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Class:HIS 189 - California History
Subject:History
University:University of California - Davis
Term:Spring 2010
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Alien Land Law 1913 Prohibited all aliens ineligible for citizenship (ie. Asian Immigrants) from owning land or property. Law was eventually invalidated in 1952 as a violation of the equal protection clause.
Associated Farmers organization developed by the growers and farm communities in reaction to striked of 1933-1934. Represented growers and processers but actually represented business interests. Financed by contributions from San Francisco Industrial Association, PG&E,others. Played dominant role in suppressing farm labor organizing activities. Private vigilante of men that protected strike breakers, disrupted mass meetings, and attacked pickets. Sucessfully pushed for anti picketing ordinances in agricultural areas and in general was a violent resistance to unionization
Bear Flag Revolt 1846 group of American immigrants who revolted againt Mexican President Antoino De Santa Anna. When war became likely between the US and Mexico, John C Fremont (who was there officially finding the Pacific Ocean) began getting anglo American settlers riled up to revolt. As a result, 33 settlers in Sonoma county raised a flag w/ a bear and star to symbolize republic of California. Lasted 26 Days before the flag was replaced by the US Flag.
Bracero Program was a series of laws and diplomatic agreements, initiated by an August 1942 exchange of diplomatic notes between the United States and Mexico, for the importation of temporary contract laborers from Mexico to the United States. After the expiration of the initial agreement in 1947, the program was continued in agriculture under a variety of laws and administrative agreements until its formal end in 1964.
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California Land Act After the Mexican American War, Mexican American land owners in United States territory began to lose their land at a disheartening pace. Either through fraud or force, Mexicans living in United States regions were often stripped of their rights to their land.Looking for a hero, Mexicans Americans believed they found one in William McKendree Gwin, who sympathized with their land claims. In 1851, the United States Senate passed Gwin’s Act to Ascertain the Land Claims in California. The Act mandated that three members appointed by the President rule on land claims. The proceedings were formal, and either side could appeal to the U.S. District Court and to the U.S. Supreme Court. While intended to secure fair treatment of Mexicans’ land claims, the bill actually worked in the reverse. Since either side could appeal a court decision, the process of protecting one’s land became very expensive. In essence, only the wealthy ranchers could afford the lengthy legal process. Many of the people with legitimate claims to land went bankrupt under the tremendous legal costs. Often, the land fell into the hands of the claimants’ lawyers who acquired the land as payment for their fees. Mexicans’ hopes of equality under the California Land Claims Act were squashed. Moreover, landowners became the victims of American squatters who would take their lands piece by piece through violent means.
CAWIU (Cannery and Agricultural Worker’s Industrial Union) pg 439, 441 from textbook – Led strikes in 1933-1934 that accounted for more than half the farm strikes in the nation and 3/4ths of the strikes were able to secure wage increases for farm workers. They led nearly 15,000 workers in the 1933 San Joaquin Valley cotton strike which was the largest in the history of agriculture. The CAWIU were able to change the entire outlook and environment of the farm workers. With the strikes, they set the precedent that workers were in fact an integral part of the farming business and had reason to be treated and rewarded properly.
Jerome C Davis ( in class notes and Wikipedia had the same things from class) – An entrepreneur, Davis set out to California in 1849 to try to profit from the gold rush. After trying mining for a minimal time, he decided to look for other ways of benefitting from the gold rush. He established Yolo county’s 1st dairy farm and profited greatly from it. After many years his farm failed due to severe flooding and was forced to mortgage his land. This land became what was known as Davisville in 1868. Later on 778 Acres of the land became known as University Farm which is now known as UC Davis.
Delano Grape Strike (pg 539 -541) – In 1964 Congress refused to renew the bracer law that kept local farm laborers depressed since 1951. 10 Months later the grape fields near Delano went on strike. The reason for its significance is that the strike united the AWOC (Agricultural Workers Organizing Comitte) and the NFWA (National Farm Workers Association) to become the UFWA (United Farm Workers of America). AWOC was mainly Filipino and NFWA was principally Mexican American. The unity made the strikes victory possible. In 1966 the farming industries were willing to negotiate a contract with the laborer. This set a precedent and the agricultural effort started spreading all around California which led to further strikes and victories.
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Executive Order 9066 On December 7th, 1941, The Japanese bombed Pearl harbor. This created a lot of hatred towards the Japanese in California. Anti-asian forces were created and they demanded removal of the Japanese in California. In February 1942 President Roosevelt signed the executive order which authorizes the army to remove any alien regardless of citizenship. It was believed that if we didn’t know which ones were loyal, it was safest to remove them all. This led to the Japanese being forced into internment camps sectioned away from their homes and from the public.
