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Class:HIST 1510 - World Civilizations
Subject:History
University:Bowling Green State University
Term:Spring 2010
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Trajan Managed to defeat the Dacians and turn the province into a productive part part of the Roman Empire.
Septimius Severus Severus was the first emperor of the troubled Severan dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of the Roman principate before the Crisis of the Third Century.
Caracalla Caracalla (April 4, 188 - April 8, 217. Caracallus), born Lucius Septimius Bassianus and later called Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus, was the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Roman Emperor from 211 to 217. He was one of the most nefarious of Roman emperors.
Diocletian, Tetrarchy Longest and most systematic campaign against the Christians, who made up one-tenth of the population in the early fourth century.
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Constantine I Continued Diocletion's attempts to ensure the production of essential goods and services as well as a collection of taxes. He imposed decrees tying people and their children to the same occupation in the same place. Moved capital to the site of old Greek colony Byzantium, renaming in Constantinople.
Arianism Christ logically could not fully be God because he was no of a substance identical with God and, as a created being, was not coeternal with his creator.
Council of Nicaea Found the Arian position of be a heresy-an opinion or doctrine contrary to the official teaching of the church-Christ was declared to be of the same substance as God
Monophysitism Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one, alone' and physis meaning 'nature'), or Monophysiticism, is the Christological position that Christ has only one nature, his humanity being absorbed by his Deity, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ maintains two natures, one divine and one human.
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Julian the Apostate Flavius Claudius Iulianus, known also as Julianus, Julian, Julian the Apostate or Julian the Philosopher (331/332 - 26 June 363, ), was Roman Emperor last of the Constantinian dynasty.
Visigoths The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe; the Ostrogoths being the other.
Vandals The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century, perhaps best known for their sack of Rome in 455. Although they were not notably more destructive than other invaders of ancient times, Renaissance and Early Modern writers who idealized Rome tended to blame the Vandals for its destruction.
Theoderic, Ostrogoths Theodoric is a Germanic given name frequently encountered in early medieval European history.
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Augustine Augustine of Hippo (; ;) (November 13, 354 - August 28, 430), Bishop of Hippo Regius, also known as Augustine, St.
Justinian Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus (, Phlbios Petros Sabbatios Ioustininos); AD 483 - 13 or 14 November 565, known in English as Justinian I or Justinian the Great, was the second member of the Justinian Dynasty (after his uncle, Justin I) and Eastern Roman Emperor from 527 until his death.
Theodora Theodora (, 984 - early September, 1056) was a Byzantine Empress.
Clovis I Of the Merovingian dynasty became ruler of one of the small Frankish Kingdoms, by the time of his death he had united the Franks into a single kingdom that stretched south to the Pyrenees.
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Carolingians The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century.
Donation of Pippin The "Donation of Pepin", the first in 754 CE, and second in 756 CE, provided a legal basis for the formal organizing of the Papal States, which inaugurated papal temporal rule over civil authorities.
Pope Leo III Pope Saint Leo III (750-June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to his death in 816. Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him as Roman Emperor.
Charlemagne Charlemagne (; , meaning Charles the Great; 2 April 742 - 28 January 814) was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum) from 800 to his death.
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Missi Dominici A missus dominicus (plural missi dominici), Latin for "envoy of the lord [ruler]", also known in Dutch as Zendgraaf (German: Sendgraf), meaning "sent Graf", was an official commissioned by the Frankish king or emperor to supervise the administration, mainly of justice, in parts of his dominions.
Louis I the Pious Louis the Pious (778 - 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781. He was also King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813. As the only surviving adult son of Charlemagne, he became the sole ruler of the Franks after his father's death in 814, a position which he held until his death, save for the period 833-34, during which he was deposed.
Treaty of Verdun The Treaty of Verdun (Verdun-sur-Meuse, 843) was a treaty of the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, the son and successor of Charlemagne, which divided the territories of the Carolingian Empire to three kingdoms.
Fuedalism Feudalism is a decentralized sociopolitical structure in which a weak monarchy attempts to control the lands of the realm through reciprocal agreements with regional leaders.
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Three-field system Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons for various benefits such as to avoid the build up of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one species is continuously cropped.
Hugh Capet,Capetians Successor of the Carolingian monarch, major accomplishment of the first four Capetian kings was there success at keeping the French crown within their own family and at slowly expanding their influence, largely through marriage alliances and the efficiency of royal courts.
