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supplements - Flashcards

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Class:INAR 06415 - Nutrition for Fitness
Subject:Industrial Arts
University:Rowan University
Term:Fall 2014
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Supplement” Defined? Any product (other than tobacco) intended to supplement the diet that contains one of more of the following ingredients: Does NOT mean replacement 

Vitamins Minerals Herbs/Botanicals Amino acid Enzymes Metabolite or any combination of these ingredients
FDA does regulate supplements  however limited control – drugs undergo clinical testing & report findings to FDA – supplements manufacturers must notify FDA, but NOT required to test
must have some evidence product is safe & effective; don’t always know what you are getting – burden of proof falls on FDA NOT manufacturer – FDA must PROVE supplement taken under recommended doses is unsafe (if someone takes in excess NOT manufacturers problem)
Statements of Nutritional Support claim statements in 1 of 4 categories 1. Benefit relating to classical nutrient deficiency disease (folic acid & neural tube defects) 
2. Describing role of nutrient & effect on structure or function of body a. can’t say “prevents osteoporosis” but can say important in developing bone strength 
3. Mechanism by which nutrient acts to maintain structure & function a. vitamin D  absorption of Ca++ at small intestine &  excretion at kidneys 
4. Claim describing general well being from consuming nutrient (e.g. elevates mood states)
watch labels 1. “supplement has NOT been approved by FDA” 2. product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease 
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Approach to Supplements 1. NOTHING can take place of a quality nutritional & exercise program 2. Ask why they want to use supplement • What do they know about it? • Don’t minimize their beliefs 3. Educate them on what research says • Show them how research can be manipulated • Be careful about cause and effect (placebo effect) • Talk about side effects 4. Ask them how long do they plan to take this • How much is this going to cost them? • What are they going to do when they stop?
 5. Evaluate their current nutritional program • Get them to correct this first “FOOD FIRST” 
6. Now they can make their own decision
energy drinks are the most Commonly Used Supplement
Energy Drinks May Contain a Variety of Substances Sugar : glucose/fructose (maltodexrin) Electrolytes: sodium, potassium, chloride 
B Vitamins: B6 , B12, Folic Acid, Choline Taurine: A.A. like compound which stimulates CNS; antioxidant 
Ginko : vasodilation of blood vessels in brain (memory) 
Ginseng (p. 376): motivation & arousal (hypothalmic-pituitary axis) Inositol: transmission of nerve impulses; transport lipids Branch Chain Amino Acids (LIV) Carnitine
 (p. 376) (banned 2004) synephrine (bitter orange), Gaurana Caffeine

Energy Drinks (1 cup of coffee = about 80 mg) true
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Concerns about Caffeine Use Health side effects – increase nervousness, heart rate, blood pressure 
Body size: caffeine’s effect is relative Tolerance: decrease effect when consumed regularly Dependence: withdrawal symptoms
Possible negative effects on performance – substitute for proper nutrition. decrease nutrient intake – substitute for proper sleep – dehydration

Proposed Mechanisms for Ergogenic Action caffeine 1. increase release of epinephrine (know effects)
2. Acts directly on fat cells causing lipolysis – increase plasma fatty acids, increase fat oxidation – spares liver/muscle glycogen (carb. sparing) 
3. CNS stimulant – produces analgesic effect on CNS
4. Increase motor-neuronal excitability (increase motor unit recruitment) – increase release of Ca++ in muscle cell which may increase muscle contraction & therefore force production 
5. Slight elevation in metabolic rate **effects seen when NOT consuming regularly
with caffeine Cycling 80% max power to exhaustion Beyond 5 mg/kg no > effect – 5 mg/kg won’t reach IOC doping limits – 165 lb person = 375 mg or… 4.5 cups of coffee
Brand Name Fat Burners Almost all weight loss, fat burning, metabolic boosters contain… – caffeine anhydrous, guarana 
– appetite suppressant – herbs (Hoodia, Garcenia Cambogia, Glucomman, Yohimbe)
 – 1,3 Dimethylamylamine (DMMA): stimulant derived from the geranium plant (now banned)
Hydroxycut – synephrine, caffeine (~200 mg recommended 6x’s/day = 1200 mg [old version), Garcinia Cambogia, Green Tea, Gymnema; Chromium
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Brand Name Fat Burners Stacker - Guarana, caffeine, chitosan (fiber that binds fatty acids), Citrus Aurantium (synephrine); Green Tea 
Brand Name Fat Burners Xenadrine caffeine, synephrine
Lipo-6 - ephedra sinica; caffeine, Citrus Aurantium, Yohimbine, HCA 


