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Class:HWC 204 - Western Civilization I
Subject:Humanities & Western Civ
University:University of Kansas
Term:Fall 2009
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Empiricism In philosophy, empiricism is a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge arises from sense experience.
a priori An a priori language is any constructed language whose vocabulary is not based on existing languages, unlike a posteriori constructed languages.
ethics Ethics (also known as moral philosophy) is a branch of philosophy which seeks to address questions about morality; that is, about concepts like good and bad, right and wrong, justice, virtue, etc.
epistemology Epistemology (from Greek - episteme-, "knowledge, science" + , "logos") or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge.
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metaphysics Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science.
hylomorphism Hylomorphism (Greek - hylo-, "wood, matter" + -morphism < Greek , morph, "form") is a philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which analyzes substance into matter and form.
divine law Divine law is any law (or ) that in the opinion of believers, comes directly from the will of God (or a god).
human law look up
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doctrine of the mean The Doctrine of the Mean (), is both a concept and one of the books of Neo-Confucian teachings .
democracy Democracy is a political government either carried out by the people (direct democracy), or the power to govern is granted to elected representatives (Representative democracy).
political animal Political Animal is a show hosted by British comedians John Oliver and Andy Zaltzman in which various stand-up comedians perform political material.
philosopher king Philosopher kings are the hypothetical rulers, or Guardians, of Plato's Utopian Kallipolis.
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justice Justice is the concept of moral rightness based on ethics, rationality, law, natural law, religion, fairness, or equity.
ring of gyges The Ring of Gyges is a mythical magical artifact mentioned by the philosopher Plato in Book 2 of The Republic (2.359a-2.360d).
allegory of the cave The Allegory of the Cave, also commonly known as Myth of the Cave, Metaphor of the Cave, The Cave Analogy, Plato's Cave or the Parable of the Cave, is an allegory used by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work The Republic to illustrate "our nature in its education and want of education".
the divided line Plato, in his dialogue The Republic Book 6 (509D-513E), has Socrates explain the literary device of a divided line to teach basic philosophical ideas about the four levels of existence (especially the intelligible world and the visible world) and the corresponding ways we come to knowledge about what exists, or come to mere opinions about what exists.
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constitutions A constitution is a set of rules for government-often codified as a written document-that enumerates the powers and functions of a political entity.
socratic wisdom look up
the gods in the Aeneid look up
scrolls of fate look up
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theory of forms Plato's theory of Forms or theory of Ideas asserts that non-material abstract (but substantial) forms (or ideas), and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess the highest and most fundamental kind of reality.
gadfly analogy look up
relativism Relativism is the idea that some elements or aspects of experience or culture are relative to, i.e., dependent on, other elements or aspects.
flood story from the Epic of Gilgamesh look upl
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Dido Dido was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first Queen of Carthage (in modern-day Tunisia).
Augustus Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC - 19 August AD 14), was the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 31 BC until his death in AD 14. Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, he was adopted by his great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC, and between then and 31 BC was officially named Gaius Julius Caesar.
Nero Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (15 December AD 37 - 9 June AD 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Meletus The Apology of Socrates by Plato names Meletus as the chief accuser of Socrates.
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four-document hypothesis A Four Document Hypothesis is an explanation for the relationship between the three Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke.
stoicism Stoicism was a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early .
eros Eros ( or ; rs) is passionate love, with sensual desire and longing.
pietas In Roman mythology, Pietas was the goddess of duty to one's state, gods and family and a personification of the Roman virtue of pietas.
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vir look up
seneca's views on death look up
mt. zion Mount Zion (, Har Tsion) is an elevation west of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.
israel Israel (, ; , ) officially the State of Israel (Hebrew: , ; , ), is a country in Western Asia located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea.
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yahweh Allah and Yahweh are the personal names of the Gods of the Quran and Bible, respectively.
genesis The Book of Genesis (Greek: , "birth", "origin") or Bereshith (Hebrew: , "in the beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible, and the first of five books of the Torah, called the Pentateuch in the Christian Old Testament.
Exodus * The Book of Exodus is the second book of the Torah and the Christian Bible.
Job Job (; , '), is a gentile man in the Book of Job in the Hebrew Bible, as well as a prophet in Islam.
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Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives that, according to the Hebrew Bible, were spoken by God to the people of Israel from the mountain referred to as "Mount Sinai" () or "Horeb" (), and later authored by God and given to Moses in the form of two stone tablets.
cult of Dionysus The Cult of Dionysus is strongly associated with satyrs, centaurs, and sileni, and its characteristic symbols are the bull, the serpent, the ivy, and the wine.
origins of tragedy look up
plato Plato () (Greek: ', Pltn, "broad") (428/427 BC - 348/347 BC), was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
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Aristotle Aristotle (, Aristotls) (384 BC - 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.
immanent dualism look up
transcendent dualism look up
punic wars The Punic Wars are a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 to 146 BC.
