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Final Exam - Flashcards

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Class:HIST 112 - The Modern World
Subject:History
University:Christopher Newport University
Term:Fall 2010
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Universal Male Suffrage (1800s) When: During the mid to late 1800s Who: Males What: Allowed the right to vote Where: In western Europe and the United States How/Why: As labor unions became more abundant, so did workers wanting to vote.
Otto von Bismarck (1862-71) When: He ruled from 1862-1871 Who/Where: Ruler of Prussia Importance: Responsible for the creation of the German Empire, defeated France and Austria
Giuseppe Garibaldi (1860) When: 1860 Who: Italian Revolutionary and nationalist What: Conquered Sicily and Naples Where: Italy
Commodore Matthew Perry (1853-54) When: 1853-1854 Who: Commodore in the US Navy What/Where: Arrived in Japan to demand them to open up their ports to American Trade. Eventually signed treaty similar to the one China signed with Western powers after Opium wars. Why: Wanted to be able to use their ports to trade, resupply and fuel.
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Willhelm II (1888) When: 1888 Who/Where:Became Emperor of the German Empire What: Dismissed Otto Von Bismarck. Surrounded himself with yes men so his policies would happen without any resistance
Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) When: 1904-1905 Who/Where: Fighting occurred in Manchuria, which is in northern China. China was not involved, just Japan an Russia. Why: Russia wanted a warm water port and control of Manchuria
Boxer Rebellion (1900) When: 1900 Where: China Who/What/Why: A society called the Righteous Fist rose with help from Chinese officials and began attacking foreigners and their establishments. Western powers eventually suppressed the violence and occupied Beijing.
Berlin Conference of 1885 When: 1885 Who/What: Countries vying for a piece of African territory. It set ground rules to acquire the region. It also created the Congo Free State Where: Berlin Why: There was a "scramble for Africa"
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Congo Free State (1885) When: Created in 1885 What/Where/Why: It was a privately controlled state, controlled by King Leopold II. He was given this for starting the "scramble for Africa"
Spanish-American War of 1898 When: 1898 Who: United States and Spain Where: Naval war that took place over water How/Why: A US battleship blew up in a Cuban port. The US blamed Spain and soon declared war. They eventually won in a short amount of time, and captured Puerto Rico and Guam. They also bought the Philippines from Spain.
Triple Alliance (1882) When: 1882 Who/What/Where: An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. This divided Europe into two distinct blocs.
League of Nations (1919) When: 1919 Who/What: An idea to create an international organization of many countries, to police countries that got out of hand. It failed mostly because the United States did not join and was ineffectual when dealing with the circumstances before WWII.
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Alsace and Lorraine (1870) When: 1870 Who/What: Germany under Bismarck attacked France and took control of two provinces, Alsace and Lorraine. France would get these provinces back after WWI.
Napoleon III (1848) When; Became ruler of France in 1848 Who: Name was Louis Napoleon, changed it when he became ruler.
New Economic Policy (NEP) (1923) When:1923 Who/What: Lenin allowed peasants to own land and sell their own crops. Most of the economy was privatized, apart from large banks and businesses. Why: Lenin wanted to encourage economic growth. It was ended in 1928 by Stalin.
Archduke Ferdinand (1914) When: Was assassinated in 1914 Who/What: He was the next in line to rule Austria Hungary. His assassination started WWI by causing alliances to enter a war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia.
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Schlieffan Plan When: Created in the early 20th century Who/Why: It was created by Count Alfred von Schlieffen to prepare Germany for a two front war. It allowed Germany to fight on the western front first and then transport its troops by rail to an eastern front to fight Russia
General Mobilization When: WWI Who/What: Russia mobilized its army in preparation for an attack by Germany. This was all but a declaration of war.
Native Lands Act of 1913 When: 1913 Where: South Africa Who/What: It assigned natives to reservations and did not allow them to own land anywhere else.
Brest-Litovsk Treaty (1918) When: March 3, 1918 Who: Bolsheviks sued for peace with Germany and Austria-Hungary. Russia lost territories containing a third of it's population and wealth, along with colonies it had control over.
