Koofers

Final Review - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:HES 2823 - Introductory Nutrition
Subject:HEALTH AND EXERCISE SCIENCES
University:University of Oklahoma
Term:Spring 2010
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
Children who consume more soft drinks weigh more What is a major problem with soft drinks being marketed to children, according to your instructor?
It is counterproductive, since the child will dislike that food and be less likely to eat it in the future Encouraging a child to eat a certain food is likely to have what effect on that child?
He made throwing away food a moral issue, rather than a health issue, thus encouraging people to overeat In our discussion of the Roy Rogers Riders Club, what did Roy do to Americans regarding our eating habits?
About 30% the same as Healthy Heart Guidelines What did we say would be a healthy fat content in the diet during weight loss?
Generated by Koofers.com
A person will not be as hungry the rest of the day if they eat breakfast, so less likely to overeat Why is breakfast eating important to weight loss?
It is the protein that was found to be deficient in mice that were genetically obese Why did we mention leptin in class (during the slide presentation)?
Throw food away even though it wastes money The primary strategy recommended by your instructor to counteract increasing portion size in the US is to
Red beans and rice Which of the following combinations of food is a good example of complementary proteins to meet essential amino acid needs?
Generated by Koofers.com
The body breaks down its own proteins, giving no priority to tissues such as the heart or liver over muscle Which of the following statements best describes how our body reacts to starvation?
If they are helpful, it is probably because they provide extra calories, not extra protein What best describes your instructor's impression of protein supplements for muscle gain?
Emphasizing fruits and vegetables in your diet Which of the following strategies did your instructor feel would be successful in a weight management program?
25 To stay in good health, we would like to stay below what body mass index?
Generated by Koofers.com
65 The incidence of overweight and obesity in the U.S. is now estimated at about _____% of the adult population.
3500 About how many kcalories are in one pound of fat?
Increase in thyroid hormone secretion Why do we see an increase in BMR with overeating?
kidney Urea is FILTERED from the blood by the ______.
Generated by Koofers.com
The essential amino acid in an incomplete protein that limits protein synthesis Define limiting amino acid.
Jello Which of the following would a vegetarian (eats no animal products) want to avoid, based on class discussion?
During starvation When is conversion of amino acids to glucose important?
Body size Which of the following is NOT going to influence the thermic effect of food?
Generated by Koofers.com
Body proteins are broken down to release amino acids for the pool What is the source of amino acids for the amino acid pool when the diet is devoid of protein?
7 The caloric content of alcohol is ____ kcal/g.
It can be purchased by athletes and taken, but universities cannot provide it, called nonpermissible We discussed the NCAA has what regulations regarding creatine?
Methionine Which of the following is the limiting amino acid for legumes like pinto beans?
Generated by Koofers.com
When amino acids are consumed in excess of need Deamination of amino acids occurs
Eggs Which of the following foods would have the highest net protein utilization?
20 7x4= 28/140 = 20 If a food contains 7 grams of protein and 140 kcalories, what is the % protein in this food?
BMR usually increases as you get older Which of the following is NOT true?
Generated by Koofers.com
Nitrogen balance will be maintained since they are healthy If a healthy adult eats excess protein
Consumers thinking that any low fat food item is low calories, so they overeat that item The "Snackwell Syndrome" is caused by
Abdomen Which of the following sites of fat storage is most associated with an increase in heart disease risk?
Some people resoind to overeating by increasing this component, thus preventing weight gain Nonexercise activity has been found to be important because of which of the following?
Generated by Koofers.com
1,3,4,2 For the following items, rank the energy density from MOST dense to LEAST dense. 1. Corn oil 2. Water 3. Pretzel 4. Apple
Portion sizes have increased Obesity rates have soared in the past 10 years in the US. The most critical issue, according to your instructor explaining this increase, is which of the following factors?
Weight in Kilograms / (Height in meters)^2 How did we define body mass index?
Lung cancer Which of the following diseases did we discuss DOES NOT HAVE a clear link to obesity?
Generated by Koofers.com
Take the intake that you would maintain your weight and subtract 500 kcal from that to lose 1 lb/wk How did we suggest you determine a reasonable daily caloric intake for weight loss?
Salty We are born to like what flavor?
Lysine Wheat, which are part of the grains grouping of complementary proteins, is limiting in ________.
The body weight that we defend against change How did we define the set point for weight in class?
Generated by Koofers.com
Obesity What is the leading cause of diabetes, especially Type 2, in the U.S.?
Catalyze chemical reactions in the cell Which of the following protein functions did we decide was the highest priority for the body to maintain?