Foreign Miners Tax Imposed in 1850, it was drafted by Senator Thomas Jefferson Green of Sacramento. It was a 20 dollar monthly fee on non-citizen miners. Its main purpose was to drive the Hispanics away from the mines and it succeeded in doing so. Another purpose for the tax was to produce revenue for the state but it failed because the Hispanics chose to leave rather than pay. It failed to meet the anticipated $2.4 million. After further review in late 1850, it was reduced but this did not help its caused. The Hispanics were not lured back.
Theodore Judah was an American railroad engineer who dreamed of the first Transcontinental Railroad. He found investors for what became the Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR). As chief engineer, he performed much of the land survey work to determine the best possible route for the railroad over the Sierra Nevada mountains
Kaiser Shipyards Four of the Kaiser Shipyards were located in Richmond, California in the San Francisco Bay Area (see Richmond Shipyards). Together, these four Kaiser Shipyards produced 747 ships (including many of the famous Liberty ships and Victory ships), more than any other complex in the United States. Only one of these ships, the Red Oak Victory, survives. Kaiser also produced the Casablanca-class escort carriers.
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Dorothea Lange was an influential American documentary photographer and photojournalist, best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA). Lange's photographs humanized the tragic consequences of the Great Depression and profoundly influenced the development of documentary photography.
Lincoln Roosevelt Club was founded in 1907 by California journalists Chester H. Rowell of the Fresno Morning Republican and Edward Dickson of the Los Angeles Express. Initially, it was a coalition of progressive Republican activists. Although it never had more than 100 members, the league was instrumental in the election of Hiram Johnson as governor of California in 1910 and the formation of the national Progressive Party in 1912. Significance: Shows the rise of California's political power and forward thinking in Politics.
William Mulholland was the head of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, Los Angeles in Southern California, United States. He was responsible for building the water aqueducts that allowed the city to grow into one of the largest in the world. If you saw the movie, Mulholland's Dream in class, you should be fine on this one. Significance: allowed for the continued growth and domination of Southern California by Los Angeles.
Port of Chicago Explosion was a deadly munitions explosion that occurred on July 17, 1944, at the Port Chicago Naval Magazine in Port Chicago, California, United States. Munitions detonated while being loaded onto a cargo vessel bound for the Pacific Theater of Operations, killing 320 sailors and civilians and injuring 390 others. Most of the dead and injured were enlisted African-American sailors. A month later, continuing unsafe conditions inspired hundreds of servicemen to refuse to load munitions, an act known as the Port Chicago Mutiny. Fifty men, called the Port Chicago 50, were convicted of mutiny and sentenced to long prison terms. Forty-seven of the 50 were released in January 1946; the remaining three served additional months in prison. Significance: exposed racial inequality in the military and in California as a whole
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Prop 13 The proposition's passage resulted in a cap on property tax rates in the state, reducing them by an average of 57%. In addition to lowering property taxes, the initiative also contained language requiring a two-thirds majority in both legislative houses for future increases in all state tax rates or amounts of revenue collected, including income tax rates. It also requires two-thirds vote majority in local elections for local governments wishing to raise special taxes. Proposition 13 received an enormous amount of publicity, not only in California, but throughout the United States. Significance: lowered taxes but destroyed California's ability to raise revenue, as local governement could not get the nessicary funds, everything became entirely State dependant, and a Sales tax replaced it.
Rumford Fair Housing Act was a law passed in 1963 by the state of California to help end racial discrimination by property owners and landlords who refused to rent or sell their property to "colored" customers. It was drafted by William Byron Rumford, the first African American from Northern California to serve in the legislature. The Act provided that landlords could not deny people housing because of ethnicity, religion, sex, marital status, physical handicap, or familial status. Significance: showed California's efforts to prevent racial discrimination through legal and progressive nature.
