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Chapter 4 - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:IS 101 - Introduction to Information Systems
Subject:Information Systems
University:University of Nevada-Reno
Term:Fall 2011
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AGP (accelerated graphics port) bus Bus that transmits data at very high speeds; designed to support video and three-dimensional (3-D) graphics.  
Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)

Part of the CPU that performs arithmetic operations and logical operations and controls the speed of those operations.  

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

Binary code used with microcomputers.  Besides having the more conventional characters, the Extended ASCII version includes such characters as math symbols and Greek letters.  

Bay

Shelf or opening in the computer case used for the installation of electronic equipment, generally storage devices such as a hard drive or DVD drive.  

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Binary system

A two-state system used for data representation in computers; has only two digits – 0 and 1.  

Bit

Short for “binary digit,” which is either a 0 or a 1 in the binary system of data representation in computer systems.  

Bluetooth Wireless technology that consists of short-range radio waves that transmit up to 30 feet.  
Blu-ray

The Blu-ray optical format was developed to enable recording, rewriting, and playback of high-definition video, as well as storing of large amounts of data.  

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Bus

Also called bus line; electrical data roadway through which bits are transmitted within the CPU and between the CPU and other components of the motherboard.  

Byte Group of 8 bits.  
Cache Special high-speed memory area on a chip that the CPU can access quickly.  It temporarily stores instructions and data that the processor is likely to use frequently.  
CD-R (compact disk – recordable) disk

Optical-disk form of secondary storage that can be written to only once but can be read many times.  

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CD-ROM (compact disk – read only memory)

Optical-disk form of secondary storage that is used to hold prerecorded text, graphics, and sound.  

CD-RW (compact disk – rewritable) disk

Also known as erasable optical disk; optical-disk form of secondary storage that allows users to record and erase data, so the disk can be used over and over again.  Special CD-RW drives and software are required.  

Chip

Also called a microchip, or integrated circuit; consists of millions of microminiature electronic circuits printed on a tiny piece of silicon.  Silicon is an element widely found in sand that has desirable electrical (or semiconducting) properties.  

Chipset

Groups of interconnected chips on the motherboard that control the flow of information between the microprocessor and other system components connected to the motherboard.  

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CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) chips

Battery-powered chips that don’t lose their contents when the power is turned off.  

Control unit Part of the CPU that deciphers each instruction stored in it and then carries out the instruction.  
CPU (central processing unit)

The processor; it follows the instructions of the software (program) to manipulate data into information.  The CPU consists of two parts – 1) the control unit and 2)the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU), both of which contain registers, or high-speed storage areas.  All are linked by a kind of electronic “roadway” called a bus.  

DVD-R (DVD-recordable) disks

DVD disks that allow one-time recording by the user.  

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DVD-ROM (digital versatile disk or digital video disk, with read-only memory) CD-type disk with extremely high capacity, able to store 4.7 or more gigabytes    
EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)

binary code used with large computers.  

Ethernet

Network standard for linking all devices in a local area network.  

Exabyte (EB)

Approximately 1 quintillion bytes – 1billion billion bytes (1,024 petabytes – or 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes).  

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Expansion

Way of increasing a computer’s capabilities by adding hardware to perform tasks that are beyond the scope of the basic system.  

Expansion card

Also known as expansion board, adapter card, interface card, plug-in board, controller card, add-in, or add-on; circuit board that provides more memory or that controls peripheral devices.  

Expansion slot Socket on the motherboard into which the user can plug an expansion card.  
FireWire

A specialized serial-bus port intended to connect devices working with lots of data, such as digital video recorders, DVD players, gaming consoles, and digital audio equipment.  

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Flash memory card Also known as flash RAM cards; form of secondary storage consisting of circuitry on credit-card-size cards that can be inserted into slots connecting to the motherboard on notebook computers.  
Flash memory chip Chip that can be erased and reprogrammed more than once (unlike PROM chips, which can be programmed only once).  
Flash memory drive

Also called a USB flash drive, keychain drive, or key drive; a finger-size module of flash memory that plugs into the USB ports of nearly any PC or Macintosh.  