Body proteins are broken down to replenish the amino acid pool A person has not eaten anything for a week.
Body protiens are broken down to replenish the amino acid A person is consuming is a vegetarian diet with rice as the only body protein source.
Generated by Koofers.com
Amino acids are deaminated and stored as fat A person is consuming a diet that is excessive in kcal, providing 30% of kcal as protein.
The baby is able to learn self-regulated intake early in life We discussed reasons why breastfeeding might lead to less obesity later in life. Give ONE explanation.
Physiological effect: thyroid hormone production and BMR decrease Psychological effect: become obsessed with food We discussed the Keys study and described two primary observations regarding the effects of starvation, one physiological (effect on the body or on metabolism) and one psychological (how we think). Give either one of these effects of starvation.
A) Enzymes - lipoproteins B) Antibodies - Structural proteins We listed a number of FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS on the board, such as HORMONES like insulin that regulate metabolism. Name (or describe) two other functions of our proteins in the body.
Generated by Koofers.com
2 years old At what age (in years) did we recommend that trying to limit fat intake begin? In other words, at what age do we BEGIN to implement the Healthy Heart Guidelines, so as not to overly restrict caloric intake in a child?
Xerophthalmia Which of the following diseases would most likely cause irreversible damage, a person would have long term problems after their diet improved?
Thiamin Which of the following nutrients is involved in energy metabolism?
The absorption of calcium Vitamin D is required for
Generated by Koofers.com
Enriched breads and cereals In the United States, iron is currently added to
Foods cooked in cast iron skillets Liver is the single richest source of iron. Other foods that are good sources of iron include
Hydroxyapatite The crystalline salts containing calcium and phosphorus deposited in bone are called
The ash content could be measured What method could be used to determine the mineral content of a food?
Generated by Koofers.com
Homocysteine What compound increases in concentration in the blood during folic acid deficiency, these high levels being a risk factor of heart disease?
Fluorapatite Fluoride is essential in the diet because it is a component of
Vitamin B6 Which vitamin toxicity leads to permanent nerve damage?
Beta-carotene _________ is the yellow-orange pigment found in carrots.
Generated by Koofers.com
Tea When consumed with a meal, which beverage reduces iron absorption most significantly?
All women planning to become pregnant should take a folic acid supplement When does your instructor recommend the use of vitamin supplements (pills)?
Supplements increased lung cancer incidence by up to 18% in smokers What did we conclude regarding taking beta-carotene supplements and caner risk?
Niacin A deficiency of which of these nutrients leads to pellagra?
Generated by Koofers.com
Adding a nutrient above what is normally found in the food What do we mean when we talk about the fortification of food?
Calcium fortified orange juice What did we conclude in class would be the highest source of calcium for a lactose intolerant person?
Pregnant women Which of the following is an at risk group for developing folic acid deficiency?
Pernicious anemia In an unusual treatment, meat was swallowed by a healthy person and then retrieved and fed too a sick person. This treatment was effective for
Generated by Koofers.com
Iron For which nutrient did we discuss that women have a much higher requirement than men do?
Roast beef Which of the following is an example of a heme iron source?
Folic acids Which of the following vitamins was fortified in bread products as a way to reduce neural tube defects?
Vitamin A is required for formation of light sensitive compounds in the retina Why is night blindness a consequence of vitamin A deficiency?
Generated by Koofers.com
Reduces damage to DNA to reduce likelihood of producing a cancer cell Why do antioxidants likely reduce cancer risk?
Calcium For which nutrient did we discuss that supplements are a risk because the margin between getting enough and getting too much is so small, in other words getting too much is only about 2-3 times more than what is recommended?
Vitamin B6 In order to metabolize the amino acid alanine to maintain blood glucose levels, we need the coenzyme made from
Thiamin A person who overconsumes alcohol is most likely to be deficient in which vitamin?
Generated by Koofers.com
Vitamin C Which vitamin is important to the production of collagen, a protein found in skin and bone?
The upper Midwest, like Minnesota What area of the country did we say was especially at risk of having poor iodine levels in their soil?
Vitamin D Using tanning beds decreases dietary needs
Vitamin A Yellow-orange fruits and vegetables are an important source
Generated by Koofers.com
Calcium Absorption is blocked by oxalates
Vitamin E Reacts with free radicals
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine
Vitamin A Retinol
Generated by Koofers.com
Vitamin D Cholecalciferol
Vitamin E Tocopherol
Thiamin Beriberi
Vitamin B12 Pernicious anemia
Generated by Koofers.com
Vitamin D Rickets
Riboflavin Cracks at angles of mouth
Fluoride Community water supplies
Vitamin C Asparagus/brussel sprouts
Generated by Koofers.com
Folic Acid Green leafy vegetables
Iodine Seafood
1. Women - menstruation 2. Vegetarians - do not consume meat 3. Children - milk is a staple We discussed four groups that are at risk of iron deficiency. Name three of them, and very briefly describe why each is at risk of iron deficiency.
