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Water and Minerals - Flashcards

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Class:HUN 2201 - Principles of Nutrition
Subject:Human Nutrition
University:Florida International University
Term:Fall 2009
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Water body's most indispensable nutrient
Soft water component has high concentration of sodium and potassium
Soft water and disease status Type of water that can aggravate hypertension and heart disease
ADH released from... hormone that is released from the pituitary gland in response to high salt concentration
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ADH function hormone that causes kidneys to reabsorb water
Renin released by... enzyme released by kidneys in response to low blood flow
Renin function enzyme that causes kidneys to reabsorb sodium and restores blood volume and pressure
Angiotensin function protein converted from angiotensinogen that causes blood vessels to constrict, thus raising blood pressure
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Aldosterone released from... released from adrenal gland under control of angiotensinogen
Aldosterone function causes kidneys to retain sodium
Electrolytes salts that dissolve in water and dissociate into charged particles called ions
Intracellular ions Phosphate Magnesium Potassium Sulfur
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Extracellular ions Sodium Chloride
Lungs and acid-base balance respiratory rate varies to maintain homeostasis
Kidneys and acid-base balance chooses which ions to keep/excrete urine acidity varies to keep body acid content balanced
Sources of sodium (6) table salt processed foods meat milk breads vegetables
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Salt tablets and physical activity can cause dehydration if water is not consumed
Functions of chloride (3) maintain normal fluid/electrolyte balance part of hydrochloric acid proper digestion
Functions of potassium (6) maintain normal fluid/electrolyte balance facilitate many reactions maintain cell integrity nerve impulse transmission muscle contraction maintains heartbeat
People at risk for potassium depletion people who do not eat, or eat very small amounts of, fruits and vetables
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High potassium intakes can... causes increase in blood pressure
Low potassium intakes can... can prevent and correct hypertension
Age and bone mass full potential of density and size during first 30 years of life
Functions of phosphorous (6) mineralize bones and teeth part of every cell genetic material part of phospholipids energy transfer acid-base balance (buffer systems)
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Lipid transportation done by lipids with phosphorous as part of structure
Functions of magnesium (8) mineralize bones and teeth builds protein enzyme action nerve impulse transmission muscle contraction immune system functioning blood clotting pancreatic secretions
Nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction (2) done by potassium and magnesium
Sources of magnesium (7) nuts/legumes whole grains dark green vegetables seafood chocolate/cocoa hard water some mineral waters
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Normal electrolyte/fluid balance (2) done by potassium and chloride
Where sulfate is found (1) essential nutrients, including protein
Trace minerals in the body needed only in small amounts in the body obtained from variety of foods
Trace minerals toxicity toxicity easily reached by supplements
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Amount of trace minerals in foods depends on... (3) depends on water and soil composition, processing, and bioavailability
Trace mineral deficiencies mild deficiencies overlooked affect everyone, but affect growth in children
True/false: The FDA doesn't limit trace mineral supplement use True
Trace minerals can cause can cause nutrient imbalances
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Trace mineral interaction common interaction that is coordinated to meet body's needs
Iron is a part of... (2) part of hemoglobin and myoglobin
Functions of iron (3) enzyme activity energy metabolism cofactor in redox reactions
Heme iron found in animals 10% daily intake 25% of intake actually absorbed
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Nonheme iron found in plants 90% daily intake 17% intake actually absorbed
Ferrous iron reduced iron Fe 2+
Ferric iron oxidized iron Fe 3+
Ferritin stores iron in digestive tract (mucosal cells)
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Transferrin protein that transports iron in the body
Where iron is found (6) meats enriched grains dark leafy vegetables legumes dried fruit clams
Meats and iron high bioavailability of iron
Enriched grains and iron intermediate bioavailability of iron