In all products it’s Caffeine & Guarana that is primarily creating effect
Garcinia Cambogia
Fruit found in Southeast Asia
Contains Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA)
– HCA inhibits an enzyme that converts carbs to
fat (suppresses fat synthesis)
– increase carbohydrate oxidation
With full glycogen stores, suggested side effect
appetite suppression
– this would decrease food intake and promote weight loss
Probably only works with excessive carb intake
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Hoodia
Cactus like plant in Africa
Hoodia gordonii contains P57 that
tricks hypothalamus to thinking body is full
Few well controlled clinical studies have shown significant results
– safety has not been significantly established
Yohimbe
Bark of an African Tree
Functions as monoamine oxidase (MAO)
inhibitor, which increase levels of norepinephrine
– Stimulate CNS
– ↓ monoamines (norepi and serotonin) may lead
to depression
Promoted to increase testosterone for muscle building, strength gains & fat loss
– no solid scientific proof that it is either anabolic
or thermogenic 
Glucomman
Source: Asian plant called Konjac
Soluble fiber
– creates “satiety” which may suppress appetite
– may lower cholesterol & triglyceride
As with all fibers, it binds to a variety of
nutrients, decrease their absorption
– take multi-vitamin & make sure diet is appropriate
2nd Most Commonly Used Supplements Protein and Amino Acids
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Milk Protein Supplements whey
casein 


High quality proteins – measured by containing all essential AA & digestibility
whey? about 20% of cow’s milk protein – Moves quickly through GI & into bloodstream rapid rise in blood amino acids creating short lived increase in protein synthesis (normal within hrs)
\


Casein – about 80% of cow’s milk protein – Moves slowly through GI & into blood stream Slow rise last at least 7 hours which stimulates protein synthesis to a smaller extent, but ↓ protein breakdown more than whey
Colostrum “Pre-milk” animals secrete prior to producing milk – derived from cows – high quality protein – contains anti-bodies beneficial to immune system
No adverse side effects up to doses of 60 g/day
 – individuals with milk allergies should avoid whey & caisen also can be made allergen free (look at label)
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Soy Quality source of protein w/o concern for lactose intolerant client/athletes.
 Offers other health benefits in soy (phytochemicals) 
Soy offers an estrogen blocking effect – potentially beneficial when taking testosterone precursors
Recommendations for Protein Supplements throughout Day morning Morning – overnight fast & potential reduction in carb stores may create protein catabolism ( cortisol) – quick digesting protein (whey protein shake with carbs 4:1 carb to protein ratio) 
post training enzymes responsible for protein synthesis are primed – quick digesting protein (carbs to whey protein shake with 3:1 carb to protein ratio) 
Throughout Day – avoid long periods of time b/t meals to prevent muscle catabolism – need for quick absorbing proteins is limited; focus on slow long lasting casein proteins 
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Before Bed? – preparing for fast & potential muscle catabolism – low calorie slow acting casein protein 
Arginine/ Citrulline Non-essential amino acid – (semi-essential or conditionally essentia) Research: decrease symptoms of CAD, slow atherosclerosis 
– inhibits adherence of cells to vessel walls 
– causes vasodilation via nitric oxide pathway Exercisers supplement for “pump”; idea is to deliver nutrients to muscle cells, during & after exercis
– Arginine-alpha-keto-glutarate – more absorbable form found in most supplements 
Must contain 3 g of arginine for pump
Non-specific vasodilatory effect w/o exercise increase blood flow to whole body – take 30 min prior to exercise 
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Muscle size gains questionable, short term pump real body adept in supplying nutrients to muscle during exercise
Side effects of  “hypotension” 