Niacin, Thiamin, (Riboflavin) Enriched grains always have three vitamins added to them. Name two of the three.
Generated by Koofers.com
2,3,1 Rank the following saturated fatty acids from the one MOST likely to LEAST likely to cause heart disease. 1. Palmitic acid 2. Lauric acid 3. Myristic acid
Food Guide Pryamid Which of the following guidelines, as we discussed in class, is based on the principle of nutrient density?
Reduce intake of trans fatty acids We discussed that there should be a new Healthy Heart Guideline, one area of our diet to be added to the current three recommendations. What is that area of our diet?
Pasta Which of the following is a high glycemic index food, based on the characteristics we went over in class?
Generated by Koofers.com
One hour prior to competition During which of the following times would your instructor advise an athlete to consume a low glycemic index food?
53% 9 cal/gram = fat 14x9= 126 / 240 = 53% I looked up a doughnut in the food composition table and found the following information: it contains 240 calories and 14 grams of fat. What is the % calories from fat in this food?
Dark chocolate Which of the following foods did we conclude was a rich source of stearic acid in the diet
1,3,2 Rank the following food sources from highest cholesterol to lowest cholesterol content. 1. Cream 2. Peanut butter 3. Chicken
Generated by Koofers.com
They increase risk of heart disease by increasing LDL-cholesterol when consumed What health concern is there regarding partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, as we discussed in class?
80 If someone is consuming 2400 calories/day, what is the maximum grams of total fat they could consume and meet Healthy Heart recommendations?
Margarine Which of the following foods is most likely to INCREASE LDL-cholesterol levels?
A food that raises blood glucose levels similar to consuming glucose A high glycemic index is an indication of
Generated by Koofers.com
Glucose Maltodextrose is composed of what monosaccharide units?
Unable to produce sufficient insulin A Type I diabetic would be
Peanut oil Which of the following is highest in monounsaturated fat?
Is replenished during fasting when liver glycogen is hydrolyzed to glucose that then enters the bloodstream Blood glucose in the normal, healthy body
Generated by Koofers.com
Remove the % daily value for fat listing What recommendation did your instructor think would be a good one to send Michelle Obama to make food labels more information and clear to consumers?
300 It is recommended that we consume no more than ___mg cholesterol/day.
It is much higher in cholesterol than infant formuals Which of the following is TRUE about breast milk?
Linoleic Acid Which of the following is an essential nutrient?
Generated by Koofers.com
Sucrose Which of the following would require digestion before it could be absorbed?
Oat bran Which of the following is a good source of soluble fiber?
Milk naturally contains lactose, a simple sugar Why would milk have simple sugar listen on the food label?
Butter is high in cholesterol so intake should be limited We have discussed some commonly held beliefs that are really misleading or simply wrong. Which of the following is NOT wrong, it is actually TRUE?
Generated by Koofers.com
Increase the intake of omega-3 fatty acids We recommended to consume more fish to
It is a coping mechanism A core characteristic of all eating disorders is
Anorexia Nervosa One health consequence of an eating disorder is a growth of downy hair on the body, which is most likely seen in someone with
Women stop menstruating and the lower estrogen causes a drop in bone density Someone with anorexia nervosa is likely to have low bone density. Why is that likely?
Generated by Koofers.com
Bulimia Nervosa Electrolyte (sodium and potassium) imbalances are most likely seen in
Low self-esteem Of the following characteristics, which is common of all eating disorders?
Anyone can call themselves a nutritionist, with or without a degree, while a dietitian is a title protected by law The differences between a nutritionist and a dietitian is
OU Health Sciences Center Where is the only coordinated program (fastest route to registration) in the state of Oklahoma?
Generated by Koofers.com
Insulin Produced by the pancreases, _________ stimulates the uptake of blood glucose into cells and storage as glycogen.
Used in a common laxative The dried husk of the psyllium seed is
Amylopectin A branched-chain polysaccharide in foods of plant origin composed of glucose units is ________.
Glucose When digestive enzymes break down starch in the mouth, a sweet taste is sensed. This sweet taste can be attributed to
Generated by Koofers.com
Gums Which of the following compounds would you be able to solubilize in water?
Linolenic acid ____________ is an essential omega-3 fatty acid that contains 18 carbons and 3 carbon-carbon double bonds.