San Francisco General Strike 1934 In the context of the Great Depression, unemployment statistics and working conditions on the waterfront where “blue-book” union, ran by employers, operated in its own closed shop were especially problematic. National Industrial Recovery Act passed, including Section 7a guaranteeing workers the right to organize and bargain collectively. International Longshoremen’s Association (ILA) grew all along the west coast, from Seattle to San Diego; challenged the “blue-book” union of the Matson Company on the docks of S.F. Joined with other maritime workers to demand shorter hours, higher pay, an end to shape-up, a union-controlled hiring hall, and bargaining power. May 9, 1934: 3500 maritime workers stopped working, paralyzing Pacific shipping. Strikers established Joint Maritime Strike Committee and elected Harry Bridges, an Australian immigrant who became a famous and effective labor leader, chairman. July 3rd: employers sent trucks and police escorts that engaged in a 2-day battle with strikers, culminating on “Bloody Thursday” (July 5; 2 longshoremen dead). Bloody Thursday gained sympathy for the maritime workers and S.F. unions began voting for a General Strike to protest the violence. July 16th: 10,000s workers left their jobs and the city was silent. The strike lasted 4 days before employers agreed to settle the longshoremen’s dispute and recognize the legitimacy of and bargain with maritime unions. Ended July 31st, winning recognition of the ILA, bargaining power, jointly operated hiring halls, a 6 hour work day, and significant wage increases. Success of the general strike encouraged Bridges to organize other groups who successfully staged another strike in 1936-37.
Secularization of Missions Began in the 1830s. Californios originally valued the mission of the Missions, but grew envious of the massive landholdings they controlled. The Mexican Congress demanded the mission be secularized in August of 1833, as they no longer seemed compatible with the new Mexican era of rule in CA. Mexican Gov. encouraged private ownership of property, wanted to strengthen northern settlements above S.F., and wanted settlers to remain loyal to Mexico. Figueroa put in charge of the process, intended to re-divide and grant the land to Indiansà missions were supposed to be simply holding the land for the Indians anyway. Land grab ensued once missions closed; some neophytes granted land and livestock, but not nearly enough. Majority of the land was given to those without Spanish surnames, who also inherited the livestock that roamed the granted land. Settlers got around limits on the size of individual grants by simply applying for numerous grants. Led to a foreign presence that would prove disastrous for the Mexican Government and the Californios in general once Americans set their sights on adding California to the Union.
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Silicon Valley Originally the “Valley of Hearts Delight”; intensive agricultural area due to Santa Cruz Mtns. to the West and Diablo Mtns. to the East (apricots, cherries, peaches, prunes). Defense companies broke out of Southern California and established labs and factories here after WWII. Lockheed itself employed 20,000 and received a majority of the defense contracts stemming out of the Cold War with the Soviet Union. (lecture) 1920s: Stanford Professor Terman encouraged formation of local electronics enterprises to rival Harvard and MIT in the East. Slow progress until after WWII (Hewlett and Packard) 1956: William Shockley described the principle of the transistorà replaced tubes and circuits to make electronics smaller; followed by Kilby and Noyce’s discovery of the silicon microchip in 1959 (made transistors obsolete). Over 800 businesses either started in or moved to Silicon Valleyà city cleared farm land, provided subsidies, and offered tax breaks in order to lure them in. Population grew from less than 300,000 in the 50s to 1.3 million in the 80s. Land values soared so farmers simply sold their land and doubled their holdings somewhere else. New industry demanded more educated/specialized workforce; population growth strained the education system, and returning veterans attended higher institutions at a never-before-seen rate. Tribelet
Watts Riots Wednesday, August 11, 1965: arrest of Marquette Frye set off the events. Temperature dropped that night, conducive to more people milling about on the street. The event became a conflict between white officers and blacks. 600 buildings destroyed, 34 dead in 6 days of civil disorder. Watts had become a ghetto after the black population tripled in response to employment availability in defense industries of WWII. Unlike other areas, Watts did not have restrictive covenants that impaired the moving in of blacks. (however it trapped them in the city). Reports of the 40s cited inadequate recreational facilities, dilapidated housing, high disease and death rates. Report in 60s saw same issues compounded by congestion and a lack of jobs since the war was over. Industries that remained followed the whites and notable blacks out of the city, leaving the pooer, less educated blacks of the ghetto to defend themselves against what they saw as corrupt police. Globalization, Deindustrialization, and Demilitarization all felt extra hard by the inner city. Underemploymentàrise of povertyàdecline in public services.
Womans Suffrage In California CA women had campaigned for suffrage since they organized the first suffrage society in 1869. The first attempt was unsuccessful, as well as further attempts to ratify a suffrage amendment in 1872, 1878, 1891, and 1896. The movement was revived during the Progressive Era with the founding of the Los Angeles woman Suffrage League in 1901. The League convinced men that the vote was a woman citizen’s right and convinced women that the vote would rectify some of the inequalities women were subjected to. Legislature passed the amendment in 1911 and the state approved it by popular support that same year (passed by only 4000 votes)
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 Alien Land Law 1913Prohibited all aliens ineligible for citizenship (ie. Asian Immigrants) from owning land or property. Law was eventually invalidated in 1952 as a violation of the equal protection clause.