Flash memory stick

Smaller than a stick of chewing gum, a form of flash memory media that plugs into a memory stick port in a digital camera, camcorder, notebook PC, photo printer, and other devices.  

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Flops Stands for “floating-point operations per second.”  A floating-point operation is a special kind of mathematical calculation.  This measure, used mainly with supercomputers, is expressed as megaflops (mflops, or millions of floating-point operations per second), gigaflops (gflops, or billions), and teraflops (tflops, or trillions).  
Gigabyte (G, GB)

Approximately 1 billion bytes (1,073,741,824 bytes); a measure of storage capacity.  

Gigahertz (GHz) Measure of speed used for the latest generation of processors: 1 billion cycles per second.  
Graphics processing unit (GPU)

Specialized processor used to manipulate three-dimensional (3-D) computer graphics.  

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Graphics card Also called a video card or video adapter; expansion card that converts signals from the computer into video signals that can be displayed as images on a monitor.  
Hard disk

Secondary storage medium; thin but rigid metal, glass, or ceramic platter covered with a substance that allows data to be stored n the form of magnetized spots.  Hard disks are tightly sealed within an enclosed hard-disk-drive unit to prevent any foreign matter from getting inside.  Data may be recorded on both sides of the disk platters.  

Integrated circuit

an entire electronic circuit, including wires, formed on a single “chip,” or piece, or special material, usually silicon.  

Intel-type chip Processor chip originally made for PCs; made principally by Intel Corp. and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), but also by Cyrix, DEC, and others.  
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IrDA port

Port that allows a computer to make a cableless connection with infrared-capable devices, such as some printers.  

Kilobyte (K, KB)

Approximately 1,000 bytes (1,024 bytes); a measure of storage capacity.  

Machine cycle

Series of operations performed by the control unit to execute a single program instruction.  It 1) fetches an instruction, 2) decodes the instruction, 3) executes the instruction, and 4) stores the result.  

Machine language

Binary code (language) that the computer uses directly.  The 0s and 1s represent precise storage locations and operations.  

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Magnetic tape

this plastic tape coated with a substance that can be magnetized.  Data is represented by magnetized spots (representing 1s) or nonmagnetized spots (representing 0s).  

Megabyte (M, MB) Approximately 1 million bytes (1,048,576 bytes); measure of storage capacity.  
Megahertz (MHz)

Measure of microcomputer processing speed, controlled by the system clock; 1 million cycles per second.  

Microprocessor

Miniaturized circuitry of a computer processor.  It stores program instructions that process, or manipulate, data into information.  The key parts of the microprocessor are transistors.  

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MIDI port

Pronounced “mid-dee,” and short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface.  A specialized port used in creating, recording, editing, and performing music.  

MIPS

Stands for “millions of instructions per second”; a measure of processing speed.  

Motorola-type chips

Microprocessors made by Motorola for Apple Macintosh computers.  

Multicore processor

Microcomputer chip such as Intel’s dual-core and quad-core processors and AMD’s Athlon X2 processor, with two or more processor “cores” on a single piece of silicon.  

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Network interface card (NIC)

Expansion card that allows the transmission of data over a cable network.  

Optical disk Removable disk, usually 4.75 inches in diameter and less than one-twentieth of an inch thick, on which data is written and read through the use of laser beams.  
Optical memory card Plastic, laser-recordable, wallet-type card used with an optical-card reader.  
Parallel port
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PC card

Thin, credit card-size (2.1 by 3.4 inch) hardware device.  

PCI (peripheral component interconnect) bus

High-speed bus; at 32- or 64-bits wide.  

PCIe (PCi Express)

Intel’s PCI Express bus.  

