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Class:HIS 108 - HIST OF U.S. THRU 1865
Subject:History
University:University of Kentucky
Term:Fall 2010
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Stephen A. Douglas Illinois Senator who favored the Omnibus compromise. Pro-American Expansion, strong and devoted Democrat. In 1854 introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which would put in a railroad in the west to increase trade.
Gettysburg 1863. In Penn, 3-day battle that was the bloodiest war ever. Led by General Lee, Union Lines held Lee and forced him to retreat to Virginia. Pickett's Charge
"Contrabands" Something/Someone used for carrying on war, didnt have to be returned (fugitive slaves)
John C. Calhoun The seventh Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. Said no to Cali becoming a free state.
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Colonization Movement The Back-to-Africa movement, also known as the Colonization movement, originated in the United States in the 19th century, and encouraged those of African descent to return to the African homelands of their ancestors.
Mosquito Fleet Created under jefferson. ships only had one gun, they were suppose to defend American Borders by seas but couldnt handle the high seas.
Nullification States could determine weather federal laws were consitutional or not. States could declare laws null and void and didnt have to follow them.
Daniel Webster Webster-Ashburton Treaty. Didn't care who owned Oregon Territory. Wanted Union to stay together and thought it should be permanant. Opposed nullifacation. Cartoon of Daniel consisted of: no higher law then consititution, "skulls" signifying fugitive slave law, consititution is whipping slaves.
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Fugitive Slave Laws The fugitive slave laws were laws passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another state or territory.
Cyrus McCormick Created the reaper, which had cutting bars and was drawn by a horse. This could cut more wheat and therefore make more money.
Exploding Drunks People were told if they drank to much you would explode.
Minie Ball Created by Claude Minie, a cone shapped bullet that spun out the rifle and went straight and true.
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Erie Canal Spanned from Albany to Buffalo. Built in 1817, finished in 1825. made trade alot easier for everyone.
Blandensburg Races 1814. British troops were marching to D.C. and the Americans planned on sneaking up on them. Britian fired concrete rockets at the US and they ran away so fast it was called the races.
"Safety Valve Theory" Being able to spread out west was a main reason why the country didnt have countless revolutions.
Lyman Beecher Brilliant, fierce reverend speaker. 1834 he gave three sermons against catholicism. A crowd of listeners went down to Charelston and burnt down a Catholic School.
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Tecumseh Wanted to unite Indian Nations but never got a chance. His village got attacked by William Harrison in 1811. Fought on the British side in war and got killed.
Horace Greeley Wanted to Abolish Slavery. Wrote "Prayer of 20 Million". Editor of NY tribune. Hired Karl Marx to be over Foreign reporting. Whig. Wanted free farms in the west, national income tax, free public schools, name the country columbia, and Navy to stop flogging and serving alcohol.
Market Economy A market economy is an economy based on the power of division of labor in which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system set by supply and demand.
Robert E. Lee Commanded the Army of Northern Virginia. 1863 invaded Penn at Gettysburg, the Union lines held here and forced Lee to retreat. Got pinned down in Petersburg without being able to escape or he would loss Richmond. Surrendered to Grant at Appomattox.
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Louisiana Purchase Belonged to Spain 1803. Then gave it to france, which was then bought by America for 15 million. Bought using implied powers.
Zachary Taylor Virginia Slaveholder in Kentucky. "Old rough and ready". Courageous and led American Army war against Mexico. Battle of Buena Vista, 1847, was won by America. President in 1848, whig. Dies after a speech on July 4, 1850.
Bleeding Kansas 1854. Kansas had election for its Legislature, and people from Missouri came to Kansas and used force and fear to make people vote pro-slavery. Caused by the Kansas Nebraska act and Stephen Douglas
Benevolent Empire The Benevolent Empire was created in the 19th century to help the citizens of the United States achieve repent and as a whole nation follow the path of Christianity.
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Battle of New Orleans The Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812. American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory America had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase.
James Buchanan 1856, He was an ambassador to England, until he was nominated by the democrats for president. Said to have a "doughface". Saved the union for 4 more years. Involved in Bleeding Kansas. Promised people of Kansas that they could vote on a state constitution, before joining union (never happened)
XYZ affair France was furious over the Jay treaty and started seizing American ships on their way to Britain. American men went to talk to the French, but they demanded a large sum of money to get to talk to the Minister.
