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Exam 2 - Flashcards

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Class:KIN 3303 - Athletic Injuries &Traing Proc
Subject:Kinesiology
University:University of Texas - San Antonio
Term:Fall 2012
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Cross Training training and conditioning for a specific sports using other sporting activities
Prepatory period primary part of offseason beginning of preseason, 3 phases: hypertrophy/endurance phase in early offseason with high repetitions, the strength phase with weight training, the power phase in preseason with high intensity and time for full recovery during sessions
Competition period high intensity conditioning at low volume and focus on skill training and strategy, in season
Overtraining has negative effect on development of muscular strength "if you abuse it you lose it"                                             
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Overload principle muscle must be overloaded to adapt
Conditioning training to be physically fit
Daily Adjustable Progressive Resistive Exercise DAPRE
Genetics what causes the predominance of 1 muscle fiber type over another
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specific adaptation to imposed demands SAID
Progressive resistive exercise strengthens the muscles through contraction that overcomes some fixed resistance produced by equipment
isotonic shortens and lengthens the muscle through complete range of motion, concentric- muscle shortens, eccentric- muscle lengthens 
isokinetic - exercise at a fixed velocity of movement with accommodating resistance
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Static stretch passively stretching an antagonist muscle by placing it in a maximal stretch and holding it there
Dynamic stretch continuous movement using hopping, skipping, bounding, and footwork drills (leroys warmups)
Ballistic stretch technique that uses repetitive bouncing motions
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching techniques that involve combinations of alternating contractions and stretches (wolter stretches) 
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Aerobic With Oxygen
Circuit training exercise stations that consists of various combinations of weight training flexibility, calisthenics, and aerobic exercises
Cardiorespiratory fitness the ability to perform whole body, large muscle activities for extended periods of time
Anaerobic Without Oxygen
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Strength maximum force that can be applied by a muscle during a single contraction
Power ability to generate force rapidly
VO2 max maximum aerobic capacity
2-3 minutes How many minutes required for warmup
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Aerobic capacity oxygen taken in and used during exercise
Cardiac Output volume of blood being pumped through the heart in a given unit of time (increased stroke volume X decreased heart rate)
Pylometric exercise

1.    takes advantage of stretch-shortening cycle, rapid eccentric contraction followed by rapid concentric contraction

Calisthenics free exercise, uses gravity, ie:pushups
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6 seconds how long it takes for Golgi tendon organs to respond to increased tension
Stretch reflex the muscle spindle produces a reflex resistance to stretch, and the Golgi tendon organ causes a reflex relaxation of the muscle in response to stretch
Ballistic stretching

1.    uses repetitive bouncing motions

Reciprocal intervention contraction of agonist will produce relaxation of antagonist
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Fast Twitch Fibers (Type 2) fast oxidative glycolytic fibers, quick contractions with a tendency to fatigue, 2a are more resistant to fatigue, 2x is the fastest but only short bursts, 2b fatigue rapidly and are white in color considered the true fast twitch fiber
Slow Twitch Fibers (Type 1) slow oxidative fibers, dense with capillaries and rich in mitochondria and myoglobin, red in color, carries more oxygen than fast twitch and are more resistant to fatigue
cardiac output, amount of o2 carried in blood Factors that determine VO2 max
Residual Volume amount of air left in lungs after forceful exhalation
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Tidal Volume

1.    amount of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath at rest

Interval training

1.    alternating periods of work with active recovery

Fartlek Training individual runs for a specified period of time but pace and speed are not specified (speed play), cross country
Stretch reflex function of muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs
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Calistenics methods of improving strength in young adolescent athletes
Fats 25-30% of diet, 95% of this is in the form of triglycerides, other 5% is phospholipids and sterols, saturated and unsaturated
Proteins 15-20% of diet, made up of amino acids, amino acids in food are called essential amino acids, complete AA is made up of essential amino acids, incomplete amino acids dont contain all essential amino acids and are usually plants
CHO 55-60% of diet, include sugar starches and fibers, sugars are simple carbs can be classified as mono and disaccharides, starches are complex carbs
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Vitamins regulate body processes, 13 vitamins, A D E and K are fat soluble, C thiamin riboflavin niacin B6 B12 folate biotin and pantothenic acid are water soluble
Water