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Appeasement When: Pre-WWII Who/What: Western powers ignored German threats because they did not want to get into another World War. This was seen as a sign of weakness to Germany.
Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939) When: August 23, 1939 Who: Russia and Germany entered into an agreement to not attack each other. Germany did this because they were planning to attack western countries and did not want to fight a two front war. Russia knew this, but wanted to give itself proper time to prepare itself for war.
Battle of Midway (1942) When: June 1942 Who/What: The US defeated the Japanese navy at the island of Midway. It was a turning point for the US in WWII.
Teheran Conference (1943) When: 1943 Who/What: A meeting between Joseph Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill to discuss strategies to defeat the Nazis. They talked of opening a second front in western Europe
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Truman Doctrine (1947) When: 1947 Who/What: Policy created by Harry Truman to help Greece and Turkey so they would not fall into the Soviet sphere of influence.
Berlin Blockade (1948-49) When: 1948-1949 Who/What: The Soviet Union block western powers access to deliver food and supply to west Germany. To avoid war and to get around the blockade, western powers flew in the supplies and food into west Germany. This rendered the blockade useless. It was the first act of the Cold War.
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) When: 1962 Who/What: Russia began giving Cuba nuclear missiles that could hit many parts of the continental US. This was resolved by the US promising to never invade Cuba and Russia dismantling the missiles.
Warsaw Pact (1955-91) When: 1955-1991 Who/What: This was a mutual defense treaty amongst the countries in the Communist Bloc of Eastern Europe. It was created in response to the creation of NATO.
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Gulf of Tokin Resolution (1964) When: Passed on August 7, 1964 Who/What: It allowed the US to become militarily involved in fighting in Vietnam. This would eventually lead the US into becoming a part of the war itself.
Prague Spring (1968) When: 1968 Who/What: A period after WWII where Czechoslovakia began reforming it's government. Members of the Warsaw Pact eventually invaded the country to stop the reforms.
Helsinki Accords (1975) When: 1975 Who/What: Political and Human rights agreement signed between the Soviet Union and western powers. The need for this stemmed from the threat of nuclear war.
Mikhail Gorbachev When: Became leader of USSR from 1885 until its end in 1991 Who/What: He was the leader of the Soviet Union and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. While in power, he improved relations with the West , but those same reforms caused the collapse of the Soviet Union.
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Mahatma Ghandi When: 1869-1948, leader on INC in 1920 Who/What: He led nonviolent demonstrations against the British and fought for rights of the poor. He was eventually assassinated for trying to stop a Hindu-Muslim riot.
Issue of Kashmir (1947 & 1965) When: 1947 and 1965 Who/What: India and Pakistan both lay claim to Kashmir. This stemmed from its Hindu ruler deciding to become a part of India without consulting the Muslim dominated nation. This has caused many fights throughout the years over the nation between India and Pakistan.
Balfour Declaration (1917) When: 1917 Who/What: This was a declaration by the British government to give Jewish people a settlement in Palestine. Since then, there has been many clashes between Jewish and Muslims who live in the same area.
Ethnic Cleansing (1990s) When: Early 1990s Who/What: After Yugoslavia dissolved there were many disputes concerning different religious beliefs. This led to Serbs in Bosnia "cleansing" the state of Muslims.
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Red Guards (1966) When: 1966 during the Cultural Revolution Who/What: Units comprised of young Chinese militants. They sought to find enemies of the Communist party.
Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) When: Led overthrow of shah in 1979 Who/What: He was a religious and philosophical leader that became the leader of Iran. He preached anti-western and anti-Israel. His government was run strictly on religious values.
Taliban (1996) When: Began controlling Afghanistan in 1996 Who/What: It is an extremely militant regime that was very anti-american. It was overthrown in 2001 with an American invasion of Afghanistan but has since returned in the form as an insurgency movement.
Saddam Hussein (1979) When: Became leader of Iraq in 1979 Who/What: He was president of Iraq until he was overthrown by an American invasion in 2003. He led an invasion, backed by the Soviet Union, of Iran. This pitted US weapons against USSR weapons.