Small intestine The primary site of carbohydrate digestion is the __________.
Brain The __________ has the highest cholesterol content in the body.
Generated by Koofers.com
Saturated A fatty acid with all carbons in the chain linked by single bonds is called
Fructose Sweetest
Cellulose Most abundant in the ecosystem
Glycogen Storage form found in the liver and muscle
Generated by Koofers.com
Sucrose Most likely to cause tooth decay
Insoluble Fiber: Lignin Food Source: Wheat, rice, corn We listed three compounds that are insoluble fibers found in our diet and discussed some foods that were rich in that type of fiber. Give me ONE compound that is an insoluble fiber and ONE food source for that fiber.
Reduces risk of colon cancer We discussed two health benefits that would be true for both soluble and insoluble fiber. Give me one of them.
Effect on LDL cholesterol: Increase Effect on HDL cholesterol: No change The consumption of SATURATED FATS affects blood cholesterol levels. Describe the effect (increase, decrease, or no change) SATURATED FATS have on LDL and HDL cholesterol levels.
Generated by Koofers.com
Sucrose is added to food, so we would consume 0g/day. If you were "living off the land" in Norman, Oklahoma, rather than "living off the Homeland," how much sucrose would you likely be consuming? Give your answer in grams of sucrose per day, as discussed in class.
Sweating Diarrhea Vomiting Dehydration
Water, Sodium, Chloride Sweating consists of
Drink small amounts of cool water frequently Recommendations while sweating
Generated by Koofers.com
1 pound "A pint's a pound, a world around" 1 pint of water =
Hyponitremia Low sodium levels in the blood
Bananas, oranges Potassium rich foods
Diuretics Caffeine, Alcohol Reduce rehyration, increase urine production
Generated by Koofers.com
Phytochemicals Compounds from plants (fruits, vegetables, grains) Reduce cancer risk Reduce heart disease risk Reduce diabetes
Functional Foods Any healthy or fictional food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients.
Soybeans Reduces heart disease risk in both men and women May reduce caner risk Contains phytoestrogens Cannot consume raw
Tomatoes Lycopene - red pigment Most powerful antioxidant in our diet Fat Soluble compound
Generated by Koofers.com
Broccoli sprouts High levels of sulfur Reduce cancer risks
Garlic, Onions Sulfur containing Specific compound is Allicin Reduces heart disease risk
Blueberries, Blackberries Rich in antioxidants Reduce cancer risk
Herbs Plants with medicine value
Generated by Koofers.com
Dietary Supplement Act (1990s) Less regulation (opposite effect)
Echinacea Most common herb in US Relieve symptoms of common cold
Ginger Remedy for upset stomach Helps calm spasms in small intestine
Chamomile (Tea) Mild sedative
Generated by Koofers.com
St. John's Wort Helps with mild depression Fen-Phen
Ginseng Improves general well-being Fake herb = Siberian
Ginkgo Biloba Improves memory - elderly Dilate blood vessels to increase blood flow to brain
Guarana Plant from South America Source of caffeine Mild stimulant
Generated by Koofers.com
Ma Huang (ephedra or ephedrine) Stimulant Used for weight loss Used as herbogenic aid (enhances athletic performance) Replaced with caffeine People died of heart failure
Salmonellosis Bacterial contamination Poultry Meat and eggs
Botulism Anaerobic (without oxygen) bacterial contamination Canned goods Honey
E Coli Intoxication Bacterial contamination Most common bacteria in the ecosystem Ground beef
Generated by Koofers.com
Trichinosis Parasite Attacks skeletal muscle Found in pork
Food Additives G - generally R - recognized A - s S - safe
Nitrites, Nitrates Added to food supple to protect against Botulism Not 100% safe, when consumed they are converted to nitrosamines (carcinogens)
Carcinogens Cancer causing (stomach cancer) Vitamin C blocks the conversion Found in processed meats, including deli
Generated by Koofers.com
Delaney Clause Banned additives if they were carcinogens Sweet-n-Low is one of the few exceptions
Salt Causes hypertension
Dash Diet D - dietary A - approaches S - top H - hypertension Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low fat dairy
Alcohol About 5% of calories consumed in US come from this 1 ounce per day
Generated by Koofers.com
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Leading cause of mental retardation Women consuming alcohol during pregnancy
Water functions Medium of cell Transport of nutrients to cell and waste products away from cell Dissipation of heat (cool the body)
Electrolytes Minerals Sodium (Na) Chloride (Cl) Potassium (K) All required nutrients for nerve transmissions
Intracellular Fluid 50% potassium Inside cell
Generated by Koofers.com
Extracellular Fluid 50% Sodium (sodium pump), Chloride Outside of cell Blood Interstitial fluid - fluid between cells Eyes Cerebral spinal fluid
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 185 Print
 
Front
Back
 Children who consume more soft drinks weigh moreWhat is a major problem with soft drinks being marketed to children, according to your instructor?