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Dark leafy vegetables and iron low bioavailability of iron
Where iron is stored in the body (3) stored in bone marrow, liver, and spleen
Hemosiderin protein used to store iron when body concentration is too high
Danger of too much iron can act as a free radical
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Hepcidin regulate/inhibits iron storage and transportation
Hemosiderosis too much iron where there are large deposits of hemosiderin
Large deposits of hemosiderin (4) tissues heart joints liver
Iron and heart disease disease caused by too much iron
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Iron and cancer caused by iron free radical damage of DNA
Where zinc is found (1) protein-rich foods
Functions of zinc support metalloenzymes growth and development immunity behavior learning performance blood clotting and wound healing taste sperm and fetal development thyroid hormone function help make retinal form of vitamin A
Function of metalloenzymes (9) make DNA make RNA make heme fatty acid metabolism carbohydrate metabolism alcohol metabolism release vitamin A from liver protein synthesis gets rid of harmful free radicals
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True/false: zinc is absorbed where and when it is needed. True
Function of iodine (1) regulate metabolism (part of thyroid hormone)
Hormone iodine is a part of... (1) part of thyroid hormone
Iodine deficiency goiter
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Goiter enlarged thyroid gland
Sources of iodine (4) iodized salt seafood bread dairy
Minerals in seafood (4) iodine magnesium selenium copper fluoride
Functions of selenium (3) antioxidant protect against some cancers thyroid hormone regulation
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Where selenium is found (4) seafood meat whole grains vegetables
Functions of copper (4) antioxidants part of enzymes that deal with oxidation use of oxygen in making hemoglobin metabolic reactions
Copper and use of oxygen mineral involved in use of oxygen to make hemoglobin
Where copper is found (4) legumes/nuts seafood whole grains water in houses with copper plumbing
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Functions of manganese (3) cofactor in metabolism bone formation pyruvate conversion
Where manganese is found (4) nuts whole grains leafy vegetables tea
Minerals in whole grains (7) manganese copper magnesium iron selenium molybdenum chromium
Functions of fluoride (2) make teeth and bones prevent tooth decay
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Where fluoride is found (3) fluoridated drinking water seafood tea
Function of chromium (1) enhance insulin action
Low levels of chromium cause... cause high blood sugar
Where chromium is found (4) meat liver whole grains Brewer's yeast
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Function of molybdenum (1) cofactor in some enzymes
Where molybdenum is found (3) legumes grains organ meats
Minerals in leafy vegetables (5) sodium magnesium iron selenium manganese
Minerals in tea (2) fluoride manganese
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 Waterbody's most indispensable nutrient
 Soft water componenthas high concentration of sodium and potassium
 Soft water and disease statusType of water that can aggravate hypertension and heart disease
 ADH released from...hormone that is released from the pituitary gland in response to high salt concentration
 ADH functionhormone that causes kidneys to reabsorb water
 Renin released by...enzyme released by kidneys in response to low blood flow
 Renin functionenzyme that causes kidneys to reabsorb sodium and restores blood volume and pressure
 Angiotensin functionprotein converted from angiotensinogen that causes blood vessels to constrict, thus raising blood pressure
 Aldosterone released from...released from adrenal gland under control of angiotensinogen
 Aldosterone functioncauses kidneys to retain sodium
 Electrolytessalts that dissolve in water and dissociate into charged particles called ions
 Intracellular ionsPhosphate
Magnesium
Potassium
Sulfur
 Extracellular ionsSodium
Chloride
 Lungs and acid-base balancerespiratory rate varies to maintain homeostasis
 Kidneys and acid-base balancechooses which ions to keep/excrete
urine acidity varies to keep body acid content balanced
 Sources of sodium (6)table salt
processed foods
meat
milk
breads
vegetables
 Salt tablets and physical activitycan cause dehydration if water is not consumed
 Functions of chloride (3)maintain normal fluid/electrolyte balance
part of hydrochloric acid
proper digestion
 Functions of potassium (6)maintain normal fluid/electrolyte balance
facilitate many reactions
maintain cell integrity
nerve impulse transmission
muscle contraction
maintains heartbeat
 People at risk for potassium depletionpeople who do not eat, or eat very small amounts of, fruits and vetables