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Universal Male Suffrage (1800s)When: During the mid to late 1800s
Who: Males
What: Allowed the right to vote
Where: In western Europe and the United States
How/Why: As labor unions became more abundant, so did workers wanting to vote.
 Otto von Bismarck (1862-71)When: He ruled from 1862-1871
Who/Where: Ruler of Prussia
Importance: Responsible for the creation of the German Empire, defeated France and Austria
 Giuseppe Garibaldi (1860)When: 1860
Who: Italian Revolutionary and nationalist
What: Conquered Sicily and Naples
Where: Italy
 Commodore Matthew Perry (1853-54)When: 1853-1854
Who: Commodore in the US Navy
What/Where: Arrived in Japan to demand them to open up their ports to American Trade. Eventually signed treaty similar to the one China signed with Western powers after Opium wars.
Why: Wanted to be able to use their ports to trade, resupply and fuel.
 Willhelm II (1888)When: 1888
Who/Where:Became Emperor of the German Empire
What: Dismissed Otto Von Bismarck. Surrounded himself with yes men so his policies would happen without any resistance
 Russo-Japanese War (1904-05)When: 1904-1905
Who/Where: Fighting occurred in Manchuria, which is in northern China. China was not involved, just Japan an Russia.
Why: Russia wanted a warm water port and control of Manchuria
 Boxer Rebellion (1900)When: 1900
Where: China
Who/What/Why: A society called the Righteous Fist rose with help from Chinese officials and began attacking foreigners and their establishments. Western powers eventually suppressed the violence and occupied Beijing.

 Berlin Conference of 1885When: 1885
Who/What: Countries vying for a piece of African territory. It set ground rules to acquire the region. It also created the Congo Free State
Where: Berlin
Why: There was a "scramble for Africa"
 Congo Free State (1885)When: Created in 1885
What/Where/Why: It was a privately controlled state, controlled by King Leopold II. He was given this for starting the "scramble for Africa"
 Spanish-American War of 1898When: 1898
Who: United States and Spain
Where: Naval war that took place over water
How/Why: A US battleship blew up in a Cuban port. The US blamed Spain and soon declared war. They eventually won in a short amount of time, and captured Puerto Rico and Guam. They also bought the Philippines from Spain.
 Triple Alliance (1882)When: 1882
Who/What/Where: An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. This divided Europe into two distinct blocs.
 League of Nations (1919)When: 1919
Who/What: An idea to create an international organization of many countries, to police countries that got out of hand. It failed mostly because the United States did not join and was ineffectual when dealing with the circumstances before WWII.
 Alsace and Lorraine (1870)When: 1870
Who/What: Germany under Bismarck attacked France and took control of two provinces, Alsace and Lorraine. France would get these provinces back after WWI.
 Napoleon III (1848)When; Became ruler of France in 1848
Who: Name was Louis Napoleon, changed it when he became ruler.
 New Economic Policy (NEP) (1923)When:1923
Who/What: Lenin allowed peasants to own land and sell their own crops. Most of the economy was privatized, apart from large banks and businesses.
Why: Lenin wanted to encourage economic growth. It was ended in 1928 by Stalin.
 Archduke Ferdinand (1914)When: Was assassinated in 1914
Who/What: He was the next in line to rule Austria Hungary. His assassination started WWI by causing alliances to enter a war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia.
 Schlieffan Plan When: Created in the early 20th century
Who/Why: It was created by Count Alfred von Schlieffen to prepare Germany for a two front war. It allowed Germany to fight on the western front first and then transport its troops by rail to an eastern front to fight Russia
 General MobilizationWhen: WWI
Who/What: Russia mobilized its army in preparation for an attack by Germany. This was all but a declaration of war.
 Native Lands Act of 1913When: 1913
Where: South Africa
Who/What: It assigned natives to reservations and did not allow them to own land anywhere else.
 Brest-Litovsk Treaty (1918)When: March 3, 1918
Who: Bolsheviks sued for peace with Germany and Austria-Hungary. Russia lost territories containing a third of it's population and wealth, along with colonies it had control over.
 AppeasementWhen: Pre-WWII
Who/What: Western powers ignored German threats because they did not want to get into another World War. This was seen as a sign of weakness to Germany.