Otto I Otto I the Great (23 November 912 in Wallhausen - 7 May 973 in Memleben), son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of Germany, King of Italy, and "the first of the Germans to be called the emperor of Italy" according to Arnulf of Milan.
Henry IV & Gregory VII, Investiture Under Henry IV the monarchy reached the height of its power but also experienced a major reverse. The disagreement between state and church culminated in Henry's begging the pope's forgiveness at Conossa in 1077. THe Investiture Controversy resulted in the loss of the monarchy's major sources of strength.
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Iconoclasm Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives.
Irene Best known woman who ruled in her own right as the Empress. She resisted attempts to overthrow her and her son and consolidated their power. In addition, she slowly worked to reverse the iconoclastic policies of her predecessors.
Vladimir I of Kiev The most important ruler in the Kievan phase of Russian history. Learned political lessons dealing with Byzantines and consolidated his power in Kiev. Based his rule on the pagan religion and erected statues such as Perun (god of thunder) and Volos (god of wealth). Made peace with Volga Bulgars to the east and worked with the Byzantines against the Bulgarians in pursuit of his diplomatic and political goals.
Reconquista The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest"; Arabic: ', "Recapturing") was a period of nearly 800 years in the Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula succeeded in retaking (and repopulating) the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslim Al-Andalus Province.
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Alexios I Komnenos Alexios I Komnenos, Latinized as Alexius I Comnenus (, 1056 - 15 August 1118), was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118, and the founder of the Komnenian dynasty.
Pope Urban II Pope Blessed Urban II (ca.1035 - 29 July 1099), born Otho de Lagery (alternatively: Otto, Odo or Eudes), was Pope from 12 March 1088 until his death.
Council of Clermont The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held from November 18 to November 28, 1095 at Clermont, France.
Crusades The Crusades were a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Latin Christian Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire.
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Templar Order The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (), commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple (), were among the most famous of the Western Christian military orders.
Ayyubids The Ayyubids (Kurdish:) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin, centered in Cairo and Damascus that ruled much of the Middle East during the 12th and 13th centuries CE.
Pope Innocent III Pope Innocent III (1160 or 1161 - 16 July 1216) was Pope from 8 January 1198 until his death.
Latin Empire The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name: Imperium Romaniae, "Empire of Romania") is the name given by historians to the feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire.
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Frederick II Frederick II of Hohenstaufen ( 26 December 1194 - 13 December 1250) was Holy Roman Emperor (King of the Romans) from his papal coronation in 1220 until his death; he was also a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. As such, he was King of Germany, of Italy, and of Burgundy.
Saint Louis IX Louis IX (25 April 1214 - 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death.
Mamluks A mamluk (Arabic: (singular), mamlk (plural), "owned"; also transliterated mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke, marmeluke, or marmaduke) was a soldier of slave origin who had converted to Islam.
Guilds A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade.
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Abelard Peter Abelard (Lt: Petrus Abaelardus or Abailard; Fr: Pierre Ablard) (1079 - April 21, 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian and preeminent logician.
Scholasticism Scholasticism is derived from the Latin word scholasticus (Greek: ), which means "that [which] belongs to the school," and was a method of learning taught by the academics (scholastics, school people, or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100-1500. Scholasticism refers to the attempt made by medieval Christians to reconcile ancient classical philosophy with the Christianity of medieval times.The synthesis of Greek Philosophy and medieval Christian Doctrine is the heart of scholasticism.
William I the Conqueror Duke of Normandy, crossed the English Channel with 5000 men and claimed the throne
Domesday Book The Domesday Book is the record of the great survey of England completed in 1086, executed for William I of England, or William the Conqueror.
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Henry II Henry III (1 October 1207 - 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death.
Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor of Aquitaine (in French: Alinor d-Aquitaine, lonore de Guyenne) (1122 - 1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Western Europe during the High Middle Ages.
Magna Carta Magna Carta, also called Magna Carta Libertatum (the Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English legal charter, originally issued in the year 1215. It was written in Latin and is known by its Latin name.
Phillip II Augustus Philip II Augustus (; 21 August 1165 - 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death.
