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Exam 2 - Flashcards

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Class:INFO 3130 - Management Information Systems
Subject:Management Information Systems
University:University of North Carolina - Charlotte
Term:Spring 2012
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field a grouping of characters into a word, a group of words, or a complete number (such as a person's name or age)
record a group of related fields, such as the student's name, the course taken, the date, and the grade
file a group of records of the same type
database a group of related files
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entity is a person, place, thing, or event on which we store and maintain information
attribute each characteristic or quality describing a particular entity
data redundancy the presence of duplicate data in multiple data files so that the same data are stored in more than place or location
data inconsistency the same attribute may have different values
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program-data dependence refers to the coupling of data stored in files and the specific programs required to update and maintain those files such that changes in programs require changes to the data
DBMS

Database Management System

is software that permits an organization to centralize data, manage them efficiently, and provide access to the stored data by application programs

relational DBMS

the most popular type of DBMS today for PCs

represents data as two-dimensional tables (called relations)

tuples (row) - records for different entities
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key field the field for Supplier_Number in the SUPPLIER table uniquely identified each record so that the record can be retrieved, updated, or sorted (see page 214, powerpoint slide #10)
primary key each table in a relational database has one field that is called this
foreign key primary key used in second table as lookup field a lookup field to look up data about the supplier of a specific part
object-oriented DBMS stores the data and procedures that act on those data as objects that can be automatically retrieved and shared
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object-relational DBMS available to provide capabilities of both object-oriented and relational DBMS
data definition capability to specify the structure of the content of the database
data dictionary an automated or manual file that stores definitons of data elements and their characteristics
data manipulation language
a language associated with a database management system that end users and programmers use to manipulate data in the database
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SQL

Structured Query Language

most prominent data manipulation language today

normalization

the process of creating small, stable, yet flexible and adaptive data structure from complex groups of data (see page 220, powerpoint slide #20-22)

referential integrity rules to ensure that relationships between coupled tables remain consistent
entity-relationship diagram database designers document their data model with this (see page 221, powerpoint #
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data warehouse a database that stores current and historical data of potential interest to decision makers throughout the company
data mart a subject of a data warehouse in which a summarized or highly focused portion of the organization's data is placed in a separate database for a specific population of users
OLAP

Online Analytical Processing

supports multidimensional data analysis, enabling users to view the same data in different ways using multiple dimensions

data mining provides insights into corporate data that cannot be obtained with OLAP by finding hidden patterns and relationships in large databases and inferring rules from them to predict future behavior
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predictive analytics use data mining techniques, historical data, and assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events, such as the probability a customer will respond to an offer or purchase a specific product
text mining tools to extract key elements from large unstructured data sets, discover patterns and relationships, and summarize the information
web mining the discovery and analysis of useful patterns and information from the World Wide Web
information policy specified the organization's rules for sharing, disseminating, acquiring, standardizing, classifying, and inventorying information
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data administration responsible for the specific policies and procedures through which data can be managed as an organizational policies and procedured through which data can be managed as an organizational resource
data governance deals with the policies and processes for managing the availability, usavility, integrity, and security of the data employed in an enterprise, with special emphasis on promoting privacy, security, data quality, and compliance with government regulations
database server
database adminstration refers to the more technical and operational aspects of managing data, including physical database design and maintenance
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data quality audit a structured survey of the accuracy and level of completeness of the data in an information system
data cleansing consists of activities for detecting and correcting data in a database that are incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, or redundant
broadband
hubs
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protocol
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
modem
LAN Local Area Network
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star topology
bus topology
ring topology
MAN
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hertz
bandwidth
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
cable internet connections
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T1 lines
IP address
DNS
internet2
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telnet
FTP File Transfer Protocol
email
instant messaging
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fiber-optic cable
VoIP
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 fielda grouping of characters into a word, a group of words, or a complete number (such as a person's name or age)
 recorda group of related fields, such as the student's name, the course taken, the date, and the grade
 filea group of records of the same type
 databasea group of related files
 entityis a person, place, thing, or event on which we store and maintain information
 attributeeach characteristic or quality describing a particular entity
 data redundancythe presence of duplicate data in multiple data files so that the same data are stored in more than place or location
 data inconsistencythe same attribute may have different values
 program-data dependencerefers to the coupling of data stored in files and the specific programs required to update and maintain those files such that changes in programs require changes to the data
 DBMS

Database Management System

is software that permits an organization to centralize data, manage them efficiently, and provide access to the stored data by application programs

 relational DBMS

the most popular type of DBMS today for PCs

represents data as two-dimensional tables (called relations)

 tuples(row) - records for different entities
 key fieldthe field for Supplier_Number in the SUPPLIER table uniquely identified each record so that the record can be retrieved, updated, or sorted (see page 214, powerpoint slide #10)
 primary keyeach table in a relational database has one field that is called this
 foreign keyprimary key used in second table as lookup field a lookup field to look up data about the supplier of a specific part
 object-oriented DBMSstores the data and procedures that act on those data as objects that can be automatically retrieved and shared
 object-relational DBMSavailable to provide capabilities of both object-oriented and relational DBMS
 data definitioncapability to specify the structure of the content of the database
 data dictionaryan automated or manual file that stores definitons of data elements and their characteristics
 data manipulation language
a language associated with a database management system that end users and programmers use to manipulate data in the database
 SQL

Structured Query Language

most prominent data manipulation language today

 normalization

the process of creating small, stable, yet flexible and adaptive data structure from complex groups of data (see page 220, powerpoint slide #20-22)

 referential integrityrules to ensure that relationships between coupled tables remain consistent
 entity-relationship diagramdatabase designers document their data model with this (see page 221, powerpoint #
 data warehousea database that stores current and historical data of potential interest to decision makers throughout the company
 data marta subject of a data warehouse in which a summarized or highly focused portion of the organization's data is placed in a separate database for a specific population of users
 OLAP

Online Analytical Processing

supports multidimensional data analysis, enabling users to view the same data in different ways using multiple dimensions

 data miningprovides insights into corporate data that cannot be obtained with OLAP by finding hidden patterns and relationships in large databases and inferring rules from them to predict future behavior
 predictive analyticsuse data mining techniques, historical data, and assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events, such as the probability a customer will respond to an offer or purchase a specific product
 text miningtools to extract key elements from large unstructured data sets, discover patterns and relationships, and summarize the information
 web miningthe discovery and analysis of useful patterns and information from the World Wide Web
 information policyspecified the organization's rules for sharing, disseminating, acquiring, standardizing, classifying, and inventorying information
 data administrationresponsible for the specific policies and procedures through which data can be managed as an organizational policies and procedured through which data can be managed as an organizational resource
 data governancedeals with the policies and processes for managing the availability, usavility, integrity, and security of the data employed in an enterprise, with special emphasis on promoting privacy, security, data quality, and compliance with government regulations
 database server 
 database adminstrationrefers to the more technical and operational aspects of managing data, including physical database design and maintenance
 data quality audita structured survey of the accuracy and level of completeness of the data in an information system
 data cleansingconsists of activities for detecting and correcting data in a database that are incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, or redundant
 broadband 
 hubs 
 protocol 
 TCP/IPTransmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
 modem 
 LANLocal Area Network
 star topology 
 bus topology 
 ring topology 
 MAN 
 hertz 
 bandwidth 
 DSLDigital Subscriber Line
 cable internet connections 
 T1 lines 
 IP address 
 DNS 
 internet2 
 telnet 
 FTPFile Transfer Protocol
 email 
 instant messaging 
 fiber-optic cable 
 VoIP 
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