into legislative districts
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Representation The efforts of elected officials to look out for the interests of those who elect them.
Roll Call Voting Publicly recorded votes on bills and amendments on the floor of the Senate.
Select Committee A committee appointed to deal with an issue of problem not suited to a standing committee
Seniority System The accumulation of power and authority in conjunction with the length of time spent in office
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Speaker of the House The leader of the majority party who serves as the presiding officer of the House of Representatives
Standing Committees Permanent committees responsible for legislation in particular policy areas
Strategic Politician An office-seeker who bases the decision to run on a rational calculation that he or she will be successful
Symbolic Representation Efforts of members of congress to stand for American ideals or identify with common constituency values
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Veto override Reversal of a presidential veto by a 2/3 vote in both houses of Congress.
Legislative Agenda The slate of proposals and issues that representatives think it worthwhile to consider and act on.
Joint Committees Combined House-Senate committees formed to coordinate activities and expedite legislation in a certain area.
Incumbency Advantage The electoral edge afforded to those already in office.
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House Rules Committee The committee that determines how and when debate on a bill will take place.
Gerrymandering redistricting to benefit a particular group
Franking The privilege of free mail service provided to members of congress
Filibuster a practice of unlimited debate in the Senate in order to prevent or delay a voice on a bill
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Descriptive Representation the idea that an elected body should mirror demographically the population it represents
Constituency the voters in a stat or district
Conference Committees temporary committees formed to reconcile differences in House and Senate versions of a bill
Coattail Effect the added voters received by congressional candidates of a winning presidential party
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Cloture a vote to end a Senate filibuster; requires a 3/5 majority, or 60 votes.
Casework legislative work on behalf of individual constituents to solve their problems with government agencies and programs.
Bicameral Legislature Legislature with two chambers
Allocative Representation congressional work to secure projects, services, and funds for the represented district.
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Cabinet A presidential advisory group selected by the president, made up of the vice president, the heads of the federal executive departments, and other high officials to whom the president elects to give cabinet status.
Chief Administrator the president's executive role as the head of federal agencies and the person responsible for the implementation of national policy
Chief Foreign Policy Maker the president's executive role as the head of federal agencies and the person responsible for the implementation of national policy
Chief of Staff the person who oversees the operations of all White House staff and controls access to the president
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Commander-in-chief the president's role as the top officer of the country's military establishment
Council of Economic Advisers organization within the EOP that advises the president on economic matters
Cycle effect The predictable rise and fall of a presidents popularity at different stages of a term in office
Divided government political rule split b/n two parties: one controlling the White House and the other controlling one or both houses of Congress
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Executive agreement A presidential arrangement with another country that creates foreign policy without the need for Senate approval
Executive Office of the President EOP Collection of nine organizations that help the president with policy and political objectives
Executive order clarifications of congressional policy issued by the president and having the full force of law
Going public A president's strategy of appealing to the public on an issue, expecting that public pressure will be brought to bear on other political actors
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Head of Government the political role of the president as leader of a political party and chief arbiter of who gets what resources
Head of State the apolitical, unifying role of the president as symbolic representative of the whole country
Honeymoon Period the time following an election when a president's popularity is high and congressional relations are likely to be productive
Inherent powers presidential powers implied but not explicitly stated in the Constitution
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Legislative liaison Executive personnel who work with members of Congress to secure their support in getting a president's legislation passed
National Security Council organization within the EOP that provides foreign policy advice to the president
Office of Management and Budget organization within the EOP that oversees the budgets of departments and agencies
Pardoning power a president's authority to release or excuse a person from the legal penalties of a crime
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Power to Persuade a president's ability to convince Congress, other political actors, and the public to cooperate with the administration's agenda
Presidential style image projected by the president that represents how he would like to be perceived at home and abroad
Presidential Veto A president's authority to reject a bill passes by Congress; may only be overridden by a 2/3 majority in each house
Senatorial courtesy tradition of granting senior senators of the president's party considerable power over federal judicial appointments in their home states
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Solicitor general the justice Department office who argues the government's cases before the Supreme Court
State of the Union address a speech given annually by the president to a joint session of Congress and to the nation announcing the president's agenda.