Winfield Scott "Old fuss and Feathers". American General who knew mexico's ability to make war should be taken. Nominated by Whig's in 1852 for president and lost. Anaconda Plan.
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Emancipation Proclamation Presented by Abe Lincoln on Dec 31 1863, which stated all slaves would be set free in Confederate States.
54-40 or Fight! James Knox Polk's campaign slogan of 1844 inwhich he said he would deal with Texas and Oregon by taking them for America or fight England/Canada.
American System Developed by Henry Clay: roads were being built, National bank, one currency, tax on goods imported.
Federalists Wanted a strong national gov, national bank, ally with Britian, didnt want to ally with France, and John Adams was a major follower.
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Andrew Jackson Convinced whites that Indians would die if they came incontact with whites. Therefore, they put them on reservations. 1831 Jackson blew pirate cities off the map. 1828 became pres
Whigs Political Party
Dred Scott Case 1857. Slave in Illinois whose master took him to Minnesota and then to Missouri. After master died Scott said he should be free because of going to Minnesota. Court ruling was: No court because he was black, he was still a slave, and Douglas' Popular Sovernigty was invaild.
Dorothea Dix School teacher in low-security prison. Throughout her work she noticed that most incarcerated criminals were insane. Took these findings to legislature in 1843.
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Monroe Doctorine The Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823. It stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S.
3/5 Compromise The Three-Fifths compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
Whiskey Rebellion 1794. John Neville implied a tax on Whiskey. Laboreres were armed with muskets and forced Neville to retreat. Washington marched 13000 men into Penn and ended the Rebellion
Bill of Rights A bill of rights is a list of the most important rights of the citizens of a country.
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Bank of the US Created by Alexander Hamilton.
Harrison Land Act 1800. Named after William Henry Harrison, opened up public land to be bought at a generous price. Year and a half after it passed more land was settled then in the past 18 years.
Know Nothings Began organizing in 1853. Name came from them answering questions with "I Know nothing." Denounced illegal voting voting by immigrants, the rising crime and disorder in urban areas, and immigrants heavy drinking. Anti-Catholic group. Collapsed in 1856 because they adopted a pro-slavery platform.
Interchangeable Parts Created by Eli whitney, which were parts taht could be interchanged.
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Ulysses S Grant Tennessee Commander. 1868 elected President. Biggest flaw was trusting to many people.
Anaconda Plan Created by Winfield Scott. Strangle the Confederacy by cutting it in half by taking over the Mississippi River. They wanted to drive into the Heartland. Take the south's ports one by one (New orleans, mobile, Norfolk, Charelston)
Eli Whitney Creator of the cotton gin and interchangable parts.
Doughface Politician who is said to have the pliability of dough. Easy to mold. James Buchannan.
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William Lloyd Garrison Editor of "The Liberator", said slavery was evil and must be abolished.
Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise was an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories.
Compromise of 1850 The Compromise of 1850 was an intricate package of five bills, passed in September 1850, defusing a four-year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North that arose following the Mexican-American War (1846-1848).
Embargo Prohibition of commerce and trade with a particular country
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James Madison President for 8 years, complete opposite of Jefferson. Tried to get people to respect him but never could.
Impressment Impressment, colloquially, "the Press", was the act of compelling men into a navy by force and without notice.
Trail of Tears The Trail of Tears was the forced relocation and movement of Native Americans, including many members of the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, and Choctaw nations among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the Western United States.
Wilmot Proviso 1846 bill created by David Willmott. Said none of the land conqured during the Mexico war should be slave holding. didnt pass in either house.
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Slave Power After Kansas Nebraska act, 1854, this was a conspiracy that the south were going to try and enforce slavery in every state.
Bull Run Gave birth to the "Virgina Mentatility".
Alexander Hamilton Believed America needed an army, strong economic system, and a National Government. Believed in Assumption, National gov would create taxes in order to take care of state debts. Idea to create BUS in 1791.
John Marshall Head of Supreme court. Decided on National power as well as implied and expressed power.