Petabyte (P, PB) Approximately 1 quadrillion bytes (1,048,576 gigabytes); measure of storage capacity.  
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Plug and Play USB peripheral connection standard that allows peripheral divides and expansion cards to be automatically configured while they are being installed.  
Port A connecting socket or jack on the outside of the system unit into which are plugged different kinds of cables.  
Power supply

Device that converts AC to DC to run the computer.  

RAM (Random Access Memory) chips

Also called primary storage and main memory; chips that temporarily hold software instructions and data before and after it is processed by the CPU.  RAM is a volatile form of storage.  

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Read

To transfer data from an input source into the computer’s memory or CPU.  

Read/Write head Mechanism used to transfer data between the computer and the disk.  When the disk spins inside its case, the read/write head moves back and forth over the data access area on the disk.  
Registers

High-speed storage areas that temporarily store data during processing.  

ROM (Read-only memory)

Memory chip that cannot be written on or erased by the computer user without special equipment.  

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SCSI (small computer system interface) port

Pronounced “scuzzy,” a connector that allows data to be transmitted in a “daisy chain” to up to seven devices at speeds (32 bits at a time) higher than those possible with serial and parallel ports.  The term daisy chain means that several devices are connected in series to each other, so that data for the seventh device, for example, has to go through the other six devices first.  

Secondary storage hardware

Devices that permanently hold data and information as well as programs.  

Sectors

The small arcs created in tracks when a disk’s storage locations are divided into wedge-shaped sections.  

Semiconductor

Material, such as silicon (in combination with other elements), whose electrical properties are intermediate between a good conductor and a nonconductor of electricity.  When highly conducting materials are laid on the semiconducting material, an electronic circuit can be created.  

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Serial port

A connector for a line that sends bits one after another, like cars on a one-lane highway.  

Silicon

An element that is widely found in clay and sand and is used in the making of solid-state integrated circuits.  

Smart card

Wallet-type card that looks like a credit card but has a microprocessor and memory chips embedded in it.  When inserted into a reader, it transfers data to and from a central computer.  

Solid-state device Secondary storage device that has far greater capacity than flash memory drives or keychain drives; like flash drives, they have no moving parts to break down, as hard disk drives do.  
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Sound card

Expansion card used to convert and transmit digital sounds through analog speakers, microphones, and headsets.  

System clock Internal timing device that uses fixed vibrations from a quartz crystal to deliver a steady stream of digital pulses or “ticks” to the CPU.  These ticks are called cycles.  
Tape cartridge

Module resembling an audiocassette that contains tape in a rectangular plastic housing.  The two most common types of tape frives are DAT and Travan TR-3.  

Terabyte (T, TB)

Approximately 1 trillion bytes (1,009,511,627,776 bytes); measure of storage capacity.  

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Tracks The rings on a diskette along which data is recorded.  
Transistor

Tiny electronic device that acts as an on/off switch, switching between “on” and “off” millions of times per second.  

Unicode binary coding scheme that uses 2 bytes (16 bits) for each character, rather than 1 byte (8 bits).  
Upgrading

Changing to newer, usually more powerful or sophisticated versions, such as a more powerful microprocessor or more memory chips.  

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USB (Universal Serial Bus) port

Port that can theoretically connect up to 127 peripheral devices daisy-chained to one general-purpose port.  

Virtual memory

Type of hard-disk  space that mimics primary storage (RAM).  When RAM space is limited, virtual memory allows users to run more software at once, provided the computer’s CPU and operating system are equipped to use it.  The system allocates some free disk space as an extension of RAM; that is, the computer swaps parts of the software program between the hard disk and RAM as needed.  

Volatile

Temporary; the contents of volatile storage media, such as RAM, are lost when the power is turned off.  

Word size

Number of bits that the processor may process at any one time.  The more bits in a word, the faster the computer.  A 32-bit computer – that is, one with a 32-bit-word processor – will transfer data within each microprocessor chip in 32-bit chunks, or 4 bytes at a time.  A 64-bit computer transfers data in 64-bit chunks, or 8 bytes at a time.  

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Write

To transfer data from the computer’s CPU or memory to an output device.  