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hubris Hubris (/hjubrs/) (ancient Greek ) is a term used in modern English to indicate overweening pride, haughtiness, or arrogance, often resulting in fatal retribution or Nemesis.
sophists Sophism can mean two very different things: In the modern definition, a sophism is a confusing or illogical argument used for deceiving someone.
guardians look up
auxiliaries An auxiliary force is a group affiliated with, but not part of, a military or police organization.
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enuma elish The ' is the Babylonian creation myth (named after its opening words).
myth of the metals look up
natural slaves look up
teleology Teleology (Greek: telos: end, purpose) is the philosophical study of design and purpose.
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polity Polity (Greek: or transliterated as Politea or Polteuma) is a form of government Aristotle developed in his search for a government that could be most easily incorporated and used by the largest amount of people groups, or states.
oligarchy An oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkha) (oligocracy) is a form of government in which power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society distinguished by royal, wealth, intellectual, family, military, or religious hegemony.
cosmology Cosmology (from Greek - , kosmos, "universe"; and , , "study") is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanity's place in it.
Hellenism Hellenism, as a neoclassical movement distinct from other Roman or Greco-Roman forms of neoclassicism emerging after the European Renaissance, is most often associated with Germany and England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
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Minoans The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age civilization which arose on the island of Crete.
Mycenaeans Mycenaean Greece (c.
arete Arete (Greek: ; in English), in its basic sense, means "goodness", "excellence", or "virtue" of any kind.
dialectic Dialectic (also called dialectics or the dialectical method) is a method of argument, which has been central to both Eastern and Western philosophy since ancient times.
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the noble lie In politics a noble lie is a myth or untruth, often, but not invariably, of a religious nature, knowingly told by an elite to maintain social harmony, particularly the social position of that elite.
apatheia Apatheia () in Stoic philosophy refers to a state of mind where one is free from emotional disturbance.
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 EmpiricismIn philosophy, empiricism is a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge arises from sense experience.
 a prioriAn a priori language is any constructed language whose vocabulary is not based on existing languages, unlike a posteriori constructed languages.
 ethicsEthics (also known as moral philosophy) is a branch of philosophy which seeks to address questions about morality; that is, about concepts like good and bad, right and wrong, justice, virtue, etc.
 epistemologyEpistemology (from Greek - episteme-, "knowledge, science" + , "logos") or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge.
 metaphysicsMetaphysics is a branch of philosophy that investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science.
 hylomorphismHylomorphism (Greek - hylo-, "wood, matter" + -morphism < Greek , morph, "form") is a philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which analyzes substance into matter and form.
 divine lawDivine law is any law (or ) that in the opinion of believers, comes directly from the will of God (or a god).
 human lawlook up
 doctrine of the meanThe Doctrine of the Mean (), is both a concept and one of the books of Neo-Confucian teachings .
 democracyDemocracy is a political government either carried out by the people (direct democracy), or the power to govern is granted to elected representatives (Representative democracy).
 political animalPolitical Animal is a show hosted by British comedians John Oliver and Andy Zaltzman in which various stand-up comedians perform political material.
 philosopher kingPhilosopher kings are the hypothetical rulers, or Guardians, of Plato's Utopian Kallipolis.
 justiceJustice is the concept of moral rightness based on ethics, rationality, law, natural law, religion, fairness, or equity.
 ring of gygesThe Ring of Gyges is a mythical magical artifact mentioned by the philosopher Plato in Book 2 of The Republic (2.359a-2.360d).
 allegory of the caveThe Allegory of the Cave, also commonly known as Myth of the Cave, Metaphor of the Cave, The Cave Analogy, Plato's Cave or the Parable of the Cave, is an allegory used by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work The Republic to illustrate "our nature in its education and want of education".
 the divided linePlato, in his dialogue The Republic Book 6 (509D-513E), has Socrates explain the literary device of a divided line to teach basic philosophical ideas about the four levels of existence (especially the intelligible world and the visible world) and the corresponding ways we come to knowledge about what exists, or come to mere opinions about what exists.
 constitutionsA constitution is a set of rules for government-often codified as a written document-that enumerates the powers and functions of a political entity.
 socratic wisdomlook up
 the gods in the Aeneidlook up
 scrolls of fatelook up
 theory of formsPlato's theory of Forms or theory of Ideas asserts that non-material abstract (but substantial) forms (or ideas), and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess the highest and most fundamental kind of reality.
 gadfly analogylook up
 relativismRelativism is the idea that some elements or aspects of experience or culture are relative to, i.e., dependent on, other elements or aspects.
 flood story from the Epic of Gilgameshlook upl
 DidoDido was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first Queen of Carthage (in modern-day Tunisia).