1.    most essential of all nutrients, 60% of body weight

stored as glycogen in liver and muscle cells Where is glucose stored
Fiber passes and cleans intestinal tract
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Vit A  maintains skin and cells that line the inside of body, bone and tooth development, growth, and vision. found in milk and green/yellow fruits and veg
VIT B metabolism of protein and production of hemoglobin, found in white meat whole grains and bananas 12:production of genetic material and maintains cns, found in foods of animal origin
Vit C formation of connective tissue, immune function. found in fruits/veg
Vit D - bone growth and development, found in dairy and exposure to sun
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Vit E protects polyunsaturated fats from oxidization and protects cell membranes, found in vegetable oil and whole grains
carbs and water 3-4 hrs before event Meal before
Vit K production of blood clotting substances, found in green leafy veg
Amino Acids units that make up proteins
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Calcium bone and tooth formation, muscle contraction and nerve function, found in dairy products
Sodium maintenance of fluid balance
Proteins make up structural components of body. needed for growth, maintenance, and repair of body tissue 
Phosphorus skeletal development and tooth formation, found in meats, dairy, and protein rich foods
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Iron formation of hemoglobin, energy from fats carbs proteins, found in red meats
Anorexia athletica specific to athletes, similar to anorexia nervosa except no self starvation 
Lacto veg plant and dairy diet
Semi Veg primarily plant but other stuff is consumed besides red meat
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Total veg all plant diet
1-2 lbs how many pounds per week lost during weight loss program
Antioxidants include vitamins A C and E, prevent premature aging, cancers, heart disease and other health problems
Ephedirine stimulant used in diet pills, banned
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Creatine naturally occurring substance in the body produced by kidney pancreas and liver, role in metabolism, found in meat and fish
Ginkgobiloba medicinal herb, use of ginkgo for memory enhancement in healthy subjects, altitude (mountain) sickness, symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), age-related eye disorders, and the reduction of chemotherapy-induced end-organ vascular damage.
Guarana a bushy plant prevalent in the Amazon Basin, has been used in traditional medicine to treat fevers, headaches, and dysentery. Actions of guarana are attributed primarily to caffeine present in its seeds. It is promoted as an appetite suppressant, stimulant, as an aphrodisiac, and to alleviate fatigue.
Alcohol depressant, causes decreased coordination, slow reaction time and alertness, increases the production of urine causing body water loss, 
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Akinasia loss of control of voluntary muscle movements
mahaung - plant that contains ephedrine
St. Johns wart plant from greece, used for depression
Liver Where are sugars processed
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 Cross Trainingtraining and conditioning for a specific sports using other sporting activities
 Prepatory periodprimary part of offseason beginning of preseason, 3 phases: hypertrophy/endurance phase in early offseason with high repetitions, the strength phase with weight training, the power phase in preseason with high intensity and time for full recovery during sessions
 Competition periodhigh intensity conditioning at low volume and focus on skill training and strategy, in season
 Overtraininghas negative effect on development of muscular strength "if you abuse it you lose it"                                             
 Overload principlemuscle must be overloaded to adapt
 Conditioningtraining to be physically fit
 Daily Adjustable Progressive Resistive ExerciseDAPRE
 Geneticswhat causes the predominance of 1 muscle fiber type over another
 specific adaptation to imposed demandsSAID
 Progressive resistive exercisestrengthens the muscles through contraction that overcomes some fixed resistance produced by equipment
 isotonicshortens and lengthens the muscle through complete range of motion, concentric- muscle shortens, eccentric- muscle lengthens 
 isokinetic- exercise at a fixed velocity of movement with accommodating resistance
 Static stretchpassively stretching an antagonist muscle by placing it in a maximal stretch and holding it there
 Dynamic stretchcontinuous movement using hopping, skipping, bounding, and footwork drills (leroys warmups)
 Ballistic stretchtechnique that uses repetitive bouncing motions
 Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)stretching techniques that involve combinations of alternating contractions and stretches (wolter stretches) 
 AerobicWith Oxygen
 Circuit trainingexercise stations that consists of various combinations of weight training flexibility, calisthenics, and aerobic exercises
 Cardiorespiratory fitnessthe ability to perform whole body, large muscle activities for extended periods of time
 AnaerobicWithout Oxygen
 Strengthmaximum force that can be applied by a muscle during a single contraction
 Powerability to generate force rapidly
 VO2 maxmaximum aerobic capacity
 2-3 minutesHow many minutes required for warmup
 Aerobic capacityoxygen taken in and used during exercise
 Cardiac Outputvolume of blood being pumped through the heart in a given unit of time (increased stroke volume X decreased heart rate)
 Pylometric exercise