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 AGP (accelerated graphics port) busBus that transmits data at very high speeds; designed to support video and three-dimensional (3-D) graphics.  
 Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)

Part of the CPU that performs arithmetic operations and logical operations and controls the speed of those operations.  

 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

Binary code used with microcomputers.  Besides having the more conventional characters, the Extended ASCII version includes such characters as math symbols and Greek letters.  

 Bay

Shelf or opening in the computer case used for the installation of electronic equipment, generally storage devices such as a hard drive or DVD drive.  

 Binary system

A two-state system used for data representation in computers; has only two digits – 0 and 1.  

 Bit

Short for “binary digit,” which is either a 0 or a 1 in the binary system of data representation in computer systems.  

 BluetoothWireless technology that consists of short-range radio waves that transmit up to 30 feet.  
 Blu-ray

The Blu-ray optical format was developed to enable recording, rewriting, and playback of high-definition video, as well as storing of large amounts of data.  

 Bus

Also called bus line; electrical data roadway through which bits are transmitted within the CPU and between the CPU and other components of the motherboard.  

 ByteGroup of 8 bits.  
 CacheSpecial high-speed memory area on a chip that the CPU can access quickly.  It temporarily stores instructions and data that the processor is likely to use frequently.  
 CD-R (compact disk – recordable) disk

Optical-disk form of secondary storage that can be written to only once but can be read many times.  

 CD-ROM (compact disk – read only memory)

Optical-disk form of secondary storage that is used to hold prerecorded text, graphics, and sound.  

 CD-RW (compact disk – rewritable) disk

Also known as erasable optical disk; optical-disk form of secondary storage that allows users to record and erase data, so the disk can be used over and over again.  Special CD-RW drives and software are required.  

 Chip

Also called a microchip, or integrated circuit; consists of millions of microminiature electronic circuits printed on a tiny piece of silicon.  Silicon is an element widely found in sand that has desirable electrical (or semiconducting) properties.  

 Chipset

Groups of interconnected chips on the motherboard that control the flow of information between the microprocessor and other system components connected to the motherboard.  

 CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) chips

Battery-powered chips that don’t lose their contents when the power is turned off.  

 Control unitPart of the CPU that deciphers each instruction stored in it and then carries out the instruction.  
 CPU (central processing unit)

The processor; it follows the instructions of the software (program) to manipulate data into information.  The CPU consists of two parts – 1) the control unit and 2)the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU), both of which contain registers, or high-speed storage areas.  All are linked by a kind of electronic “roadway” called a bus.  

 DVD-R (DVD-recordable) disks

DVD disks that allow one-time recording by the user.  

 DVD-ROM (digital versatile disk or digital video disk, with read-only memory)CD-type disk with extremely high capacity, able to store 4.7 or more gigabytes    
 EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)

binary code used with large computers.  

 Ethernet

Network standard for linking all devices in a local area network.  

 Exabyte (EB)

Approximately 1 quintillion bytes – 1billion billion bytes (1,024 petabytes – or 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes).  

 Expansion

Way of increasing a computer’s capabilities by adding hardware to perform tasks that are beyond the scope of the basic system.  

 Expansion card

Also known as expansion board, adapter card, interface card, plug-in board, controller card, add-in, or add-on; circuit board that provides more memory or that controls peripheral devices.  

 Expansion slotSocket on the motherboard into which the user can plug an expansion card.  
 FireWire

A specialized serial-bus port intended to connect devices working with lots of data, such as digital video recorders, DVD players, gaming consoles, and digital audio equipment.  

 Flash memory cardAlso known as flash RAM cards; form of secondary storage consisting of circuitry on credit-card-size cards that can be inserted into slots connecting to the motherboard on notebook computers.  
 Flash memory chipChip that can be erased and reprogrammed more than once (unlike PROM chips, which can be programmed only once).  
 Flash memory drive

Also called a USB flash drive, keychain drive, or key drive; a finger-size module of flash memory that plugs into the USB ports of nearly any PC or Macintosh.  