Will not be able to achieve effect through diet 
N.O. XPLODE – 8-10 g/day
Pre-Workout Supplements Arginine: vasodilator 
Creatine: ATP/PC (5g) 
Beta Alanine: buffering capacity (1.5 -5g) 
Caffeine: 200-500 mg 
BCAA’s: 5 grams 
1,3 dimethylamylamine: stimulant (banned)
Schizandrol A: enhances mood especially when combined with stimulants 
“proprietary blend
Creatine N+ containing compound made from A.A. metabolism 
95% is found in muscle 
Found in meat, poultry & fish 
– body requires ~2g/day, more if active
 – body synthesizes 1 g/day (liver) 
– 1 gram/ 8 oz. of meat 
– vegetarians could be deficient
Role in energy production – stored as ATP/PC – Supplemental form creatine monohydrate & creatine ethyl-ester Claims – increase energy, lean tissue, strength
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Creatine Claims – >100 studies show improvement in HIGH intensity, short term activities (anaerobic sports) – probably little for low intensity longer duration
Benefits: – faster ATP turnover; delay PC depletion – delay dependence on glycolysis – facilitate recovery from repeated bouts of exercise
Body mass increase 1-5 lbs** (regardless of testosterone concentration) 

Creatine muscle tissue or water retention? Does increase weight come from muscle tissue or water retention? 
probably combination – muscle: stretching of cell membrane & increase energy
Creatine Loading “Loading phase”  20 -30 grams daily for 5 -7 days – PC levels rise, but remain high (increase 30%) for only a few days,
Creatine Loading Maintenance phase 2 -5 g daily – **in addition to diet w/o maintenance phase creatine levels are normal by 35 days 
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Alternative Loading creatine loading
– 3-5 g/day for 28 days gives same creatine levels 
– Monohydrate – 5 -10/day
– Ethyl -Ester – 2.5 -5g/day 
– (nitrate, Hydrochloride, anhydrous) 
Creatine with Carbohydrate increase muscle 
B-Hydroxy B-Methylbutyrate (HMB) Metabolite from breakdown of leucine 
– small amount in protein rich foods milk & fish 
– role in regulating protein metabolism may reduce protein catabolism 

HMB claims – decrease protein loss by inhibiting protein catabolism 
– muscle building 
– fat reducing 