 High potassium intakes can...causes increase in blood pressure
 Low potassium intakes can...can prevent and correct hypertension
 Age and bone massfull potential of density and size during first 30 years of life
 Functions of phosphorous (6)mineralize bones and teeth
part of every cell
genetic material
part of phospholipids
energy transfer
acid-base balance (buffer systems)
 Lipid transportationdone by lipids with phosphorous as part of structure
 Functions of magnesium (8)mineralize bones and teeth
builds protein
enzyme action
nerve impulse transmission
muscle contraction
immune system functioning
blood clotting
pancreatic secretions
 Nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction (2)done by potassium and magnesium
 Sources of magnesium (7)nuts/legumes
whole grains
dark green vegetables
seafood
chocolate/cocoa
hard water
some mineral waters
 Normal electrolyte/fluid balance (2)done by potassium and chloride
 Where sulfate is found (1)essential nutrients, including protein
 Trace minerals in the bodyneeded only in small amounts in the body
obtained from variety of foods
 Trace minerals toxicitytoxicity easily reached by supplements
 Amount of trace minerals in foods depends on... (3)depends on water and soil composition, processing, and bioavailability
 Trace mineral deficienciesmild deficiencies overlooked
affect everyone, but affect growth in children
 True/false: The FDA doesn't limit trace mineral supplement useTrue
 Trace minerals can causecan cause nutrient imbalances
 Trace mineral interactioncommon
interaction that is coordinated to meet body's needs
 Iron is a part of... (2)part of hemoglobin and myoglobin
 Functions of iron (3)enzyme activity
energy metabolism
cofactor in redox reactions
 Heme ironfound in animals
10% daily intake
25% of intake actually absorbed
 Nonheme ironfound in plants
90% daily intake
17% intake actually absorbed
 Ferrous ironreduced iron
Fe 2+
 Ferric ironoxidized iron
Fe 3+
 Ferritinstores iron in digestive tract (mucosal cells)
 Transferrinprotein that transports iron in the body
 Where iron is found (6)meats
enriched grains
dark leafy vegetables
legumes
dried fruit
clams
 Meats and ironhigh bioavailability of iron
 Enriched grains and ironintermediate bioavailability of iron
 Dark leafy vegetables and ironlow bioavailability of iron
 Where iron is stored in the body (3)stored in bone marrow, liver, and spleen
 Hemosiderinprotein used to store iron when body concentration is too high
 Danger of too much ironcan act as a free radical
 Hepcidinregulate/inhibits iron storage and transportation
 Hemosiderosistoo much iron where there are large deposits of hemosiderin
 Large deposits of hemosiderin (4)tissues
heart
joints
liver
 Iron and heart diseasedisease caused by too much iron
 Iron and cancercaused by iron free radical damage of DNA
 Where zinc is found (1)protein-rich foods
 Functions of zincsupport metalloenzymes
growth and development
immunity
behavior
learning performance
blood clotting and wound healing
taste
sperm and fetal development
thyroid hormone function
help make retinal form of vitamin A
 Function of metalloenzymes (9)make DNA
make RNA
make heme
fatty acid metabolism
carbohydrate metabolism
alcohol metabolism
release vitamin A from liver
protein synthesis
gets rid of harmful free radicals
 True/false: zinc is absorbed where and when it is needed.True
 Function of iodine (1)regulate metabolism (part of thyroid hormone)
 Hormone iodine is a part of... (1)part of thyroid hormone
 Iodine deficiencygoiter
 Goiterenlarged thyroid gland
 Sources of iodine (4)iodized salt
seafood
bread
dairy
 Minerals in seafood (4)iodine
magnesium
selenium
copper
fluoride
 Functions of selenium (3)antioxidant
protect against some cancers
thyroid hormone regulation
 Where selenium is found (4)seafood
meat
whole grains
vegetables
 Functions of copper (4)antioxidants
part of enzymes that deal with oxidation
use of oxygen in making hemoglobin
metabolic reactions
 Copper and use of oxygenmineral involved in use of oxygen to make hemoglobin
 Where copper is found (4)legumes/nuts
seafood
whole grains
water in houses with copper plumbing
 Functions of manganese (3)cofactor in metabolism
bone formation
pyruvate conversion
 Where manganese is found (4)nuts
whole grains
leafy vegetables
tea
 Minerals in whole grains (7)manganese
copper
magnesium
iron
selenium
molybdenum
chromium
 Functions of fluoride (2)make teeth and bones
prevent tooth decay
 Where fluoride is found (3)fluoridated drinking water
seafood
tea
 Function of chromium (1)enhance insulin action
 Low levels of chromium cause...cause high blood sugar
 Where chromium is found (4)meat
liver
whole grains
Brewer's yeast
 Function of molybdenum (1)cofactor in some enzymes
 Where molybdenum is found (3)legumes
grains
organ meats
 Minerals in leafy vegetables (5)sodium
magnesium
iron
selenium
manganese
 Minerals in tea (2)fluoride
manganese
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