 Flash memory stick

Smaller than a stick of chewing gum, a form of flash memory media that plugs into a memory stick port in a digital camera, camcorder, notebook PC, photo printer, and other devices.  

 FlopsStands for “floating-point operations per second.”  A floating-point operation is a special kind of mathematical calculation.  This measure, used mainly with supercomputers, is expressed as megaflops (mflops, or millions of floating-point operations per second), gigaflops (gflops, or billions), and teraflops (tflops, or trillions).  
 Gigabyte (G, GB)

Approximately 1 billion bytes (1,073,741,824 bytes); a measure of storage capacity.  

 Gigahertz (GHz)Measure of speed used for the latest generation of processors: 1 billion cycles per second.  
 Graphics processing unit (GPU)

Specialized processor used to manipulate three-dimensional (3-D) computer graphics.  

 Graphics cardAlso called a video card or video adapter; expansion card that converts signals from the computer into video signals that can be displayed as images on a monitor.  
 Hard disk

Secondary storage medium; thin but rigid metal, glass, or ceramic platter covered with a substance that allows data to be stored n the form of magnetized spots.  Hard disks are tightly sealed within an enclosed hard-disk-drive unit to prevent any foreign matter from getting inside.  Data may be recorded on both sides of the disk platters.  

 Integrated circuit

an entire electronic circuit, including wires, formed on a single “chip,” or piece, or special material, usually silicon.  

 Intel-type chipProcessor chip originally made for PCs; made principally by Intel Corp. and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), but also by Cyrix, DEC, and others.  
 IrDA port

Port that allows a computer to make a cableless connection with infrared-capable devices, such as some printers.  

 Kilobyte (K, KB)

Approximately 1,000 bytes (1,024 bytes); a measure of storage capacity.  

 Machine cycle

Series of operations performed by the control unit to execute a single program instruction.  It 1) fetches an instruction, 2) decodes the instruction, 3) executes the instruction, and 4) stores the result.  

 Machine language

Binary code (language) that the computer uses directly.  The 0s and 1s represent precise storage locations and operations.  

 Magnetic tape

this plastic tape coated with a substance that can be magnetized.  Data is represented by magnetized spots (representing 1s) or nonmagnetized spots (representing 0s).  

 Megabyte (M, MB)Approximately 1 million bytes (1,048,576 bytes); measure of storage capacity.  
 Megahertz (MHz)

Measure of microcomputer processing speed, controlled by the system clock; 1 million cycles per second.  

 Microprocessor

Miniaturized circuitry of a computer processor.  It stores program instructions that process, or manipulate, data into information.  The key parts of the microprocessor are transistors.  

 MIDI port

Pronounced “mid-dee,” and short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface.  A specialized port used in creating, recording, editing, and performing music.  

 MIPS

Stands for “millions of instructions per second”; a measure of processing speed.  

 Motorola-type chips

Microprocessors made by Motorola for Apple Macintosh computers.  

 Multicore processor

Microcomputer chip such as Intel’s dual-core and quad-core processors and AMD’s Athlon X2 processor, with two or more processor “cores” on a single piece of silicon.  

 Network interface card (NIC)

Expansion card that allows the transmission of data over a cable network.  

 Optical diskRemovable disk, usually 4.75 inches in diameter and less than one-twentieth of an inch thick, on which data is written and read through the use of laser beams.  
 Optical memory cardPlastic, laser-recordable, wallet-type card used with an optical-card reader.  
 Parallel port 
 PC card

Thin, credit card-size (2.1 by 3.4 inch) hardware device.  

 PCI (peripheral component interconnect) bus

High-speed bus; at 32- or 64-bits wide.  

 PCIe (PCi Express)

Intel’s PCI Express bus.  

 Petabyte (P, PB)Approximately 1 quadrillion bytes (1,048,576 gigabytes); measure of storage capacity.  
 Plug and PlayUSB peripheral connection standard that allows peripheral divides and expansion cards to be automatically configured while they are being installed.  
 PortA connecting socket or jack on the outside of the system unit into which are plugged different kinds of cables.  
 Power supply

Device that converts AC to DC to run the computer.  