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Jay Treaty 1795. America Promised they wouldnt sell goods, like cotton, abroad that would compete with British Goods.
"Free Soil" Third political party from 1848-1852. Not an abolitionist party but did agree new territories should be free.
Wendell Phillips Wendell Phillips (29 November 1811 - 2 February 1884) was an American abolitionist, advocate for Native Americans, and orator.
Limited Liability Limited liability is a concept whereby a person's financial liability is limited to a fixed sum, most commonly the value of a person's investment in a company or partnership with limited liability.
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William Tecumseh Sherman Grant's friend, who was a great general. Took Atlanta in 1864 by shutting off supply lines going to the city.
Charles Sumner Thinks he is always right. Gave a two day speech called "The Crime Against Kansas" and was beaten across the head with a cane by Preston Brooks. Anti-slavery supporter, who called Lincoln out for being the biggest slave owner in the nation because he wouldn't abolish slavery.
Samuel Gridley Howe Gentile whig man, who dropped out of Harvard to go fight in the Greek Revolution. Raised money for Greek Refugees. Founded first American school for the Blind in his house.
Sam Houston Governor of Tenn. Commander of the Texas forces. Wore colorful clothing to grasp attention. Took Santa Anna by force and killed alot of Mexicans in the attack. Got the commander to sign a treaty with gave Texas independence and removal of troops.
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13th Amendment 1861, propsed slavery in the state would not be touched again.
Paternalist Myth Masters believed they were like father to their slaves, They would help the slaves when they were sick.
Spoils System In politics, when a party gets voted into office, they reward its voters by giving them offices.
Henry Clay Came up with the American System. Whig. Wanted Adams to win and tried to influence the rest of the house to vote for him. Secretary of State when Adams came into office.
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Horace Mann Free Public Schools were needed to train kids in morals. Member of HoR for Mass.
Lowell Boston associates invested money to build factories there, and clothing was made in textile mills by women
Cane Ridge 1800-1801. In Kentucky, camp meetings were happening and Ministers were preaching the gospel. Part of Second Great Awakening
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 Stephen A. DouglasIllinois Senator who favored the Omnibus compromise. Pro-American Expansion, strong and devoted Democrat. In 1854 introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which would put in a railroad in the west to increase trade.
 Gettysburg1863. In Penn, 3-day battle that was the bloodiest war ever. Led by General Lee, Union Lines held Lee and forced him to retreat to Virginia. Pickett's Charge
 "Contrabands"Something/Someone used for carrying on war, didnt have to be returned (fugitive slaves)
 John C. CalhounThe seventh Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. Said no to Cali becoming a free state.
 Colonization MovementThe Back-to-Africa movement, also known as the Colonization movement, originated in the United States in the 19th century, and encouraged those of African descent to return to the African homelands of their ancestors.
 Mosquito FleetCreated under jefferson. ships only had one gun, they were suppose to defend American Borders by seas but couldnt handle the high seas.
 NullificationStates could determine weather federal laws were consitutional or not. States could declare laws null and void and didnt have to follow them.
 Daniel WebsterWebster-Ashburton Treaty. Didn't care who owned Oregon Territory. Wanted Union to stay together and thought it should be permanant. Opposed nullifacation. Cartoon of Daniel consisted of: no higher law then consititution, "skulls" signifying fugitive slave law, consititution is whipping slaves.
 Fugitive Slave LawsThe fugitive slave laws were laws passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another state or territory.
 Cyrus McCormickCreated the reaper, which had cutting bars and was drawn by a horse. This could cut more wheat and therefore make more money.
 Exploding DrunksPeople were told if they drank to much you would explode.
 Minie BallCreated by Claude Minie, a cone shapped bullet that spun out the rifle and went straight and true.
 Erie CanalSpanned from Albany to Buffalo. Built in 1817, finished in 1825. made trade alot easier for everyone.
 Blandensburg Races1814. British troops were marching to D.C. and the Americans planned on sneaking up on them. Britian fired concrete rockets at the US and they ran away so fast it was called the races.
 "Safety Valve Theory"Being able to spread out west was a main reason why the country didnt have countless revolutions.