 It is counterproductive, since the child will dislike that food and be less likely to eat it in the futureEncouraging a child to eat a certain food is likely to have what effect on that child?
 He made throwing away food a moral issue, rather than a health issue, thus encouraging people to overeatIn our discussion of the Roy Rogers Riders Club, what did Roy do to Americans regarding our eating habits?
 About 30% the same as Healthy Heart GuidelinesWhat did we say would be a healthy fat content in the diet during weight loss?
 A person will not be as hungry the rest of the day if they eat breakfast, so less likely to overeatWhy is breakfast eating important to weight loss?
 It is the protein that was found to be deficient in mice that were genetically obeseWhy did we mention leptin in class (during the slide presentation)?
 Throw food away even though it wastes moneyThe primary strategy recommended by your instructor to counteract increasing portion size in the US is to
 Red beans and riceWhich of the following combinations of food is a good example of complementary proteins to meet essential amino acid needs?
 The body breaks down its own proteins, giving no priority to tissues such as the heart or liver over muscleWhich of the following statements best describes how our body reacts to starvation?
 If they are helpful, it is probably because they provide extra calories, not extra proteinWhat best describes your instructor's impression of protein supplements for muscle gain?
 Emphasizing fruits and vegetables in your dietWhich of the following strategies did your instructor feel would be successful in a weight management program?
 25To stay in good health, we would like to stay below what body mass index?
 65The incidence of overweight and obesity in the U.S. is now estimated at about _____% of the adult population.
 3500About how many kcalories are in one pound of fat?
 Increase in thyroid hormone secretionWhy do we see an increase in BMR with overeating?
 kidneyUrea is FILTERED from the blood by the ______.
 The essential amino acid in an incomplete protein that limits protein synthesisDefine limiting amino acid.
 JelloWhich of the following would a vegetarian (eats no animal products) want to avoid, based on class discussion?
 During starvationWhen is conversion of amino acids to glucose important?
 Body sizeWhich of the following is NOT going to influence the thermic effect of food?
 Body proteins are broken down to release amino acids for the poolWhat is the source of amino acids for the amino acid pool when the diet is devoid of protein?
 7The caloric content of alcohol is ____ kcal/g.
 It can be purchased by athletes and taken, but universities cannot provide it, called nonpermissibleWe discussed the NCAA has what regulations regarding creatine?
 MethionineWhich of the following is the limiting amino acid for legumes like pinto beans?
 When amino acids are consumed in excess of needDeamination of amino acids occurs
 EggsWhich of the following foods would have the highest net protein utilization?
 20 7x4= 28/140 = 20If a food contains 7 grams of protein and 140 kcalories, what is the % protein in this food?
 BMR usually increases as you get olderWhich of the following is NOT true?
 Nitrogen balance will be maintained since they are healthyIf a healthy adult eats excess protein
 Consumers thinking that any low fat food item is low calories, so they overeat that itemThe "Snackwell Syndrome" is caused by
 AbdomenWhich of the following sites of fat storage is most associated with an increase in heart disease risk?
 Some people resoind to overeating by increasing this component, thus preventing weight gainNonexercise activity has been found to be important because of which of the following?
 1,3,4,2For the following items, rank the energy density from MOST dense to LEAST dense.

1. Corn oil
2. Water
3. Pretzel
4. Apple
 Portion sizes have increasedObesity rates have soared in the past 10 years in the US. The most critical issue, according to your instructor explaining this increase, is which of the following factors?
 Weight in Kilograms / (Height in meters)^2How did we define body mass index?
 Lung cancerWhich of the following diseases did we discuss DOES NOT HAVE a clear link to obesity?
 Take the intake that you would maintain your weight and subtract 500 kcal from that to lose 1 lb/wkHow did we suggest you determine a reasonable daily caloric intake for weight loss?
 SaltyWe are born to like what flavor?
 LysineWheat, which are part of the grains grouping of complementary proteins, is limiting in ________.
 The body weight that we defend against changeHow did we define the set point for weight in class?
 ObesityWhat is the leading cause of diabetes, especially Type 2, in the U.S.?
 Catalyze chemical reactions in the cellWhich of the following protein functions did we decide was the highest priority for the body to maintain?