 RAM (Random Access Memory) chips

Also called primary storage and main memory; chips that temporarily hold software instructions and data before and after it is processed by the CPU.  RAM is a volatile form of storage.  

 Read

To transfer data from an input source into the computer’s memory or CPU.  

 Read/Write headMechanism used to transfer data between the computer and the disk.  When the disk spins inside its case, the read/write head moves back and forth over the data access area on the disk.  
 Registers

High-speed storage areas that temporarily store data during processing.  

 ROM (Read-only memory)

Memory chip that cannot be written on or erased by the computer user without special equipment.  

 SCSI (small computer system interface) port

Pronounced “scuzzy,” a connector that allows data to be transmitted in a “daisy chain” to up to seven devices at speeds (32 bits at a time) higher than those possible with serial and parallel ports.  The term daisy chain means that several devices are connected in series to each other, so that data for the seventh device, for example, has to go through the other six devices first.  

 Secondary storage hardware

Devices that permanently hold data and information as well as programs.  

 Sectors

The small arcs created in tracks when a disk’s storage locations are divided into wedge-shaped sections.  

 Semiconductor

Material, such as silicon (in combination with other elements), whose electrical properties are intermediate between a good conductor and a nonconductor of electricity.  When highly conducting materials are laid on the semiconducting material, an electronic circuit can be created.  

 Serial port

A connector for a line that sends bits one after another, like cars on a one-lane highway.  

 Silicon

An element that is widely found in clay and sand and is used in the making of solid-state integrated circuits.  

 Smart card

Wallet-type card that looks like a credit card but has a microprocessor and memory chips embedded in it.  When inserted into a reader, it transfers data to and from a central computer.  

 Solid-state deviceSecondary storage device that has far greater capacity than flash memory drives or keychain drives; like flash drives, they have no moving parts to break down, as hard disk drives do.  
 Sound card

Expansion card used to convert and transmit digital sounds through analog speakers, microphones, and headsets.  

 System clockInternal timing device that uses fixed vibrations from a quartz crystal to deliver a steady stream of digital pulses or “ticks” to the CPU.  These ticks are called cycles.  
 Tape cartridge

Module resembling an audiocassette that contains tape in a rectangular plastic housing.  The two most common types of tape frives are DAT and Travan TR-3.  

 Terabyte (T, TB)

Approximately 1 trillion bytes (1,009,511,627,776 bytes); measure of storage capacity.  

 TracksThe rings on a diskette along which data is recorded.  
 Transistor

Tiny electronic device that acts as an on/off switch, switching between “on” and “off” millions of times per second.  

 Unicodebinary coding scheme that uses 2 bytes (16 bits) for each character, rather than 1 byte (8 bits).  
 Upgrading

Changing to newer, usually more powerful or sophisticated versions, such as a more powerful microprocessor or more memory chips.  

 USB (Universal Serial Bus) port

Port that can theoretically connect up to 127 peripheral devices daisy-chained to one general-purpose port.  

 Virtual memory

Type of hard-disk  space that mimics primary storage (RAM).  When RAM space is limited, virtual memory allows users to run more software at once, provided the computer’s CPU and operating system are equipped to use it.  The system allocates some free disk space as an extension of RAM; that is, the computer swaps parts of the software program between the hard disk and RAM as needed.  

 Volatile

Temporary; the contents of volatile storage media, such as RAM, are lost when the power is turned off.  

 Word size

Number of bits that the processor may process at any one time.  The more bits in a word, the faster the computer.  A 32-bit computer – that is, one with a 32-bit-word processor – will transfer data within each microprocessor chip in 32-bit chunks, or 4 bytes at a time.  A 64-bit computer transfers data in 64-bit chunks, or 8 bytes at a time.  

 Write

To transfer data from the computer’s CPU or memory to an output device.  

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