Target resistance training athletes
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HMB research HMB group showed blunted rise in proteolysis – Results seen w/i several wks – last week of study fat free mass changes were NOT sig
Used by NASA to prevent muscle wasting in astronauts – ↓ effect on trained individuals 
No side affects have been seen at this time
Testosterone Boosters boosters naturally occurring plants, vitamins, & synthetic chemicals that supplement companies claim may ↑ testosterone 
help body produce more test
types of boosters – Tribulus 
ZMA: zinc magnesium aspartate
 – Fenugreek
Pro-hormones precursor to hormone, having minimal hormonal effect by itself, function is to enhance strength of the hormone
 – add no hormones whereas steroids add hormones 
Generated by Koofers.com
types of pro-hormones – DHEA (legal) 
– androstenediol
Tribulus Herb used to treat impotence, found in supplements marketed to increase testosterone
Studies shown slight increases in testosterone
 – within normal & safe levels 
– shown to increase estrodiol levels
May be effective if low testosterone – no change in those with normal levels 
No side effects with supplemental doses
 – animal studies, locomotor concerns when consumed in high quantities
ZMA Claims: ↑ anabolic hormones & therefore strength
Zinc: catabolism of macronutrients for energy 
 low zinc prevents pituitary from releasing hormones that stimulate testosterone production 
– inhibits enzymes that convert testosterone into estrogen
Magnesium: coenzyme, assists enzymes to release energy from carb/fat/protein.
involved in stress response; extreme stress affects hormonal release (cortisol) – low test. in endurance athletes; since that is stressful; magnesium could help raise test? Deficiencies in Mg++ common
the B6 do in ZMA  aids in formation of neurotransmitters so essential for regulation of mental processes/mood 
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Testosterone Precursors Testosterone Precursors (“pro-hormones”)
 – compounds that can be converted into testosterone 
– Do not “add” hormones like A.S., rather provide precursor to make them
“negative feedback system”
androstenediol • Androstenedione • DHEA • pregnenolone and progesterone
ANTI-AROMATASE Aromatase: enzyme converts test to estrogen
Claim: ↑ natural testosterone production & minimize production of estrogens in body”
 – “scientifically proven to ↑ free testosterone levels > 600%
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Steroid hormone synthesized in adrenal cortex
 – precursor to testosterone, estrogen & cortisol 
– levels decrease with aging
Claims – increase muscle mass, decrease fat mass 
– anti-aging 
– stimulates sex drive
DHEA long term? Little known about long term effects 
May increase testosterone level, muscle mass, promote feelings of well-being, & immune function, in 40-70 yr. 
– NOT substantiated in younger healthy populations 
Concerns (no research) 
– altered hormone profiles 
– liver abnormalities 
– increase risk of prostate & breast cancer, – banned substance in sports Studies have shown amount on label & actual (150%- 0%) only 50% had proper amounts
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Essential Amino Acids – Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, 
Non-essential Amino Acids
Arginine, Alanine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid,
Cysteine, Glutamine, Glutamic acid, Glycine,
Proline, Serine, Tyrosine, (Histidine: semi-essential)
Branch Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) three essential amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, valine (LIV) 
Glutamine Most abundant AA in muscle (non-essential) Precursor in synthesis of other amino acids (transamination) & glucose
– thought to increase cell volume (muscle size & glycogen storage) Intense exercise increase cortisol release 
– cortisol causes muscle breakdown 
– suppresses immune system; glutamine improves immune system (energy source) 
Glutamine counteracts effects of cortisol – acts as an “anti-catabolic” supplement No negative side effects up to 20 g/day (inexpensive) Research equivacol
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L-Carnitine Amino acid made in liver & kidneys from other amino acids
 – found in meat & dairy products Carnitine Transferase transfers fatty acids into mitochondria May help inhibit pyruvate conversion to lactic acid 
Claims
 – increase endurance
 – increase fat metabolism 
– Lower cholesterol & triglyceride levels 
Research on L-Carnitine Research - patients with muscle weakness, kidney disease, on restricted diet, benefit seen – due to loss of carnitine loss in kidneys
May help vegetarians/diets low in animal proteins who are deficient in carnitine in diet 
Healthy populations, show NO benefit from supplementation if diet is adequate No research indicates potential side effects
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 Supplement” Defined?Any product (other than tobacco) intended to supplement the diet that contains one of more of the following ingredients: Does NOT mean replacement 

Vitamins Minerals Herbs/Botanicals Amino acid Enzymes Metabolite or any combination of these ingredients
 FDA does regulate supplements however limited control – drugs undergo clinical testing & report findings to FDA – supplements manufacturers must notify FDA, but NOT required to test
must have some evidence product is safe & effective; don’t always know what you are getting – burden of proof falls on FDA NOT manufacturer – FDA must PROVE supplement taken under recommended doses is unsafe (if someone takes in excess NOT manufacturers problem)
 Statements of Nutritional Support claim statements in 1 of 4 categories1. Benefit relating to classical nutrient deficiency disease (folic acid & neural tube defects) 
2. Describing role of nutrient & effect on structure or function of body a. can’t say “prevents osteoporosis” but can say important in developing bone strength 
3. Mechanism by which nutrient acts to maintain structure & function a. vitamin D  absorption of Ca++ at small intestine &  excretion at kidneys 
4. Claim describing general well being from consuming nutrient (e.g. elevates mood states)
 watch labels1. “supplement has NOT been approved by FDA” 2. product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease 
 Approach to Supplements1. NOTHING can take place of a quality nutritional & exercise program 2. Ask why they want to use supplement • What do they know about it? • Don’t minimize their beliefs 3. Educate them on what research says • Show them how research can be manipulated • Be careful about cause and effect (placebo effect) • Talk about side effects 4. Ask them how long do they plan to take this • How much is this going to cost them? • What are they going to do when they stop?
 5. Evaluate their current nutritional program • Get them to correct this first “FOOD FIRST” 
6. Now they can make their own decision
 energy drinks are the mostCommonly Used Supplement
 Energy Drinks May Contain a Variety of SubstancesSugar : glucose/fructose (maltodexrin) Electrolytes: sodium, potassium, chloride 
B Vitamins: B6 , B12, Folic Acid, Choline Taurine: A.A. like compound which stimulates CNS; antioxidant 
Ginko : vasodilation of blood vessels in brain (memory) 
Ginseng (p. 376): motivation & arousal (hypothalmic-pituitary axis) Inositol: transmission of nerve impulses; transport lipids Branch Chain Amino Acids (LIV) Carnitine
 (p. 376) (banned 2004) synephrine (bitter orange), Gaurana Caffeine