 Body proteins are broken down to replenish the amino acid poolA person has not eaten anything for a week.
 Body protiens are broken down to replenish the amino acidA person is consuming is a vegetarian diet with rice as the only body protein source.
 Amino acids are deaminated and stored as fatA person is consuming a diet that is excessive in kcal, providing 30% of kcal as protein.
 The baby is able to learn self-regulated intake early in lifeWe discussed reasons why breastfeeding might lead to less obesity later in life. Give ONE explanation.
 Physiological effect: thyroid hormone production and BMR decrease Psychological effect: become obsessed with foodWe discussed the Keys study and described two primary observations regarding the effects of starvation, one physiological (effect on the body or on metabolism) and one psychological (how we think). Give either one of these effects of starvation.
 A) Enzymes - lipoproteins B) Antibodies - Structural proteinsWe listed a number of FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS on the board, such as HORMONES like insulin that regulate metabolism. Name (or describe) two other functions of our proteins in the body.
 2 years oldAt what age (in years) did we recommend that trying to limit fat intake begin? In other words, at what age do we BEGIN to implement the Healthy Heart Guidelines, so as not to overly restrict caloric intake in a child?
 XerophthalmiaWhich of the following diseases would most likely cause irreversible damage, a person would have long term problems after their diet improved?
 ThiaminWhich of the following nutrients is involved in energy metabolism?
 The absorption of calciumVitamin D is required for
 Enriched breads and cerealsIn the United States, iron is currently added to
 Foods cooked in cast iron skilletsLiver is the single richest source of iron. Other foods that are good sources of iron include
 HydroxyapatiteThe crystalline salts containing calcium and phosphorus deposited in bone are called
 The ash content could be measuredWhat method could be used to determine the mineral content of a food?
 HomocysteineWhat compound increases in concentration in the blood during folic acid deficiency, these high levels being a risk factor of heart disease?
 FluorapatiteFluoride is essential in the diet because it is a component of
 Vitamin B6Which vitamin toxicity leads to permanent nerve damage?
 Beta-carotene_________ is the yellow-orange pigment found in carrots.
 TeaWhen consumed with a meal, which beverage reduces iron absorption most significantly?
 All women planning to become pregnant should take a folic acid supplementWhen does your instructor recommend the use of vitamin supplements (pills)?
 Supplements increased lung cancer incidence by up to 18% in smokersWhat did we conclude regarding taking beta-carotene supplements and caner risk?
 NiacinA deficiency of which of these nutrients leads to pellagra?
 Adding a nutrient above what is normally found in the foodWhat do we mean when we talk about the fortification of food?
 Calcium fortified orange juiceWhat did we conclude in class would be the highest source of calcium for a lactose intolerant person?
 Pregnant womenWhich of the following is an at risk group for developing folic acid deficiency?
 Pernicious anemiaIn an unusual treatment, meat was swallowed by a healthy person and then retrieved and fed too a sick person. This treatment was effective for
 IronFor which nutrient did we discuss that women have a much higher requirement than men do?
 Roast beefWhich of the following is an example of a heme iron source?
 Folic acidsWhich of the following vitamins was fortified in bread products as a way to reduce neural tube defects?
 Vitamin A is required for formation of light sensitive compounds in the retinaWhy is night blindness a consequence of vitamin A deficiency?
 Reduces damage to DNA to reduce likelihood of producing a cancer cellWhy do antioxidants likely reduce cancer risk?
 CalciumFor which nutrient did we discuss that supplements are a risk because the margin between getting enough and getting too much is so small, in other words getting too much is only about 2-3 times more than what is recommended?
 Vitamin B6In order to metabolize the amino acid alanine to maintain blood glucose levels, we need the coenzyme made from
 ThiaminA person who overconsumes alcohol is most likely to be deficient in which vitamin?
 Vitamin CWhich vitamin is important to the production of collagen, a protein found in skin and bone?
 The upper Midwest, like MinnesotaWhat area of the country did we say was especially at risk of having poor iodine levels in their soil?
 Vitamin DUsing tanning beds decreases dietary needs
 Vitamin AYellow-orange fruits and vegetables are an important source
 CalciumAbsorption is blocked by oxalates
 Vitamin EReacts with free radicals
 Vitamin B6Pyridoxine
 Vitamin ARetinol
 Vitamin DCholecalciferol
 Vitamin ETocopherol
 ThiaminBeriberi
 Vitamin B12Pernicious anemia
 Vitamin DRickets
 RiboflavinCracks at angles of mouth
 FluorideCommunity water supplies
 Vitamin CAsparagus/brussel sprouts
 Folic AcidGreen leafy vegetables
 IodineSeafood
 1. Women - menstruation 2. Vegetarians - do not consume meat 3. Children - milk is a stapleWe discussed four groups that are at risk of iron deficiency. Name three of them, and very briefly describe why each is at risk of iron deficiency.