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Albigensians Catharism was a name given to a Christian religious sect with dualistic and gnostic elements that appeared in the Languedoc region of France and other parts of Europe in the 11th century and flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Edward I Edward I (17 June 1239 - 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. The first son of HenryIII, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English Barons.
Inquisitions The term Inquisition can apply to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics (or other offenders against canon law) within the justice-system of the Roman Catholic Church.
Philip IV the Fair Philip IV of France (April-June 1268 - 29 November 1314), called the Fair (), son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death.
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Parliament A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modeled after that of the United Kingdom.
Hundred Years War The Hundred Years' War () was a series of separate wars lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne, which was vacant with the extinction of the senior Capetian line of French kings.
House of Valois The House of Valois () was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, succeeding the House of Capet (or "Direct Capetians") as kings of France from 1328 to 1589. A cadet branch of the family reigned as dukes of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482.
Joan of Arc
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Hussites The Hussites were a Christian movement following the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus (c.
Golden Bull A Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal (a bulla aurea or "golden seal" in Latin), attached to a decree issued by Byzantine Emperors and later by monarchs in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
Habsburgs The House of Habsburg, Anglicanised as Hapsburg and sometimes referred to as the House of Austria, was one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian and Spanish Empires and several other countries.
Vladimir Vladimir (; ) is a city in Russia, located on the Klyazma River, to the east of Moscow along the M7 motorway.
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Golden Horde The Ulus of Jochi or the Golden Horde (; ; ) is an East Slavic designation for the Mongol-later Turkicized-Muslim khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus' in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus.
Alexander Nevsky Saint Alexander Nevsky (, Aleksandr Yaroslavich Nevskij; ; 30 May 1220 - 14 November 1263) was the Grand Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir during some of the most trying times in the city's history.
Ivan III the Great Ivan III Vasilevich () (22 January 1440, Moscow - 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and "Grand Prince of all Russia" ( ) Sometimes referred to as the "gatherer of the Russian lands", he tripled the territory of his state, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state.
Dante Dante Alighieri (May/June c.1265September 14, 1321), commonly known as Dante, was an Italian poet of the Middle Ages.
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 TrajanManaged to defeat the Dacians and turn the province into a productive part part of the Roman Empire.
 Septimius Severus Severus was the first emperor of the troubled Severan dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of the Roman principate before the Crisis of the Third Century.
 CaracallaCaracalla (April 4, 188 - April 8, 217. Caracallus), born Lucius Septimius Bassianus and later called Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus, was the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Roman Emperor from 211 to 217. He was one of the most nefarious of Roman emperors.
 Diocletian, TetrarchyLongest and most systematic campaign against the Christians, who made up one-tenth of the population in the early fourth century.
 Constantine IContinued Diocletion's attempts to ensure the production of essential goods and services as well as a collection of taxes. He imposed decrees tying people and their children to the same occupation in the same place. Moved capital to the site of old Greek colony Byzantium, renaming in Constantinople.
 ArianismChrist logically could not fully be God because he was no of a substance identical with God and, as a created being, was not coeternal with his creator.
 Council of NicaeaFound the Arian position of be a heresy-an opinion or doctrine contrary to the official teaching of the church-Christ was declared to be of the same substance as God
 MonophysitismMonophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one, alone' and physis meaning 'nature'), or Monophysiticism, is the Christological position that Christ has only one nature, his humanity being absorbed by his Deity, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ maintains two natures, one divine and one human.
 Julian the ApostateFlavius Claudius Iulianus, known also as Julianus, Julian, Julian the Apostate or Julian the Philosopher (331/332 - 26 June 363, ), was Roman Emperor last of the Constantinian dynasty.
 VisigothsThe Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe; the Ostrogoths being the other.
 VandalsThe Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century, perhaps best known for their sack of Rome in 455. Although they were not notably more destructive than other invaders of ancient times, Renaissance and Early Modern writers who idealized Rome tended to blame the Vandals for its destruction.
 Theoderic, OstrogothsTheodoric is a Germanic given name frequently encountered in early medieval European history.
 AugustineAugustine of Hippo (; ;) (November 13, 354 - August 28, 430), Bishop of Hippo Regius, also known as Augustine, St.
 JustinianFlavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus (, Phlbios Petros Sabbatios Ioustininos); AD 483 - 13 or 14 November 565, known in English as Justinian I or Justinian the Great, was the second member of the Justinian Dynasty (after his uncle, Justin I) and Eastern Roman Emperor from 527 until his death.