 Nazi-Soviet Pact (1939)When: August 23, 1939
Who: Russia and Germany entered into an agreement to not attack each other. Germany did this because they were planning to attack western countries and did not want to fight a two front war. Russia knew this, but wanted to give itself proper time to prepare itself for war.
 Battle of Midway (1942)When: June 1942
Who/What: The US defeated the Japanese navy at the island of Midway. It was a turning point for the US in WWII.
 Teheran Conference (1943)When: 1943
Who/What: A meeting between Joseph Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill to discuss strategies to defeat the Nazis. They talked of opening a second front in western Europe
 Truman Doctrine (1947)When: 1947
Who/What: Policy created by Harry Truman to help Greece and Turkey so they would not fall into the Soviet sphere of influence.
 Berlin Blockade (1948-49)When: 1948-1949
Who/What: The Soviet Union block western powers access to deliver food and supply to west Germany. To avoid war and to get around the blockade, western powers flew in the supplies and food into west Germany. This rendered the blockade useless. It was the first act of the Cold War.
 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)When: 1962
Who/What: Russia began giving Cuba nuclear missiles that could hit many parts of the continental US. This was resolved by the US promising to never invade Cuba and Russia dismantling the missiles.
 Warsaw Pact (1955-91)When: 1955-1991
Who/What: This was a mutual defense treaty amongst the countries in the Communist Bloc of Eastern Europe. It was created in response to the creation of NATO.
 Gulf of Tokin Resolution (1964)When: Passed on August 7, 1964
Who/What: It allowed the US to become militarily involved in fighting in Vietnam. This would eventually lead the US into becoming a part of the war itself.
 Prague Spring (1968)When: 1968
Who/What: A period after WWII where Czechoslovakia began reforming it's government. Members of the Warsaw Pact eventually invaded the country to stop the reforms.
 Helsinki Accords (1975)When: 1975
Who/What: Political and Human rights agreement signed between the Soviet Union and western powers. The need for this stemmed from the threat of nuclear war.
 Mikhail Gorbachev When: Became leader of USSR from 1885 until its end in 1991
Who/What: He was the leader of the Soviet Union and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. While in power, he improved relations with the West , but those same reforms caused the collapse of the Soviet Union.
 Mahatma GhandiWhen: 1869-1948, leader on INC in 1920
Who/What: He led nonviolent demonstrations against the British and fought for rights of the poor. He was eventually assassinated for trying to stop a Hindu-Muslim riot.
 Issue of Kashmir (1947 & 1965)When: 1947 and 1965
Who/What: India and Pakistan both lay claim to Kashmir. This stemmed from its Hindu ruler deciding to become a part of India without consulting the Muslim dominated nation. This has caused many fights throughout the years over the nation between India and Pakistan.
 Balfour Declaration (1917)When: 1917
Who/What: This was a declaration by the British government to give Jewish people a settlement in Palestine. Since then, there has been many clashes between Jewish and Muslims who live in the same area.
 Ethnic Cleansing (1990s)When: Early 1990s
Who/What: After Yugoslavia dissolved there were many disputes concerning different religious beliefs. This led to Serbs in Bosnia "cleansing" the state of Muslims.
 Red Guards (1966)When: 1966 during the Cultural Revolution
Who/What: Units comprised of young Chinese militants. They sought to find enemies of the Communist party.
 Ayatollah Khomeini (1979)When: Led overthrow of shah in 1979
Who/What: He was a religious and philosophical leader that became the leader of Iran. He preached anti-western and anti-Israel. His government was run strictly on religious values.
 Taliban (1996)When: Began controlling Afghanistan in 1996
Who/What: It is an extremely militant regime that was very anti-american. It was overthrown in 2001 with an American invasion of Afghanistan but has since returned in the form as an insurgency movement.
 Saddam Hussein (1979)When: Became leader of Iraq in 1979
Who/What: He was president of Iraq until he was overthrown by an American invasion in 2003. He led an invasion, backed by the Soviet Union, of Iran. This pitted US weapons against USSR weapons.
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