 Lyman BeecherBrilliant, fierce reverend speaker. 1834 he gave three sermons against catholicism. A crowd of listeners went down to Charelston and burnt down a Catholic School.
 TecumsehWanted to unite Indian Nations but never got a chance. His village got attacked by William Harrison in 1811. Fought on the British side in war and got killed.
 Horace GreeleyWanted to Abolish Slavery. Wrote "Prayer of 20 Million". Editor of NY tribune. Hired Karl Marx to be over Foreign reporting. Whig. Wanted free farms in the west, national income tax, free public schools, name the country columbia, and Navy to stop flogging and serving alcohol.
 Market EconomyA market economy is an economy based on the power of division of labor in which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system set by supply and demand.
 Robert E. LeeCommanded the Army of Northern Virginia. 1863 invaded Penn at Gettysburg, the Union lines held here and forced Lee to retreat. Got pinned down in Petersburg without being able to escape or he would loss Richmond. Surrendered to Grant at Appomattox.
 Louisiana PurchaseBelonged to Spain 1803. Then gave it to france, which was then bought by America for 15 million. Bought using implied powers.
 Zachary TaylorVirginia Slaveholder in Kentucky. "Old rough and ready". Courageous and led American Army war against Mexico. Battle of Buena Vista, 1847, was won by America. President in 1848, whig. Dies after a speech on July 4, 1850.
 Bleeding Kansas1854. Kansas had election for its Legislature, and people from Missouri came to Kansas and used force and fear to make people vote pro-slavery. Caused by the Kansas Nebraska act and Stephen Douglas
 Benevolent EmpireThe Benevolent Empire was created in the 19th century to help the citizens of the United States achieve repent and as a whole nation follow the path of Christianity.
 Battle of New OrleansThe Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812. American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory America had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase.
 James Buchanan1856, He was an ambassador to England, until he was nominated by the democrats for president. Said to have a "doughface". Saved the union for 4 more years. Involved in Bleeding Kansas. Promised people of Kansas that they could vote on a state constitution, before joining union (never happened)
 XYZ affairFrance was furious over the Jay treaty and started seizing American ships on their way to Britain. American men went to talk to the French, but they demanded a large sum of money to get to talk to the Minister.
 Winfield Scott"Old fuss and Feathers". American General who knew mexico's ability to make war should be taken. Nominated by Whig's in 1852 for president and lost. Anaconda Plan.
 Emancipation ProclamationPresented by Abe Lincoln on Dec 31 1863, which stated all slaves would be set free in Confederate States.
 54-40 or Fight!James Knox Polk's campaign slogan of 1844 inwhich he said he would deal with Texas and Oregon by taking them for America or fight England/Canada.
 American SystemDeveloped by Henry Clay: roads were being built, National bank, one currency, tax on goods imported.
 FederalistsWanted a strong national gov, national bank, ally with Britian, didnt want to ally with France, and John Adams was a major follower.
 Andrew JacksonConvinced whites that Indians would die if they came incontact with whites. Therefore, they put them on reservations. 1831 Jackson blew pirate cities off the map. 1828 became pres
 WhigsPolitical Party
 Dred Scott Case1857. Slave in Illinois whose master took him to Minnesota and then to Missouri. After master died Scott said he should be free because of going to Minnesota. Court ruling was: No court because he was black, he was still a slave, and Douglas' Popular Sovernigty was invaild.
 Dorothea DixSchool teacher in low-security prison. Throughout her work she noticed that most incarcerated criminals were insane. Took these findings to legislature in 1843.
 Monroe DoctorineThe Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823. It stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S.
 3/5 CompromiseThe Three-Fifths compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
 Whiskey Rebellion1794. John Neville implied a tax on Whiskey. Laboreres were armed with muskets and forced Neville to retreat. Washington marched 13000 men into Penn and ended the Rebellion
 Bill of RightsA bill of rights is a list of the most important rights of the citizens of a country.
 Bank of the USCreated by Alexander Hamilton.
 Harrison Land Act1800. Named after William Henry Harrison, opened up public land to be bought at a generous price. Year and a half after it passed more land was settled then in the past 18 years.