 Energy Drinks (1 cup of coffee = about 80 mg)true
 Concerns about Caffeine UseHealth side effects – increase nervousness, heart rate, blood pressure 
Body size: caffeine’s effect is relative Tolerance: decrease effect when consumed regularly Dependence: withdrawal symptoms
Possible negative effects on performance – substitute for proper nutrition. decrease nutrient intake – substitute for proper sleep – dehydration

 Proposed Mechanisms for Ergogenic Action caffeine1. increase release of epinephrine (know effects)
2. Acts directly on fat cells causing lipolysis – increase plasma fatty acids, increase fat oxidation – spares liver/muscle glycogen (carb. sparing) 
3. CNS stimulant – produces analgesic effect on CNS
4. Increase motor-neuronal excitability (increase motor unit recruitment) – increase release of Ca++ in muscle cell which may increase muscle contraction & therefore force production 
5. Slight elevation in metabolic rate **effects seen when NOT consuming regularly
 with caffeine Cycling 80% max power to exhaustionBeyond 5 mg/kg no > effect – 5 mg/kg won’t reach IOC doping limits – 165 lb person = 375 mg or… 4.5 cups of coffee
 Brand Name Fat BurnersAlmost all weight loss, fat burning, metabolic boosters contain… – caffeine anhydrous, guarana 
– appetite suppressant – herbs (Hoodia, Garcenia Cambogia, Glucomman, Yohimbe)
 – 1,3 Dimethylamylamine (DMMA): stimulant derived from the geranium plant (now banned)
Hydroxycut – synephrine, caffeine (~200 mg recommended 6x’s/day = 1200 mg [old version), Garcinia Cambogia, Green Tea, Gymnema; Chromium
 Brand Name Fat Burners Stacker -Guarana, caffeine, chitosan (fiber that binds fatty acids), Citrus Aurantium (synephrine); Green Tea 
 Brand Name Fat Burners Xenadrinecaffeine, synephrine
 Lipo-6 -ephedra sinica; caffeine, Citrus Aurantium, Yohimbine, HCA 


In all products it’s Caffeine & Guarana that is primarily creating effect
 Garcinia Cambogia
Fruit found in Southeast Asia
Contains Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA)
– HCA inhibits an enzyme that converts carbs to
fat (suppresses fat synthesis)
– increase carbohydrate oxidation
With full glycogen stores, suggested side effect
appetite suppression
– this would decrease food intake and promote weight loss
Probably only works with excessive carb intake
 Hoodia
Cactus like plant in Africa
Hoodia gordonii contains P57 that
tricks hypothalamus to thinking body is full
Few well controlled clinical studies have shown significant results
– safety has not been significantly established
 Yohimbe
Bark of an African Tree
Functions as monoamine oxidase (MAO)
inhibitor, which increase levels of norepinephrine
– Stimulate CNS
– ↓ monoamines (norepi and serotonin) may lead
to depression
Promoted to increase testosterone for muscle building, strength gains & fat loss
– no solid scientific proof that it is either anabolic
or thermogenic 
 Glucomman
Source: Asian plant called Konjac
Soluble fiber
– creates “satiety” which may suppress appetite
– may lower cholesterol & triglyceride
As with all fibers, it binds to a variety of
nutrients, decrease their absorption
– take multi-vitamin & make sure diet is appropriate
 2nd Most Commonly Used SupplementsProtein and Amino Acids
 Milk Protein Supplementswhey
casein 


High quality proteins – measured by containing all essential AA & digestibility
 whey?about 20% of cow’s milk protein – Moves quickly through GI & into bloodstream rapid rise in blood amino acids creating short lived increase in protein synthesis (normal within hrs)
\