 AugustusGaius Julius Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC - 19 August AD 14), was the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 31 BC until his death in AD 14. Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, he was adopted by his great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC, and between then and 31 BC was officially named Gaius Julius Caesar.
 NeroNero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (15 December AD 37 - 9 June AD 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
 MeletusThe Apology of Socrates by Plato names Meletus as the chief accuser of Socrates.
 four-document hypothesisA Four Document Hypothesis is an explanation for the relationship between the three Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke.
 stoicismStoicism was a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early .
 erosEros ( or ; rs) is passionate love, with sensual desire and longing.
 pietasIn Roman mythology, Pietas was the goddess of duty to one's state, gods and family and a personification of the Roman virtue of pietas.
 virlook up
 seneca's views on deathlook up
 mt. zionMount Zion (, Har Tsion) is an elevation west of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.
 israelIsrael (, ; , ) officially the State of Israel (Hebrew: , ; , ), is a country in Western Asia located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea.
 yahwehAllah and Yahweh are the personal names of the Gods of the Quran and Bible, respectively.
 genesisThe Book of Genesis (Greek: , "birth", "origin") or Bereshith (Hebrew: , "in the beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible, and the first of five books of the Torah, called the Pentateuch in the Christian Old Testament.
 Exodus* The Book of Exodus is the second book of the Torah and the Christian Bible.
 JobJob (; , '), is a gentile man in the Book of Job in the Hebrew Bible, as well as a prophet in Islam.
 Ten CommandmentsThe Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives that, according to the Hebrew Bible, were spoken by God to the people of Israel from the mountain referred to as "Mount Sinai" () or "Horeb" (), and later authored by God and given to Moses in the form of two stone tablets.
 cult of DionysusThe Cult of Dionysus is strongly associated with satyrs, centaurs, and sileni, and its characteristic symbols are the bull, the serpent, the ivy, and the wine.
 origins of tragedylook up
 platoPlato () (Greek: ', Pltn, "broad") (428/427 BC - 348/347 BC), was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
 AristotleAristotle (, Aristotls) (384 BC - 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.
 immanent dualismlook up
 transcendent dualismlook up
 punic warsThe Punic Wars are a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 to 146 BC.
 hubrisHubris (/hjubrs/) (ancient Greek ) is a term used in modern English to indicate overweening pride, haughtiness, or arrogance, often resulting in fatal retribution or Nemesis.
 sophistsSophism can mean two very different things: In the modern definition, a sophism is a confusing or illogical argument used for deceiving someone.
 guardianslook up
 auxiliariesAn auxiliary force is a group affiliated with, but not part of, a military or police organization.
 enuma elishThe ' is the Babylonian creation myth (named after its opening words).
 myth of the metalslook up
 natural slaveslook up
 teleologyTeleology (Greek: telos: end, purpose) is the philosophical study of design and purpose.
 polityPolity (Greek: or transliterated as Politea or Polteuma) is a form of government Aristotle developed in his search for a government that could be most easily incorporated and used by the largest amount of people groups, or states.
 oligarchyAn oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkha) (oligocracy) is a form of government in which power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society distinguished by royal, wealth, intellectual, family, military, or religious hegemony.
 cosmologyCosmology (from Greek - , kosmos, "universe"; and , , "study") is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanity's place in it.
 HellenismHellenism, as a neoclassical movement distinct from other Roman or Greco-Roman forms of neoclassicism emerging after the European Renaissance, is most often associated with Germany and England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
 MinoansThe Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age civilization which arose on the island of Crete.
 MycenaeansMycenaean Greece (c.
 areteArete (Greek: ; in English), in its basic sense, means "goodness", "excellence", or "virtue" of any kind.
 dialecticDialectic (also called dialectics or the dialectical method) is a method of argument, which has been central to both Eastern and Western philosophy since ancient times.
 the noble lieIn politics a noble lie is a myth or untruth, often, but not invariably, of a religious nature, knowingly told by an elite to maintain social harmony, particularly the social position of that elite.
 apatheiaApatheia () in Stoic philosophy refers to a state of mind where one is free from emotional disturbance.
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