Koofers

Chapters 6-8-9 - Flashcards

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Class:HLTH 200 - Wellness Lifestyle
Subject:Health
University:Radford University
Term:Fall 2010
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Essential Fat Fat incorporated in various tissues of the body, critical for normal body functioning
Adipose Tissue Connective tissue in which fat is stored
Visceral fat Fat located around major organs; also called intraabdominal fat
Percent Body Fat The percentage of total body weight that is composed of fat
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Obesity Severely overweight, characterized by an excessive accumulation of body; may also be defined in terms of some measure of total body weight
Metabolic Syndrome A cluster of symptoms present in many overweight and obese people that greatly increases their risk of heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic illnesses; also called insulin resistance syndrome
Female Athlete Triad A condition consisting of three interrelated disorders: abnormal eating patterns(and excessive exercising) followed by lack of menstrual periods(amenorrhea) and decreased bone density (premature osteoporosis)
Amenorrhea Absent of infrequent menstruation, sometimes related to low levels of body fat and excessive quantity or intensity of exercise
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Body Mass Index(BMI) A measure of relative body weight correlating highly with more direct measures of body fat, calculated by diving total body weight bu the square of body height
Caliper A pressure-sensitive measuring instrument with two jaws that can be adjusted to determine thickness
Nutrition The science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease
Essential Nutrients Substances the body must get from foods because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs. these nutrients include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water
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Macronutrient An essential nutrient required by the body in relatively large amounts
Micronutrient An essential nutrient required by the body in minute amounts
Digestion The process of breaking down foods in the gastrointestinal tract into compounds the body can absorb
Kilocalorie A measure of energy content in foods; 1 kilo-calorie represents the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree C; commonly referred to as calorie
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Protein An essential nutrient; a compound made of amino acids that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
Amino Acids The building blocks of proteins
Legumes Vegetables such as peas and beans that are high in fiber and are also important sources of protein
Hydrogenation A process by which hydrogens are added to unsaturated fats, increasing the degree of saturation and turning liquid oils into solid fats. Hydrogenation produces a mixture of saturated fatty acids and standard and trans forms of unsaturated fatty acids
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Trans fatty acid (trans fat) A type of unsaturated fatty acid produced during the process of hydrogenation; trans fats have an atypical shape that affects their chemical activity
Cholesterol A waxy substance found in the blood and cells and needed for synthesis of cell membranes. vitamin D and hormones
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) Blood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissues' excess amounts result in the accumulation of fatty deposits on artery walls
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) Blood fat that helps transport cholesterol out of the arteries, thereby protecting against heart disease
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Omega-3 fatty avids Polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in fish oils that are beneficial to cardiovascular health
Carbohydrate An essential nutrient' sugars, starches, and dietary fiber are all carbohydrates
Glucose A simple sugar that is the body's basic fuel
Glycogen An animal starch stored in the liver and muscles
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Whole Grain The entire edible portion of a grain such as wheat, rice, or oats, including the germ, endosperm and bran
Glycemic Index A measure of how the ingestion of a particular food affects blood glucose levels
Dietary Fiber Non-digestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intact in plants
Functional Fiber Non-digestible carbohydrates either isolated from natural sources synthesized; these may be added to foods and dietary supplements
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Total Fiber The total amount of dietary fiber and functional fiber in the diet
Soluble (Viscous) fiber Fiber that dissolves in water or is broken down by bacteria in the large intestine
Vitamins Organic(carbon-containing) substances needed in small amounts to help promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in the body
Antioxidant A substance that protects against the breakdown of body constituents by free radicals; actions include binding oxygen, donating electrons to free radicals and repairing damage to molecules
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Minerals Inorganic compounds needed in small amounts for the regulation, growth and maintenance of body tissues and functions
Anemia A deficiency in the oxygen-carrying material in the red blood cells
Osteoperosis A condition in which the bones become thin and brittle and break easily
Free Radical An electron-seeking compound that can react with fats, proteins, and DNA, damaging cell membranes and mutating genes in its search for electrons; produced through chemical reactions in the body and by exposure to environmental factors such as sunlight and tobacco smoke
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Phytochemical A naturally occurring substance found in plant foods that may help prevent and treat chronic disease such as heart disease and cancer, phyto means plant