 Associated Farmersorganization developed by the growers and farm communities in reaction to striked of 1933-1934. Represented growers and processers but actually represented business interests. Financed by contributions from San Francisco Industrial Association, PG&E,others. Played dominant role in suppressing farm labor organizing activities. Private vigilante of men that protected strike breakers, disrupted mass meetings, and attacked pickets. Sucessfully pushed for anti picketing ordinances in agricultural areas and in general was a violent resistance to unionization
 Bear Flag Revolt1846 group of American immigrants who revolted againt Mexican President Antoino De Santa Anna. When war became likely between the US and Mexico, John C Fremont (who was there officially finding the Pacific Ocean) began getting anglo American settlers riled up to revolt. As a result, 33 settlers in Sonoma county raised a flag w/ a bear and star to symbolize republic of California. Lasted 26 Days before the flag was replaced by the US Flag.
 Bracero Programwas a series of laws and diplomatic agreements, initiated by an August 1942 exchange of diplomatic notes between the United States and Mexico, for the importation of temporary contract laborers from Mexico to the United States. After the expiration of the initial agreement in 1947, the program was continued in agriculture under a variety of laws and administrative agreements until its formal end in 1964.
 California Land ActAfter the Mexican American War, Mexican American land owners in United States territory began to lose their land at a disheartening pace. Either through fraud or force, Mexicans living in United States regions were often stripped of their rights to their land.Looking for a hero, Mexicans Americans believed they found one in William McKendree Gwin, who sympathized with their land claims. In 1851, the United States Senate passed Gwin’s Act to Ascertain the Land Claims in California. The Act mandated that three members appointed by the President rule on land claims. The proceedings were formal, and either side could appeal to the U.S. District Court and to the U.S. Supreme Court. While intended to secure fair treatment of Mexicans’ land claims, the bill actually worked in the reverse. Since either side could appeal a court decision, the process of protecting one’s land became very expensive. In essence, only the wealthy ranchers could afford the lengthy legal process. Many of the people with legitimate claims to land went bankrupt under the tremendous legal costs. Often, the land fell into the hands of the claimants’ lawyers who acquired the land as payment for their fees. Mexicans’ hopes of equality under the California Land Claims Act were squashed. Moreover, landowners became the victims of American squatters who would take their lands piece by piece through violent means.
 CAWIU (Cannery and Agricultural Worker’s Industrial Union) pg 439, 441 from textbook – Led strikes in 1933-1934 that accounted for more than half the farm strikes in the nation and 3/4ths of the strikes were able to secure wage increases for farm workers. They led nearly 15,000 workers in the 1933 San Joaquin Valley cotton strike which was the largest in the history of agriculture. The CAWIU were able to change the entire outlook and environment of the farm workers. With the strikes, they set the precedent that workers were in fact an integral part of the farming business and had reason to be treated and rewarded properly.
 Jerome C Davis( in class notes and Wikipedia had the same things from class) – An entrepreneur, Davis set out to California in 1849 to try to profit from the gold rush. After trying mining for a minimal time, he decided to look for other ways of benefitting from the gold rush. He established Yolo county’s 1st dairy farm and profited greatly from it. After many years his farm failed due to severe flooding and was forced to mortgage his land. This land became what was known as Davisville in 1868. Later on 778 Acres of the land became known as University Farm which is now known as UC Davis.
 Delano Grape Strike(pg 539 -541) – In 1964 Congress refused to renew the bracer law that kept local farm laborers depressed since 1951. 10 Months later the grape fields near Delano went on strike. The reason for its significance is that the strike united the AWOC (Agricultural Workers Organizing Comitte) and the NFWA (National Farm Workers Association) to become the UFWA (United Farm Workers of America). AWOC was mainly Filipino and NFWA was principally Mexican American. The unity made the strikes victory possible. In 1966 the farming industries were willing to negotiate a contract with the laborer. This set a precedent and the agricultural effort started spreading all around California which led to further strikes and victories.
 Executive Order 9066 On December 7th, 1941, The Japanese bombed Pearl harbor. This created a lot of hatred towards the Japanese in California. Anti-asian forces were created and they demanded removal of the Japanese in California. In February 1942 President Roosevelt signed the executive order which authorizes the army to remove any alien regardless of citizenship. It was believed that if we didn’t know which ones were loyal, it was safest to remove them all. This led to the Japanese being forced into internment camps sectioned away from their homes and from the public.