 Casein– about 80% of cow’s milk protein – Moves slowly through GI & into blood stream Slow rise last at least 7 hours which stimulates protein synthesis to a smaller extent, but ↓ protein breakdown more than whey
 Colostrum“Pre-milk” animals secrete prior to producing milk – derived from cows – high quality protein – contains anti-bodies beneficial to immune system
No adverse side effects up to doses of 60 g/day
 – individuals with milk allergies should avoid whey & caisen also can be made allergen free (look at label)
 SoyQuality source of protein w/o concern for lactose intolerant client/athletes.
 Offers other health benefits in soy (phytochemicals) 
Soy offers an estrogen blocking effect – potentially beneficial when taking testosterone precursors
 Recommendations for Protein Supplements throughout Day morningMorning – overnight fast & potential reduction in carb stores may create protein catabolism ( cortisol) – quick digesting protein (whey protein shake with carbs 4:1 carb to protein ratio) 
 post trainingenzymes responsible for protein synthesis are primed – quick digesting protein (carbs to whey protein shake with 3:1 carb to protein ratio) 
 Throughout Day– avoid long periods of time b/t meals to prevent muscle catabolism – need for quick absorbing proteins is limited; focus on slow long lasting casein proteins 
 Before Bed?– preparing for fast & potential muscle catabolism – low calorie slow acting casein protein 
 Arginine/ CitrullineNon-essential amino acid – (semi-essential or conditionally essentia) Research: decrease symptoms of CAD, slow atherosclerosis 
– inhibits adherence of cells to vessel walls 
– causes vasodilation via nitric oxide pathway Exercisers supplement for “pump”; idea is to deliver nutrients to muscle cells, during & after exercis
– Arginine-alpha-keto-glutarate – more absorbable form found in most supplements 
 Must contain 3 g of arginine forpump
 Non-specific vasodilatory effectw/o exercise increase blood flow to whole body – take 30 min prior to exercise 
 Muscle size gains questionable, short term pump realbody adept in supplying nutrients to muscle during exercise
 Side effects of “hypotension” 

Will not be able to achieve effect through diet 
N.O. XPLODE – 8-10 g/day
 Pre-Workout SupplementsArginine: vasodilator 
Creatine: ATP/PC (5g) 
Beta Alanine: buffering capacity (1.5 -5g) 
Caffeine: 200-500 mg 
BCAA’s: 5 grams 
1,3 dimethylamylamine: stimulant (banned)
Schizandrol A: enhances mood especially when combined with stimulants 
“proprietary blend
 CreatineN+ containing compound made from A.A. metabolism 
95% is found in muscle 
Found in meat, poultry & fish 
– body requires ~2g/day, more if active
 – body synthesizes 1 g/day (liver) 
– 1 gram/ 8 oz. of meat 
– vegetarians could be deficient
Role in energy production – stored as ATP/PC – Supplemental form creatine monohydrate & creatine ethyl-ester Claims – increase energy, lean tissue, strength
 Creatine Claims– >100 studies show improvement in HIGH intensity, short term activities (anaerobic sports) – probably little for low intensity longer duration
Benefits: – faster ATP turnover; delay PC depletion – delay dependence on glycolysis – facilitate recovery from repeated bouts of exercise
Body mass increase 1-5 lbs** (regardless of testosterone concentration) 

 Creatine muscle tissue or water retention?Does increase weight come from muscle tissue or water retention? 
probably combination – muscle: stretching of cell membrane & increase energy
 Creatine Loading “Loading phase” 20 -30 grams daily for 5 -7 days – PC levels rise, but remain high (increase 30%) for only a few days,
 Creatine Loading Maintenance phase2 -5 g daily – **in addition to diet w/o maintenance phase creatine levels are normal by 35 days 
 Alternative Loading creatine loading
– 3-5 g/day for 28 days gives same creatine levels 
– Monohydrate – 5 -10/day
– Ethyl -Ester – 2.5 -5g/day 
– (nitrate, Hydrochloride, anhydrous) 
 Creatine with Carbohydrateincrease muscle 
 B-Hydroxy B-Methylbutyrate (HMB)Metabolite from breakdown of leucine 
– small amount in protein rich foods milk & fish 
– role in regulating protein metabolism may reduce protein catabolism 

 HMB claims– decrease protein loss by inhibiting protein catabolism 
– muscle building 
– fat reducing 