Treaties Formal agreements with other countries; negotiated by the president and requiring approval by 2/3 of the Senate
White House Office The approximately 400 employees within the EOP who work most closely and directly with the president
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Administrative Laws law established by the bureaucracy on behalf of Congress
Adversarial system trial procedures designed to resolve conflict through the clash of opposing sides, moderated by a neutral, passive judge who applies the law
Amicus curiae briefs "Friends of the court" documents filed by interested parties to encourage the court to grant or deny certiorari or to urge it to decide a case in a particular way
Appeal a rehearing of a case b/c of the losing party in the original trial argues that a point of law was not applied properly
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Appellate jurisdiction the authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts
Civil Laws laws regulating interactions b/n individuals; violation of a civil law is called a tort
Civil law tradition a legal system based on a detailed comprehensive legal code, usually created by the legislature
Concurring opinions Documents written by justices expressing agreement w/ the majority ruling but describing different or additional reasons for the ruling
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Constitutional Laws law stated in the Constitution or in the body of judicial decisions about the meaning of the Constitution handed down in the courts
courts institutions that sit as neutral 3rd parties to resolve conflicts according to the law
criminal laws laws prohibiting behavior the government has determined to be harmful to society; violation of a criminal law is called a crime
dissenting opinions documents written by justices expressing disagreement w/ the majority ruling
Generated by Koofers.com
inquisitorial systems trial procedures designed to determine the truth through the intervention of an active judge who seeks evidence and questions witnesses
judicial activism view that the courts should be lawmaking, policymaking bodies
judicial interpretivism a judicial approach holding that the Constitution is a living document and that judges should interpret it according to changing times and values
judicial restraint view that the courts should reject any active lawmaking functions and stick to judicial interpretations of the past
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judicial review power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws
jurisdiction a court's authority to hear certain cases
Marbury v. Madison the landmark case that established the U.S Supreme Court's power of judicial review
Opinion the written decision of the court that states the judgment of the majority
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original jurisdiction the authority of a court to hear a case first
precedent a previous decision or ruling that, in common law tradition, is binding on subsequent decisions
procedural due process procedural laws that protect the rights of individuals who must deal with the legal system
procedural laws laws that establish how laws are applied and enforced-how legal proceedings take place
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Rule of Four the unwritten requirement that four Supreme Court justices must agree to grant a case certiorari in order for the case to be heard
Senatorial courtesy tradition of granting senior senators of the president's party considerable power over federal judicial appointments in their home states
Statutory Laws Laws passed by a stat or the federal legislature
Strict Constructionism a judicail approach holding that the Constitution should be read literaly, with the framers' intentions uppermost in mind
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Substantive laws laws whose content, or substance, define what we can or cannot do
writ of centiorari Formal request by the U.S. Supreme court to call up the lower court case it decides to hear on appeal
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 Legislative OversightA committee's investigation of government agencies to ensure they are acting as congress intends.
 Majority PartyThe party with the most seats in the house of Congress
 Midterm LossThe tendency for the presidential party to lose congressional seats in off-year elections
 National LawmakingThe creation of policy to address the problems and needs of the entire nation
 NormsInformal rules that govern behavior in Congress.
 Pocket VetoPresidential authority to kill a bill submitted within 10 days of the end of a legislative session by not signing it.
 Policy EnterpreneurshipPractice of legislators becoming experts and taking leadership roles in specific policy areas
 Policy RepresentationCongressional work to advance the issues and ideological prefrences
 Pork BarrelPublic works projects and grants for specific districts paid for by general revenues
 Racial GerrymanderingRedistricting to enhance or reduce the chances that a racial or ethnic group will elect members to the legislature
 ReapportionmentA reallocation of congressional seats every 10 years following the census
 RedistrictingProcess of dividing states into legislative districts
 RepresentationThe efforts of elected officials to look out for the interests of those who elect them.
 Roll Call VotingPublicly recorded votes on bills and amendments on the floor of the Senate.
 Select CommitteeA committee appointed to deal with an issue of problem not suited to a standing committee
 Seniority SystemThe accumulation of power and authority in conjunction with the length of time spent in office
 Speaker of the HouseThe leader of the majority party who serves as the presiding officer of the House of Representatives
 Standing CommitteesPermanent committees responsible for legislation in particular policy areas
 Strategic PoliticianAn office-seeker who bases the decision to run on a rational calculation that he or she will be successful
 Symbolic RepresentationEfforts of members of congress to stand for American ideals or identify with common constituency values
 Veto overrideReversal of a presidential veto by a 2/3 vote in both houses of Congress.
 Legislative AgendaThe slate of proposals and issues that representatives think it worthwhile to consider and act on.
 Joint CommitteesCombined House-Senate committees formed to coordinate activities and expedite legislation in a certain area.
 Incumbency AdvantageThe electoral edge afforded to those already in office.
 House Rules CommitteeThe committee that determines how and when debate on a bill will take place.
 Gerrymanderingredistricting to benefit a particular group
 FrankingThe privilege of free mail service provided to members of congress
 Filibustera practice of unlimited debate in the Senate in order to prevent or delay a voice on a bill
 Descriptive Representationthe idea that an elected body should mirror demographically the population it represents
 Constituencythe voters in a stat or district
 Conference Committeestemporary committees formed to reconcile differences in House and Senate versions of a bill
 Coattail Effectthe added voters received by congressional candidates of a winning presidential party
 Cloturea vote to end a Senate filibuster; requires a 3/5 majority, or 60 votes.
 Caseworklegislative work on behalf of individual constituents to solve their problems with government agencies and programs.
 Bicameral LegislatureLegislature with two chambers
 Allocative Representationcongressional work to secure projects, services, and funds for the represented district.
 CabinetA presidential advisory group selected by the president, made up of the vice president, the heads of the federal executive departments, and other high officials to whom the president elects to give cabinet status.