Cruciferous vegetables vegetables of the cabbage family, including cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, kale, and cauliflower; the flower petals of these plants form the shape of a cross, hence the name
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI's) An umbrella term for 4 nutrient standards: Adequate intake (AI), estimated average requirement(ARI), and recommended dietary allowance (RDA) are levels of intake considered adequate to prevent nutrient deficiencies and reduce the risk of chronic disease; tolerable upper intake level (UL) is the maximum daily intake that is unlikely to cause health problems
Dietary Guidelines for Americans General principles of good nutrition intended to help prevent certain diet related diseases
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MyPyramid A food-group plan that provides practical advice to ensure a balanced intake of the essential nutrients
Daily Values A simplified version of the RDA's used on food labels; also included are values for nutrients with no established RDA
Vegan A vegetarian who eats no animal products at all
Lacto-vegetarian A vegetarian who includes milk and cheese product in the diet
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Lacto-ovo-vegetarian A vegetarian who eats no meat, poultry, or fish but does eat eggs and milk products
Partial vegetarian, Semivegetarian OR Pescovegetarian A vegetarian who includes eggs, dairy products and small amounts of poultry and seafood in the diet
Pathogen A microorganism that causes disease
Food Irritation The treatment of foods with gamma rays, x-rays or high voltage electrons to kill potentially harmful pathogens and increase shelf life
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Organic A designation applied to foods grown and produced according to strict guidelines limiting the use of pesticides, non-organic ingredients, hormones, antibiotics, genetic engineering, irradiation and other practices
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) The energy required (in calories)to maintain vital body functions, including respiration, heart rate, body temperature and blood pressure while the body is at rest
Binge Eating A pattern of eating in which normal food consumption is interrupted by episodes of high consumption
Body Image The mental representation a person holds about her or his body at any given moment in time, consisting of perceptions, images, thoughts, attitudes, and emotions about the body
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Eating disorder A serious disturbance in eating patterns or eating-related behavio , characterized by a negative body image and concerns about body weight or body fat
Anorexia Nervosa An eating disorder characterized by a refusal to maintain body weight at a minimally healthy level and an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat; self starvation
Bulimia Nervosa An eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and then purging to prevent weight gain
Purging The use of vomiting, laxatives, excessive exercise, restrictive dieting, enemas, diuretics, or diet pills to compensate for food that has been eaten and that the person fears will produce weight gain
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Binge-eating disorder An eating disorder characterized by binge eating and a lack of control over eating behavior in general
Definition
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 Essential FatFat incorporated in various tissues of the body, critical for normal body functioning
 Adipose TissueConnective tissue in which fat is stored
 Visceral fatFat located around major organs; also called intraabdominal fat
 Percent Body FatThe percentage of total body weight that is composed of fat
 Obesity Severely overweight, characterized by an excessive accumulation of body; may also be defined in terms of some measure of total body weight
 Metabolic Syndrome A cluster of symptoms present in many overweight and obese people that greatly increases their risk of heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic illnesses; also called insulin resistance syndrome
 Female Athlete TriadA condition consisting of three interrelated disorders: abnormal eating patterns(and excessive exercising) followed by lack of menstrual periods(amenorrhea) and decreased bone density (premature osteoporosis)
 AmenorrheaAbsent of infrequent menstruation, sometimes related to low levels of body fat and excessive quantity or intensity of exercise
 Body Mass Index(BMI)A measure of relative body weight correlating highly with more direct measures of body fat, calculated by diving total body weight bu the square of body height
 CaliperA pressure-sensitive measuring instrument with two jaws that can be adjusted to determine thickness
 Nutrition The science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease
 Essential NutrientsSubstances the body must get from foods because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs. these nutrients include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water
 MacronutrientAn essential nutrient required by the body in relatively large amounts
 MicronutrientAn essential nutrient required by the body in minute amounts
 DigestionThe process of breaking down foods in the gastrointestinal tract into compounds the body can absorb
 KilocalorieA measure of energy content in foods; 1 kilo-calorie represents the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree C; commonly referred to as calorie
 Protein An essential nutrient; a compound made of amino acids that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
 Amino AcidsThe building blocks of proteins
 LegumesVegetables such as peas and beans that are high in fiber and are also important sources of protein
 HydrogenationA process by which hydrogens are added to unsaturated fats, increasing the degree of saturation and turning liquid oils into solid fats. Hydrogenation produces a mixture of saturated fatty acids and standard and trans forms of unsaturated fatty acids