Target resistance training athletes
 HMB researchHMB group showed blunted rise in proteolysis – Results seen w/i several wks – last week of study fat free mass changes were NOT sig
Used by NASA to prevent muscle wasting in astronauts – ↓ effect on trained individuals 
No side affects have been seen at this time
 Testosterone Boosters boostersnaturally occurring plants, vitamins, & synthetic chemicals that supplement companies claim may ↑ testosterone 
help body produce more test
 types of boosters– Tribulus 
ZMA: zinc magnesium aspartate
 – Fenugreek
 Pro-hormonesprecursor to hormone, having minimal hormonal effect by itself, function is to enhance strength of the hormone
 – add no hormones whereas steroids add hormones 
 types of pro-hormones– DHEA (legal) 
– androstenediol
 TribulusHerb used to treat impotence, found in supplements marketed to increase testosterone
Studies shown slight increases in testosterone
 – within normal & safe levels 
– shown to increase estrodiol levels
May be effective if low testosterone – no change in those with normal levels 
No side effects with supplemental doses
 – animal studies, locomotor concerns when consumed in high quantities
 ZMAClaims: ↑ anabolic hormones & therefore strength
Zinc: catabolism of macronutrients for energy 
 low zinc prevents pituitary from releasing hormones that stimulate testosterone production 
– inhibits enzymes that convert testosterone into estrogen
Magnesium: coenzyme, assists enzymes to release energy from carb/fat/protein.
involved in stress response; extreme stress affects hormonal release (cortisol) – low test. in endurance athletes; since that is stressful; magnesium could help raise test? Deficiencies in Mg++ common
 the B6 do in ZMA aids in formation of neurotransmitters so essential for regulation of mental processes/mood 
 Testosterone PrecursorsTestosterone Precursors (“pro-hormones”)
 – compounds that can be converted into testosterone 
– Do not “add” hormones like A.S., rather provide precursor to make them
“negative feedback system”
androstenediol • Androstenedione • DHEA • pregnenolone and progesterone
 ANTI-AROMATASEAromatase: enzyme converts test to estrogen
Claim: ↑ natural testosterone production & minimize production of estrogens in body”
 – “scientifically proven to ↑ free testosterone levels > 600%
 Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)Steroid hormone synthesized in adrenal cortex
 – precursor to testosterone, estrogen & cortisol 
– levels decrease with aging
Claims – increase muscle mass, decrease fat mass 
– anti-aging 
– stimulates sex drive
 DHEA long term?Little known about long term effects 
May increase testosterone level, muscle mass, promote feelings of well-being, & immune function, in 40-70 yr. 
– NOT substantiated in younger healthy populations 
Concerns (no research) 
– altered hormone profiles 
– liver abnormalities 
– increase risk of prostate & breast cancer, – banned substance in sports Studies have shown amount on label & actual (150%- 0%) only 50% had proper amounts
 Essential Amino Acids– Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, 
 Non-essential Amino Acids
Arginine, Alanine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid,
Cysteine, Glutamine, Glutamic acid, Glycine,
Proline, Serine, Tyrosine, (Histidine: semi-essential)
 Branch Chain Amino Acids (BCAA)three essential amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, valine (LIV) 
 GlutamineMost abundant AA in muscle (non-essential) Precursor in synthesis of other amino acids (transamination) & glucose
– thought to increase cell volume (muscle size & glycogen storage) Intense exercise increase cortisol release 
– cortisol causes muscle breakdown 
– suppresses immune system; glutamine improves immune system (energy source) 
Glutamine counteracts effects of cortisol – acts as an “anti-catabolic” supplement No negative side effects up to 20 g/day (inexpensive) Research equivacol
 L-CarnitineAmino acid made in liver & kidneys from other amino acids
 – found in meat & dairy products Carnitine Transferase transfers fatty acids into mitochondria May help inhibit pyruvate conversion to lactic acid 
Claims
 – increase endurance
 – increase fat metabolism 
– Lower cholesterol & triglyceride levels 
 Research on L-CarnitineResearch - patients with muscle weakness, kidney disease, on restricted diet, benefit seen – due to loss of carnitine loss in kidneys
May help vegetarians/diets low in animal proteins who are deficient in carnitine in diet 
Healthy populations, show NO benefit from supplementation if diet is adequate No research indicates potential side effects
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