 Niacin, Thiamin, (Riboflavin)Enriched grains always have three vitamins added to them. Name two of the three.
 2,3,1Rank the following saturated fatty acids from the one MOST likely to LEAST likely to cause heart disease.

1. Palmitic acid
2. Lauric acid
3. Myristic acid
 Food Guide PryamidWhich of the following guidelines, as we discussed in class, is based on the principle of nutrient density?
 Reduce intake of trans fatty acidsWe discussed that there should be a new Healthy Heart Guideline, one area of our diet to be added to the current three recommendations. What is that area of our diet?
 PastaWhich of the following is a high glycemic index food, based on the characteristics we went over in class?
 One hour prior to competitionDuring which of the following times would your instructor advise an athlete to consume a low glycemic index food?
 53% 9 cal/gram = fat 14x9= 126 / 240 = 53%I looked up a doughnut in the food composition table and found the following information: it contains 240 calories and 14 grams of fat. What is the % calories from fat in this food?
 Dark chocolateWhich of the following foods did we conclude was a rich source of stearic acid in the diet
 1,3,2Rank the following food sources from highest cholesterol to lowest cholesterol content.

1. Cream
2. Peanut butter
3. Chicken
 They increase risk of heart disease by increasing LDL-cholesterol when consumedWhat health concern is there regarding partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, as we discussed in class?
 80If someone is consuming 2400 calories/day, what is the maximum grams of total fat they could consume and meet Healthy Heart recommendations?
 MargarineWhich of the following foods is most likely to INCREASE LDL-cholesterol levels?
 A food that raises blood glucose levels similar to consuming glucoseA high glycemic index is an indication of
 GlucoseMaltodextrose is composed of what monosaccharide units?
 Unable to produce sufficient insulinA Type I diabetic would be
 Peanut oilWhich of the following is highest in monounsaturated fat?
 Is replenished during fasting when liver glycogen is hydrolyzed to glucose that then enters the bloodstreamBlood glucose in the normal, healthy body
 Remove the % daily value for fat listingWhat recommendation did your instructor think would be a good one to send Michelle Obama to make food labels more information and clear to consumers?
 300It is recommended that we consume no more than ___mg cholesterol/day.
 It is much higher in cholesterol than infant formualsWhich of the following is TRUE about breast milk?
 Linoleic AcidWhich of the following is an essential nutrient?
 SucroseWhich of the following would require digestion before it could be absorbed?
 Oat branWhich of the following is a good source of soluble fiber?
 Milk naturally contains lactose, a simple sugarWhy would milk have simple sugar listen on the food label?
 Butter is high in cholesterol so intake should be limitedWe have discussed some commonly held beliefs that are really misleading or simply wrong. Which of the following is NOT wrong, it is actually TRUE?
 Increase the intake of omega-3 fatty acidsWe recommended to consume more fish to
 It is a coping mechanismA core characteristic of all eating disorders is
 Anorexia NervosaOne health consequence of an eating disorder is a growth of downy hair on the body, which is most likely seen in someone with
 Women stop menstruating and the lower estrogen causes a drop in bone densitySomeone with anorexia nervosa is likely to have low bone density. Why is that likely?
 Bulimia NervosaElectrolyte (sodium and potassium) imbalances are most likely seen in
 Low self-esteemOf the following characteristics, which is common of all eating disorders?
 Anyone can call themselves a nutritionist, with or without a degree, while a dietitian is a title protected by lawThe differences between a nutritionist and a dietitian is
 OU Health Sciences CenterWhere is the only coordinated program (fastest route to registration) in the state of Oklahoma?
 InsulinProduced by the pancreases, _________ stimulates the uptake of blood glucose into cells and storage as glycogen.
 Used in a common laxativeThe dried husk of the psyllium seed is
 AmylopectinA branched-chain polysaccharide in foods of plant origin composed of glucose units is ________.
 GlucoseWhen digestive enzymes break down starch in the mouth, a sweet taste is sensed. This sweet taste can be attributed to
 GumsWhich of the following compounds would you be able to solubilize in water?
 Linolenic acid____________ is an essential omega-3 fatty acid that contains 18 carbons and 3 carbon-carbon double bonds.
 Small intestineThe primary site of carbohydrate digestion is the __________.
 BrainThe __________ has the highest cholesterol content in the body.