 TheodoraTheodora (, 984 - early September, 1056) was a Byzantine Empress.
 Clovis IOf the Merovingian dynasty became ruler of one of the small Frankish Kingdoms, by the time of his death he had united the Franks into a single kingdom that stretched south to the Pyrenees.
 CarolingiansThe Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century.
 Donation of PippinThe "Donation of Pepin", the first in 754 CE, and second in 756 CE, provided a legal basis for the formal organizing of the Papal States, which inaugurated papal temporal rule over civil authorities.
 Pope Leo IIIPope Saint Leo III (750-June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to his death in 816. Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him as Roman Emperor.
 CharlemagneCharlemagne (; , meaning Charles the Great; 2 April 742 - 28 January 814) was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum) from 800 to his death.
 Missi DominiciA missus dominicus (plural missi dominici), Latin for "envoy of the lord [ruler]", also known in Dutch as Zendgraaf (German: Sendgraf), meaning "sent Graf", was an official commissioned by the Frankish king or emperor to supervise the administration, mainly of justice, in parts of his dominions.
 Louis I the PiousLouis the Pious (778 - 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781. He was also King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813. As the only surviving adult son of Charlemagne, he became the sole ruler of the Franks after his father's death in 814, a position which he held until his death, save for the period 833-34, during which he was deposed.
 Treaty of VerdunThe Treaty of Verdun (Verdun-sur-Meuse, 843) was a treaty of the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, the son and successor of Charlemagne, which divided the territories of the Carolingian Empire to three kingdoms.
 FuedalismFeudalism is a decentralized sociopolitical structure in which a weak monarchy attempts to control the lands of the realm through reciprocal agreements with regional leaders.
 Three-field systemCrop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons for various benefits such as to avoid the build up of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one species is continuously cropped.
 Hugh Capet,CapetiansSuccessor of the Carolingian monarch, major accomplishment of the first four Capetian kings was there success at keeping the French crown within their own family and at slowly expanding their influence, largely through marriage alliances and the efficiency of royal courts.
 Otto IOtto I the Great (23 November 912 in Wallhausen - 7 May 973 in Memleben), son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of Germany, King of Italy, and "the first of the Germans to be called the emperor of Italy" according to Arnulf of Milan.
 Henry IV & Gregory VII, InvestitureUnder Henry IV the monarchy reached the height of its power but also experienced a major reverse. The disagreement between state and church culminated in Henry's begging the pope's forgiveness at Conossa in 1077. THe Investiture Controversy resulted in the loss of the monarchy's major sources of strength.
 Iconoclasm Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives.
 IreneBest known woman who ruled in her own right as the Empress. She resisted attempts to overthrow her and her son and consolidated their power. In addition, she slowly worked to reverse the iconoclastic policies of her predecessors.
 Vladimir I of KievThe most important ruler in the Kievan phase of Russian history. Learned political lessons dealing with Byzantines and consolidated his power in Kiev. Based his rule on the pagan religion and erected statues such as Perun (god of thunder) and Volos (god of wealth). Made peace with Volga Bulgars to the east and worked with the Byzantines against the Bulgarians in pursuit of his diplomatic and political goals.
 ReconquistaThe Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest"; Arabic: ', "Recapturing") was a period of nearly 800 years in the Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula succeeded in retaking (and repopulating) the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslim Al-Andalus Province.
 Alexios I KomnenosAlexios I Komnenos, Latinized as Alexius I Comnenus (, 1056 - 15 August 1118), was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118, and the founder of the Komnenian dynasty.
 Pope Urban IIPope Blessed Urban II (ca.1035 - 29 July 1099), born Otho de Lagery (alternatively: Otto, Odo or Eudes), was Pope from 12 March 1088 until his death.
 Council of ClermontThe Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held from November 18 to November 28, 1095 at Clermont, France.
 CrusadesThe Crusades were a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Latin Christian Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire.
 Templar OrderThe Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (), commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple (), were among the most famous of the Western Christian military orders.
 AyyubidsThe Ayyubids (Kurdish:) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin, centered in Cairo and Damascus that ruled much of the Middle East during the 12th and 13th centuries CE.