 Foreign Miners TaxImposed in 1850, it was drafted by Senator Thomas Jefferson Green of Sacramento. It was a 20 dollar monthly fee on non-citizen miners. Its main purpose was to drive the Hispanics away from the mines and it succeeded in doing so. Another purpose for the tax was to produce revenue for the state but it failed because the Hispanics chose to leave rather than pay. It failed to meet the anticipated $2.4 million. After further review in late 1850, it was reduced but this did not help its caused. The Hispanics were not lured back.
 Theodore Judah was an American railroad engineer who dreamed of the first Transcontinental Railroad. He found investors for what became the Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR). As chief engineer, he performed much of the land survey work to determine the best possible route for the railroad over the Sierra Nevada mountains
 Kaiser Shipyards Four of the Kaiser Shipyards were located in Richmond, California in the San Francisco Bay Area (see Richmond Shipyards). Together, these four Kaiser Shipyards produced 747 ships (including many of the famous Liberty ships and Victory ships), more than any other complex in the United States. Only one of these ships, the Red Oak Victory, survives. Kaiser also produced the Casablanca-class escort carriers.
 Dorothea Langewas an influential American documentary photographer and photojournalist, best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA). Lange's photographs humanized the tragic consequences of the Great Depression and profoundly influenced the development of documentary photography.
 Lincoln Roosevelt Clubwas founded in 1907 by California journalists Chester H. Rowell of the Fresno Morning Republican and Edward Dickson of the Los Angeles Express. Initially, it was a coalition of progressive Republican activists. Although it never had more than 100 members, the league was instrumental in the election of Hiram Johnson as governor of California in 1910 and the formation of the national Progressive Party in 1912. Significance: Shows the rise of California's political power and forward thinking in Politics.
 William Mulhollandwas the head of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, Los Angeles in Southern California, United States. He was responsible for building the water aqueducts that allowed the city to grow into one of the largest in the world. If you saw the movie, Mulholland's Dream in class, you should be fine on this one. Significance: allowed for the continued growth and domination of Southern California by Los Angeles.
 Port of Chicago Explosionwas a deadly munitions explosion that occurred on July 17, 1944, at the Port Chicago Naval Magazine in Port Chicago, California, United States. Munitions detonated while being loaded onto a cargo vessel bound for the Pacific Theater of Operations, killing 320 sailors and civilians and injuring 390 others. Most of the dead and injured were enlisted African-American sailors. A month later, continuing unsafe conditions inspired hundreds of servicemen to refuse to load munitions, an act known as the Port Chicago Mutiny. Fifty men, called the Port Chicago 50, were convicted of mutiny and sentenced to long prison terms. Forty-seven of the 50 were released in January 1946; the remaining three served additional months in prison. Significance: exposed racial inequality in the military and in California as a whole
 Prop 13The proposition's passage resulted in a cap on property tax rates in the state, reducing them by an average of 57%. In addition to lowering property taxes, the initiative also contained language requiring a two-thirds majority in both legislative houses for future increases in all state tax rates or amounts of revenue collected, including income tax rates. It also requires two-thirds vote majority in local elections for local governments wishing to raise special taxes. Proposition 13 received an enormous amount of publicity, not only in California, but throughout the United States. Significance: lowered taxes but destroyed California's ability to raise revenue, as local governement could not get the nessicary funds, everything became entirely State dependant, and a Sales tax replaced it.
 Rumford Fair Housing Act was a law passed in 1963 by the state of California to help end racial discrimination by property owners and landlords who refused to rent or sell their property to "colored" customers. It was drafted by William Byron Rumford, the first African American from Northern California to serve in the legislature. The Act provided that landlords could not deny people housing because of ethnicity, religion, sex, marital status, physical handicap, or familial status. Significance: showed California's efforts to prevent racial discrimination through legal and progressive nature.