 SaturatedA fatty acid with all carbons in the chain linked by single bonds is called
 FructoseSweetest
 CelluloseMost abundant in the ecosystem
 GlycogenStorage form found in the liver and muscle
 SucroseMost likely to cause tooth decay
 Insoluble Fiber: Lignin Food Source: Wheat, rice, cornWe listed three compounds that are insoluble fibers found in our diet and discussed some foods that were rich in that type of fiber. Give me ONE compound that is an insoluble fiber and ONE food source for that fiber.
 Reduces risk of colon cancerWe discussed two health benefits that would be true for both soluble and insoluble fiber. Give me one of them.
 Effect on LDL cholesterol: Increase Effect on HDL cholesterol: No changeThe consumption of SATURATED FATS affects blood cholesterol levels. Describe the effect (increase, decrease, or no change) SATURATED FATS have on LDL and HDL cholesterol levels.
 Sucrose is added to food, so we would consume 0g/day.If you were "living off the land" in Norman, Oklahoma, rather than "living off the Homeland," how much sucrose would you likely be consuming? Give your answer in grams of sucrose per day, as discussed in class.
 Sweating Diarrhea VomitingDehydration
 Water, Sodium, ChlorideSweating consists of
 Drink small amounts of cool water frequentlyRecommendations while sweating
 1 pound "A pint's a pound, a world around"1 pint of water =
 HyponitremiaLow sodium levels in the blood
 Bananas, orangesPotassium rich foods
 Diuretics Caffeine, AlcoholReduce rehyration, increase urine production
 PhytochemicalsCompounds from plants (fruits, vegetables, grains)
Reduce cancer risk
Reduce heart disease risk
Reduce diabetes
 Functional FoodsAny healthy or fictional food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients.
 SoybeansReduces heart disease risk in both men and women
May reduce caner risk
Contains phytoestrogens
Cannot consume raw
 TomatoesLycopene - red pigment
Most powerful antioxidant in our diet
Fat Soluble compound
 Broccoli sproutsHigh levels of sulfur
Reduce cancer risks
 Garlic, OnionsSulfur containing
Specific compound is Allicin
Reduces heart disease risk
 Blueberries, BlackberriesRich in antioxidants
Reduce cancer risk
 HerbsPlants with medicine value
 Dietary Supplement Act (1990s)Less regulation (opposite effect)
 EchinaceaMost common herb in US
Relieve symptoms of common cold
 GingerRemedy for upset stomach
Helps calm spasms in small intestine
 Chamomile (Tea)Mild sedative
 St. John's WortHelps with mild depression
Fen-Phen
 GinsengImproves general well-being
Fake herb = Siberian
 Ginkgo BilobaImproves memory - elderly
Dilate blood vessels to increase blood flow to brain
 GuaranaPlant from South America
Source of caffeine
Mild stimulant
 Ma Huang (ephedra or ephedrine)Stimulant
Used for weight loss
Used as herbogenic aid (enhances athletic performance)
Replaced with caffeine
People died of heart failure
 SalmonellosisBacterial contamination
Poultry
Meat and eggs
 BotulismAnaerobic (without oxygen) bacterial contamination
Canned goods
Honey
 E Coli IntoxicationBacterial contamination
Most common bacteria in the ecosystem
Ground beef
 TrichinosisParasite
Attacks skeletal muscle
Found in pork
 Food AdditivesG - generally
R - recognized
A - s
S - safe
 Nitrites, NitratesAdded to food supple to protect against Botulism
Not 100% safe, when consumed they are converted to nitrosamines (carcinogens)
 CarcinogensCancer causing (stomach cancer)
Vitamin C blocks the conversion
Found in processed meats, including deli
 Delaney ClauseBanned additives if they were carcinogens
Sweet-n-Low is one of the few exceptions
 SaltCauses hypertension
 Dash DietD - dietary
A - approaches
S - top
H - hypertension

Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low fat dairy
 AlcoholAbout 5% of calories consumed in US come from this
1 ounce per day
 Fetal Alcohol SyndromeLeading cause of mental retardation
Women consuming alcohol during pregnancy
 Water functionsMedium of cell
Transport of nutrients to cell and waste products away from cell
Dissipation of heat (cool the body)
 ElectrolytesMinerals
Sodium (Na)
Chloride (Cl)
Potassium (K)
All required nutrients for nerve transmissions
 Intracellular Fluid50% potassium
Inside cell
 Extracellular Fluid50% Sodium (sodium pump), Chloride
Outside of cell
Blood
Interstitial fluid - fluid between cells
Eyes
Cerebral spinal fluid
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"