 Trans fatty acid (trans fat)A type of unsaturated fatty acid produced during the process of hydrogenation; trans fats have an atypical shape that affects their chemical activity
 Cholesterol A waxy substance found in the blood and cells and needed for synthesis of cell membranes. vitamin D and hormones
 Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)Blood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissues' excess amounts result in the accumulation of fatty deposits on artery walls
 High-density lipoprotein (HDL)Blood fat that helps transport cholesterol out of the arteries, thereby protecting against heart disease
 Omega-3 fatty avidsPolyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in fish oils that are beneficial to cardiovascular health
 CarbohydrateAn essential nutrient' sugars, starches, and dietary fiber are all carbohydrates
 Glucose A simple sugar that is the body's basic fuel
 GlycogenAn animal starch stored in the liver and muscles
 Whole GrainThe entire edible portion of a grain such as wheat, rice, or oats, including the germ, endosperm and bran
 Glycemic IndexA measure of how the ingestion of a particular food affects blood glucose levels
 Dietary FiberNon-digestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intact in plants
 Functional FiberNon-digestible carbohydrates either isolated from natural sources synthesized; these may be added to foods and dietary supplements
 Total FiberThe total amount of dietary fiber and functional fiber in the diet
 Soluble (Viscous) fiber Fiber that dissolves in water or is broken down by bacteria in the large intestine
 VitaminsOrganic(carbon-containing) substances needed in small amounts to help promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in the body
 AntioxidantA substance that protects against the breakdown of body constituents by free radicals; actions include binding oxygen, donating electrons to free radicals and repairing damage to molecules
 MineralsInorganic compounds needed in small amounts for the regulation, growth and maintenance of body tissues and functions
 Anemia A deficiency in the oxygen-carrying material in the red blood cells
 OsteoperosisA condition in which the bones become thin and brittle and break easily
 Free RadicalAn electron-seeking compound that can react with fats, proteins, and DNA, damaging cell membranes and mutating genes in its search for electrons; produced through chemical reactions in the body and by exposure to environmental factors such as sunlight and tobacco smoke
 PhytochemicalA naturally occurring substance found in plant foods that may help prevent and treat chronic disease such as heart disease and cancer, phyto means plant
 Cruciferous vegetablesvegetables of the cabbage family, including cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, kale, and cauliflower; the flower petals of these plants form the shape of a cross, hence the name
 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI's)An umbrella term for 4 nutrient standards: Adequate intake (AI), estimated average requirement(ARI), and recommended dietary allowance (RDA) are levels of intake considered adequate to prevent nutrient deficiencies and reduce the risk of chronic disease; tolerable upper intake level (UL) is the maximum daily intake that is unlikely to cause health problems
 Dietary Guidelines for AmericansGeneral principles of good nutrition intended to help prevent certain diet related diseases
 MyPyramidA food-group plan that provides practical advice to ensure a balanced intake of the essential nutrients
 Daily ValuesA simplified version of the RDA's used on food labels; also included are values for nutrients with no established RDA
 VeganA vegetarian who eats no animal products at all
 Lacto-vegetarianA vegetarian who includes milk and cheese product in the diet
 Lacto-ovo-vegetarianA vegetarian who eats no meat, poultry, or fish but does eat eggs and milk products
 Partial vegetarian, Semivegetarian OR PescovegetarianA vegetarian who includes eggs, dairy products and small amounts of poultry and seafood in the diet
 PathogenA microorganism that causes disease
 Food Irritation The treatment of foods with gamma rays, x-rays or high voltage electrons to kill potentially harmful pathogens and increase shelf life
 OrganicA designation applied to foods grown and produced according to strict guidelines limiting the use of pesticides, non-organic ingredients, hormones, antibiotics, genetic engineering, irradiation and other practices
 Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)The energy required (in calories)to maintain vital body functions, including respiration, heart rate, body temperature and blood pressure while the body is at rest
 Binge EatingA pattern of eating in which normal food consumption is interrupted by episodes of high consumption
 Body ImageThe mental representation a person holds about her or his body at any given moment in time, consisting of perceptions, images, thoughts, attitudes, and emotions about the body
 Eating disorderA serious disturbance in eating patterns or eating-related behavio , characterized by a negative body image and concerns about body weight or body fat
 Anorexia NervosaAn eating disorder characterized by a refusal to maintain body weight at a minimally healthy level and an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat; self starvation
 Bulimia Nervosa An eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and then purging to prevent weight gain
 PurgingThe use of vomiting, laxatives, excessive exercise, restrictive dieting, enemas, diuretics, or diet pills to compensate for food that has been eaten and that the person fears will produce weight gain
 Binge-eating disorderAn eating disorder characterized by binge eating and a lack of control over eating behavior in general
  Definition
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