 San Francisco General Strike 1934In the context of the Great Depression, unemployment statistics and working conditions on the waterfront where “blue-book” union, ran by employers, operated in its own closed shop were especially problematic. National Industrial Recovery Act passed, including Section 7a guaranteeing workers the right to organize and bargain collectively. International Longshoremen’s Association (ILA) grew all along the west coast, from Seattle to San Diego; challenged the “blue-book” union of the Matson Company on the docks of S.F. Joined with other maritime workers to demand shorter hours, higher pay, an end to shape-up, a union-controlled hiring hall, and bargaining power. May 9, 1934: 3500 maritime workers stopped working, paralyzing Pacific shipping. Strikers established Joint Maritime Strike Committee and elected Harry Bridges, an Australian immigrant who became a famous and effective labor leader, chairman. July 3rd: employers sent trucks and police escorts that engaged in a 2-day battle with strikers, culminating on “Bloody Thursday” (July 5; 2 longshoremen dead). Bloody Thursday gained sympathy for the maritime workers and S.F. unions began voting for a General Strike to protest the violence. July 16th: 10,000s workers left their jobs and the city was silent. The strike lasted 4 days before employers agreed to settle the longshoremen’s dispute and recognize the legitimacy of and bargain with maritime unions. Ended July 31st, winning recognition of the ILA, bargaining power, jointly operated hiring halls, a 6 hour work day, and significant wage increases. Success of the general strike encouraged Bridges to organize other groups who successfully staged another strike in 1936-37.
 Secularization of MissionsBegan in the 1830s. Californios originally valued the mission of the Missions, but grew envious of the massive landholdings they controlled. The Mexican Congress demanded the mission be secularized in August of 1833, as they no longer seemed compatible with the new Mexican era of rule in CA. Mexican Gov. encouraged private ownership of property, wanted to strengthen northern settlements above S.F., and wanted settlers to remain loyal to Mexico. Figueroa put in charge of the process, intended to re-divide and grant the land to Indiansà missions were supposed to be simply holding the land for the Indians anyway. Land grab ensued once missions closed; some neophytes granted land and livestock, but not nearly enough. Majority of the land was given to those without Spanish surnames, who also inherited the livestock that roamed the granted land. Settlers got around limits on the size of individual grants by simply applying for numerous grants. Led to a foreign presence that would prove disastrous for the Mexican Government and the Californios in general once Americans set their sights on adding California to the Union.
 Silicon ValleyOriginally the “Valley of Hearts Delight”; intensive agricultural area due to Santa Cruz Mtns. to the West and Diablo Mtns. to the East (apricots, cherries, peaches, prunes). Defense companies broke out of Southern California and established labs and factories here after WWII. Lockheed itself employed 20,000 and received a majority of the defense contracts stemming out of the Cold War with the Soviet Union. (lecture) 1920s: Stanford Professor Terman encouraged formation of local electronics enterprises to rival Harvard and MIT in the East. Slow progress until after WWII (Hewlett and Packard)

1956: William Shockley described the principle of the transistorà replaced tubes and circuits to make electronics smaller; followed by Kilby and Noyce’s discovery of the silicon microchip in 1959 (made transistors obsolete). Over 800 businesses either started in or moved to Silicon Valleyà city cleared farm land, provided subsidies, and offered tax breaks in order to lure them in. Population grew from less than 300,000 in the 50s to 1.3 million in the 80s. Land values soared so farmers simply sold their land and doubled their holdings somewhere else. New industry demanded more educated/specialized workforce; population growth strained the education system, and returning veterans attended higher institutions at a never-before-seen rate.
Tribelet
 Watts RiotsWednesday, August 11, 1965: arrest of Marquette Frye set off the events. Temperature dropped that night, conducive to more people milling about on the street. The event became a conflict between white officers and blacks. 600 buildings destroyed, 34 dead in 6 days of civil disorder.

Watts had become a ghetto after the black population tripled in response to employment availability in defense industries of WWII. Unlike other areas, Watts did not have restrictive covenants that impaired the moving in of blacks. (however it trapped them in the city). Reports of the 40s cited inadequate recreational facilities, dilapidated housing, high disease and death rates. Report in 60s saw same issues compounded by congestion and a lack of jobs since the war was over. Industries that remained followed the whites and notable blacks out of the city, leaving the pooer, less educated blacks of the ghetto to defend themselves against what they saw as corrupt police. Globalization, Deindustrialization, and Demilitarization all felt extra hard by the inner city. Underemploymentàrise of povertyàdecline in public services.
 Womans Suffrage In CaliforniaCA women had campaigned for suffrage since they organized the first suffrage society in 1869. The first attempt was unsuccessful, as well as further attempts to ratify a suffrage amendment in 1872, 1878, 1891, and 1896. The movement was revived during the Progressive Era with the founding of the Los Angeles woman Suffrage League in 1901. The League convinced men that the vote was a woman citizen’s right and convinced women that the vote would rectify some of the inequalities women were subjected to. Legislature passed the amendment in 1911 and the state approved it by popular support that same year (passed by only 4000 votes)
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