 Pope Innocent IIIPope Innocent III (1160 or 1161 - 16 July 1216) was Pope from 8 January 1198 until his death.
 Latin EmpireThe Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name: Imperium Romaniae, "Empire of Romania") is the name given by historians to the feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire.
 Frederick IIFrederick II of Hohenstaufen ( 26 December 1194 - 13 December 1250) was Holy Roman Emperor (King of the Romans) from his papal coronation in 1220 until his death; he was also a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. As such, he was King of Germany, of Italy, and of Burgundy.
 Saint Louis IXLouis IX (25 April 1214 - 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death.
 MamluksA mamluk (Arabic: (singular), mamlk (plural), "owned"; also transliterated mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke, marmeluke, or marmaduke) was a soldier of slave origin who had converted to Islam.
 GuildsA guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade.
 AbelardPeter Abelard (Lt: Petrus Abaelardus or Abailard; Fr: Pierre Ablard) (1079 - April 21, 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian and preeminent logician.
 ScholasticismScholasticism is derived from the Latin word scholasticus (Greek: ), which means "that [which] belongs to the school," and was a method of learning taught by the academics (scholastics, school people, or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100-1500. Scholasticism refers to the attempt made by medieval Christians to reconcile ancient classical philosophy with the Christianity of medieval times.The synthesis of Greek Philosophy and medieval Christian Doctrine is the heart of scholasticism.
 William I the ConquerorDuke of Normandy, crossed the English Channel with 5000 men and claimed the throne
 Domesday BookThe Domesday Book is the record of the great survey of England completed in 1086, executed for William I of England, or William the Conqueror.
 Henry IIHenry III (1 October 1207 - 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death.
 Eleanor of AquitaineEleanor of Aquitaine (in French: Alinor d-Aquitaine, lonore de Guyenne) (1122 - 1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Western Europe during the High Middle Ages.
 Magna CartaMagna Carta, also called Magna Carta Libertatum (the Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English legal charter, originally issued in the year 1215. It was written in Latin and is known by its Latin name.
 Phillip II AugustusPhilip II Augustus (; 21 August 1165 - 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death.
 AlbigensiansCatharism was a name given to a Christian religious sect with dualistic and gnostic elements that appeared in the Languedoc region of France and other parts of Europe in the 11th century and flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries.
 Edward IEdward I (17 June 1239 - 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. The first son of HenryIII, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English Barons.
 InquisitionsThe term Inquisition can apply to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics (or other offenders against canon law) within the justice-system of the Roman Catholic Church.
 Philip IV the FairPhilip IV of France (April-June 1268 - 29 November 1314), called the Fair (), son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death.
 ParliamentA parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modeled after that of the United Kingdom.
 Hundred Years WarThe Hundred Years' War () was a series of separate wars lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne, which was vacant with the extinction of the senior Capetian line of French kings.
 House of ValoisThe House of Valois () was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, succeeding the House of Capet (or "Direct Capetians") as kings of France from 1328 to 1589. A cadet branch of the family reigned as dukes of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482.
 Joan of Arc 
 HussitesThe Hussites were a Christian movement following the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus (c.
 Golden BullA Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal (a bulla aurea or "golden seal" in Latin), attached to a decree issued by Byzantine Emperors and later by monarchs in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
 HabsburgsThe House of Habsburg, Anglicanised as Hapsburg and sometimes referred to as the House of Austria, was one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian and Spanish Empires and several other countries.
 VladimirVladimir (; ) is a city in Russia, located on the Klyazma River, to the east of Moscow along the M7 motorway.
 Golden HordeThe Ulus of Jochi or the Golden Horde (; ; ) is an East Slavic designation for the Mongol-later Turkicized-Muslim khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus' in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus.
 Alexander NevskySaint Alexander Nevsky (, Aleksandr Yaroslavich Nevskij; ; 30 May 1220 - 14 November 1263) was the Grand Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir during some of the most trying times in the city's history.
 Ivan III the GreatIvan III Vasilevich () (22 January 1440, Moscow - 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and "Grand Prince of all Russia" ( ) Sometimes referred to as the "gatherer of the Russian lands", he tripled the territory of his state, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state.
 DanteDante Alighieri (May/June c.1265September 14, 1321), commonly known as Dante, was an Italian poet of the Middle Ages.
   
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