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Alcohol/Drug Use and Abuse CH. 4 - Flashcards

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Class:HED 113 - Alcohol/Drug Use & Abuse
Subject:Health Education
University:Genesee Community College
Term:Fall 2012
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The process of maintaining our internal environment (temperature, water balance, etc.) within certain limits is called Homeostasis.
In addition to neurons, the brain contains an even larger number of another cell type known as Glia.
Drug molecules must be someone lipophilic (soluble in oil) in order to Readily cross the blood-brain barrier.
Three important regions found in every neuron Axon, dendrites, and cell body.
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Gated ion channels for sodium and potassium open and close in rapid succession, causing the neuron to depolarize and then repolarize, during each Action potential.
Cocaine selectively blocks sodium channels, which is the mechanism that leads to Local anesthetic effects.
Parasympathetic and sympathetic refer to the two branches of the Autonomic nervous system.
Parkinson's disease produces tremors and muscular rigidity because of damage to Dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia.
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The neurotransmitter at the end organ of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is Norepinephrine.
The _____ located at the base of the brain, is an important link between the brain and the pituitary gland, and is involved in feeding, drinking, temperature regulation, and sexual behavior. Hypothalamus.
Neural centers controlling vomiting and respiration are found in the Brain stem.
Weight control, aggression, impulsivity, and psychological depression have all been associated with Serotonin pathways.
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Natural chemicals in the brain that produce effects similar to those of morphine and other opium-derived drugs are called Endorphins.
The process in which enzymes within neurons convert precursors into neurotransmitter molecules is called Synthesis. 
Neurotransmitter molecules are released into the small space between two neurons called the Synapse.
The ____ neurotransmitters is found in most parts of the brain and is considered inhibitory. GABA.
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Whether the effect of a neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory depends on The type of receptor.
The antipsychotic drug haloperidol (Haldol) works by Blocking dopamine receptors.
One biochemical theory of behavior that seems to have some overall merit is the Monoamine theory of mood.
Besides MRI, the other brain scanning technique described in the book that can study where specific chemicals are binding in living humans is called PET (position emission tomography).
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TRUE-FALSE Unline neurons, glial cells in the brain are purely for support and are incapable of communicating with each other. False.
TRUE-FALSE In order for drug molecules to readily cross the blood-brain barrier they must be somewhat lipophilic. True.
TRUE-FALSE The complex branching parts of a neuron that receive information from other neurons are called dendrites. True.
TRUE-FALSE Information is carried down the axon by ion channels that are responsible for the electrical signal known as an action potential. True.
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TRUE-FALSE Parkinson's disease is caused by damage to serotonin neurons in the raphe nuclei. False.
TRUE-FALSE Neural centers controlling vomiting and respiration are found in the mesolimbic dopamine system. True.
TRUE-FALSE The tiny space between two neurons is called a synapse. True.
TRUE-FALSE Many neurotransmitters can be either excitatory or inhibitory, depending on the type of receptor. True.
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TRUE-FALSE One of the main ways that drugs can affect neurotransmitter systems is by cutting off blood flow to a specific brain structure. False.

TRUE-FALSE MRI and PET are two types of neurotransmitter chemicals. False.
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 The process of maintaining our internal environment (temperature, water balance, etc.) within certain limits is calledHomeostasis.
 In addition to neurons, the brain contains an even larger number of another cell type known asGlia.
 Drug molecules must be someone lipophilic (soluble in oil) in order toReadily cross the blood-brain barrier.
 Three important regions found in every neuronAxon, dendrites, and cell body.
 Gated ion channels for sodium and potassium open and close in rapid succession, causing the neuron to depolarize and then repolarize, during eachAction potential.
 Cocaine selectively blocks sodium channels, which is the mechanism that leads toLocal anesthetic effects.
 Parasympathetic and sympathetic refer to the two branches of theAutonomic nervous system.
 Parkinson's disease produces tremors and muscular rigidity because of damage toDopamine neurons in the basal ganglia.
 The neurotransmitter at the end organ of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system isNorepinephrine.
 The _____ located at the base of the brain, is an important link between the brain and the pituitary gland, and is involved in feeding, drinking, temperature regulation, and sexual behavior.Hypothalamus.
 Neural centers controlling vomiting and respiration are found in theBrain stem.
 Weight control, aggression, impulsivity, and psychological depression have all been associated withSerotonin pathways.
 Natural chemicals in the brain that produce effects similar to those of morphine and other opium-derived drugs are calledEndorphins.
 The process in which enzymes within neurons convert precursors into neurotransmitter molecules is calledSynthesis. 
 Neurotransmitter molecules are released into the small space between two neurons called theSynapse.
 The ____ neurotransmitters is found in most parts of the brain and is considered inhibitory.GABA.
 Whether the effect of a neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory depends onThe type of receptor.
 The antipsychotic drug haloperidol (Haldol) works byBlocking dopamine receptors.
 One biochemical theory of behavior that seems to have some overall merit is theMonoamine theory of mood.
 Besides MRI, the other brain scanning technique described in the book that can study where specific chemicals are binding in living humans is calledPET (position emission tomography).
 TRUE-FALSE Unline neurons, glial cells in the brain are purely for support and are incapable of communicating with each other.False.
 TRUE-FALSE In order for drug molecules to readily cross the blood-brain barrier they must be somewhat lipophilic.True.
 TRUE-FALSE The complex branching parts of a neuron that receive information from other neurons are called dendrites.True.
 TRUE-FALSE Information is carried down the axon by ion channels that are responsible for the electrical signal known as an action potential.True.
 TRUE-FALSE Parkinson's disease is caused by damage to serotonin neurons in the raphe nuclei.False.
 TRUE-FALSE Neural centers controlling vomiting and respiration are found in the mesolimbic dopamine system.True.
 TRUE-FALSE The tiny space between two neurons is called a synapse.True.
 TRUE-FALSE Many neurotransmitters can be either excitatory or inhibitory, depending on the type of receptor.True.
 TRUE-FALSE One of the main ways that drugs can affect neurotransmitter systems is by cutting off blood flow to a specific brain structure.False.

 TRUE-FALSE MRI and PET are two types of neurotransmitter chemicals.False.
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