 Chief Administratorthe president's executive role as the head of federal agencies and the person responsible for the implementation of national policy
 Chief Foreign Policy Makerthe president's executive role as the head of federal agencies and the person responsible for the implementation of national policy
 Chief of Staffthe person who oversees the operations of all White House staff and controls access to the president
 Commander-in-chiefthe president's role as the top officer of the country's military establishment
 Council of Economic Advisersorganization within the EOP that advises the president on economic matters
 Cycle effectThe predictable rise and fall of a presidents popularity at different stages of a term in office
 Divided governmentpolitical rule split b/n two parties: one controlling the White House and the other controlling one or both houses of Congress
 Executive agreementA presidential arrangement with another country that creates foreign policy without the need for Senate approval
 Executive Office of the PresidentEOP
Collection of nine organizations that help the president with policy and political objectives
 Executive orderclarifications of congressional policy issued by the president and having the full force of law
 Going publicA president's strategy of appealing to the public on an issue, expecting that public pressure will be brought to bear on other political actors
 Head of Governmentthe political role of the president as leader of a political party and chief arbiter of who gets what resources
 Head of Statethe apolitical, unifying role of the president as symbolic representative of the whole country
 Honeymoon Periodthe time following an election when a president's popularity is high and congressional relations are likely to be productive
 Inherent powerspresidential powers implied but not explicitly stated in the Constitution
 Legislative liaisonExecutive personnel who work with members of Congress to secure their support in getting a president's legislation passed
 National Security Councilorganization within the EOP that provides foreign policy advice to the president
 Office of Management and Budgetorganization within the EOP that oversees the budgets of departments and agencies
 Pardoning powera president's authority to release or excuse a person from the legal penalties of a crime
 Power to Persuadea president's ability to convince Congress, other political actors, and the public to cooperate with the administration's agenda
 Presidential styleimage projected by the president that represents how he would like to be perceived at home and abroad
 Presidential VetoA president's authority to reject a bill passes by Congress; may only be overridden by a 2/3 majority in each house
 Senatorial courtesytradition of granting senior senators of the president's party considerable power over federal judicial appointments in their home states
 Solicitor generalthe justice Department office who argues the government's cases before the Supreme Court
 State of the Union addressa speech given annually by the president to a joint session of Congress and to the nation announcing the president's agenda.
 TreatiesFormal agreements with other countries; negotiated by the president and requiring approval by 2/3 of the Senate
 White House OfficeThe approximately 400 employees within the EOP who work most closely and directly with the president
 Administrative Lawslaw established by the bureaucracy on behalf of Congress
 Adversarial systemtrial procedures designed to resolve conflict through the clash of opposing sides, moderated by a neutral, passive judge who applies the law
 Amicus curiae briefs"Friends of the court" documents filed by interested parties to encourage the court to grant or deny certiorari or to urge it to decide a case in a particular way
 Appeala rehearing of a case b/c of the losing party in the original trial argues that a point of law was not applied properly
 Appellate jurisdictionthe authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts
 Civil Lawslaws regulating interactions b/n individuals; violation of a civil law is called a tort
 Civil law traditiona legal system based on a detailed comprehensive legal code, usually created by the legislature
 Concurring opinionsDocuments written by justices expressing agreement w/ the majority ruling but describing different or additional reasons for the ruling
 Constitutional Lawslaw stated in the Constitution or in the body of judicial decisions about the meaning of the Constitution handed down in the courts
 courtsinstitutions that sit as neutral 3rd parties to resolve conflicts according to the law
 criminal lawslaws prohibiting behavior the government has determined to be harmful to society; violation of a criminal law is called a crime
 dissenting opinionsdocuments written by justices expressing disagreement w/ the majority ruling
 inquisitorial systemstrial procedures designed to determine the truth through the intervention of an active judge who seeks evidence and questions witnesses
 judicial activismview that the courts should be lawmaking, policymaking bodies
 judicial interpretivisma judicial approach holding that the Constitution is a living document and that judges should interpret it according to changing times and values
 judicial restraintview that the courts should reject any active lawmaking functions and stick to judicial interpretations of the past
 judicial reviewpower of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws
 jurisdictiona court's authority to hear certain cases
 Marbury v. Madisonthe landmark case that established the U.S Supreme Court's power of judicial review
 Opinionthe written decision of the court that states the judgment of the majority
 original jurisdictionthe authority of a court to hear a case first
 precedenta previous decision or ruling that, in common law tradition, is binding on subsequent decisions
 procedural due processprocedural laws that protect the rights of individuals who must deal with the legal system
 procedural lawslaws that establish how laws are applied and enforced-how legal proceedings take place
 Rule of Fourthe unwritten requirement that four Supreme Court justices must agree to grant a case certiorari in order for the case to be heard
 Senatorial courtesytradition of granting senior senators of the president's party considerable power over federal judicial appointments in their home states
 Statutory LawsLaws passed by a stat or the federal legislature
 Strict Constructionisma judicail approach holding that the Constitution should be read literaly, with the framers' intentions uppermost in mind
 Substantive lawslaws whose content, or substance, define what we can or cannot do
 writ of centiorariFormal request by the U.S. Supreme court to call up the lower court case it decides to hear on appeal
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