 Know NothingsBegan organizing in 1853. Name came from them answering questions with "I Know nothing." Denounced illegal voting voting by immigrants, the rising crime and disorder in urban areas, and immigrants heavy drinking. Anti-Catholic group. Collapsed in 1856 because they adopted a pro-slavery platform.
 Interchangeable PartsCreated by Eli whitney, which were parts taht could be interchanged.
 Ulysses S GrantTennessee Commander. 1868 elected President. Biggest flaw was trusting to many people.
 Anaconda PlanCreated by Winfield Scott. Strangle the Confederacy by cutting it in half by taking over the Mississippi River. They wanted to drive into the Heartland. Take the south's ports one by one (New orleans, mobile, Norfolk, Charelston)
 Eli WhitneyCreator of the cotton gin and interchangable parts.
 DoughfacePolitician who is said to have the pliability of dough. Easy to mold. James Buchannan.
 William Lloyd GarrisonEditor of "The Liberator", said slavery was evil and must be abolished.
 Missouri CompromiseThe Missouri Compromise was an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories.
 Compromise of 1850The Compromise of 1850 was an intricate package of five bills, passed in September 1850, defusing a four-year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North that arose following the Mexican-American War (1846-1848).
 EmbargoProhibition of commerce and trade with a particular country
 James MadisonPresident for 8 years, complete opposite of Jefferson. Tried to get people to respect him but never could.
 ImpressmentImpressment, colloquially, "the Press", was the act of compelling men into a navy by force and without notice.
 Trail of TearsThe Trail of Tears was the forced relocation and movement of Native Americans, including many members of the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, and Choctaw nations among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the Western United States.
 Wilmot Proviso1846 bill created by David Willmott. Said none of the land conqured during the Mexico war should be slave holding. didnt
pass in either house.
 Slave PowerAfter Kansas Nebraska act, 1854, this was a conspiracy that the south were going to try and enforce slavery in every state.
 Bull RunGave birth to the "Virgina Mentatility".
 Alexander HamiltonBelieved America needed an army, strong economic system, and a National Government. Believed in Assumption, National gov would create taxes in order to take care of state debts. Idea to create BUS in 1791.
 John MarshallHead of Supreme court. Decided on National power as well as implied and expressed power.
 Jay Treaty1795. America Promised they wouldnt sell goods, like cotton, abroad that would compete with British Goods.
 "Free Soil"Third political party from 1848-1852. Not an abolitionist party but did agree new territories should be free.
 Wendell PhillipsWendell Phillips (29 November 1811 - 2 February 1884) was an American abolitionist, advocate for Native Americans, and orator.
 Limited LiabilityLimited liability is a concept whereby a person's financial liability is limited to a fixed sum, most commonly the value of a person's investment in a company or partnership with limited liability.
 William Tecumseh ShermanGrant's friend, who was a great general. Took Atlanta in 1864 by shutting off supply lines going to the city.
 Charles SumnerThinks he is always right. Gave a two day speech called "The Crime Against Kansas" and was beaten across the head with a cane by Preston Brooks. Anti-slavery supporter, who called Lincoln out for being the biggest slave owner in the nation because he wouldn't abolish slavery.
 Samuel Gridley HoweGentile whig man, who dropped out of Harvard to go fight in the Greek Revolution. Raised money for Greek Refugees. Founded first American school for the Blind in his house.
 Sam HoustonGovernor of Tenn. Commander of the Texas forces. Wore colorful clothing to grasp attention. Took Santa Anna by force and killed alot of Mexicans in the attack. Got the commander to sign a treaty with gave Texas independence and removal of troops.
 13th Amendment1861, propsed slavery in the state would not be touched again.
 Paternalist MythMasters believed they were like father to their slaves, They would help the slaves when they were sick.
 Spoils SystemIn politics, when a party gets voted into office, they reward its voters by giving them offices.
 Henry ClayCame up with the American System. Whig. Wanted Adams to win and tried to influence the rest of the house to vote for him. Secretary of State when Adams came into office.
 Horace MannFree Public Schools were needed to train kids in morals. Member of HoR for Mass.
 LowellBoston associates invested money to build factories there, and clothing was made in textile mills by women
 Cane Ridge1800-1801. In Kentucky, camp meetings were happening and Ministers were preaching the gospel. Part of Second Great Awakening
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