1.    takes advantage of stretch-shortening cycle, rapid eccentric contraction followed by rapid concentric contraction

 Calisthenicsfree exercise, uses gravity, ie:pushups
 6 secondshow long it takes for Golgi tendon organs to respond to increased tension
 Stretch reflexthe muscle spindle produces a reflex resistance to stretch, and the Golgi tendon organ causes a reflex relaxation of the muscle in response to stretch
 Ballistic stretching

1.    uses repetitive bouncing motions

 Reciprocal interventioncontraction of agonist will produce relaxation of antagonist
 Fast Twitch Fibers (Type 2)fast oxidative glycolytic fibers, quick contractions with a tendency to fatigue, 2a are more resistant to fatigue, 2x is the fastest but only short bursts, 2b fatigue rapidly and are white in color considered the true fast twitch fiber
 Slow Twitch Fibers (Type 1)slow oxidative fibers, dense with capillaries and rich in mitochondria and myoglobin, red in color, carries more oxygen than fast twitch and are more resistant to fatigue
 cardiac output, amount of o2 carried in bloodFactors that determine VO2 max
 Residual Volumeamount of air left in lungs after forceful exhalation
 Tidal Volume

1.    amount of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath at rest

 Interval training

1.    alternating periods of work with active recovery

 Fartlek Trainingindividual runs for a specified period of time but pace and speed are not specified (speed play), cross country
 Stretch reflexfunction of muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs
 Calistenicsmethods of improving strength in young adolescent athletes
 Fats25-30% of diet, 95% of this is in the form of triglycerides, other 5% is phospholipids and sterols, saturated and unsaturated
 Proteins15-20% of diet, made up of amino acids, amino acids in food are called essential amino acids, complete AA is made up of essential amino acids, incomplete amino acids dont contain all essential amino acids and are usually plants
 CHO55-60% of diet, include sugar starches and fibers, sugars are simple carbs can be classified as mono and disaccharides, starches are complex carbs
 Vitaminsregulate body processes, 13 vitamins, A D E and K are fat soluble, C thiamin riboflavin niacin B6 B12 folate biotin and pantothenic acid are water soluble
 Water

1.    most essential of all nutrients, 60% of body weight

 stored as glycogen in liver and muscle cellsWhere is glucose stored
 Fiberpasses and cleans intestinal tract
 Vit A maintains skin and cells that line the inside of body, bone and tooth development, growth, and vision. found in milk and green/yellow fruits and veg
 VIT Bmetabolism of protein and production of hemoglobin, found in white meat whole grains and bananas 12:production of genetic material and maintains cns, found in foods of animal origin
 Vit Cformation of connective tissue, immune function. found in fruits/veg
 Vit D- bone growth and development, found in dairy and exposure to sun
 Vit Eprotects polyunsaturated fats from oxidization and protects cell membranes, found in vegetable oil and whole grains
 carbs and water 3-4 hrs before eventMeal before
 Vit Kproduction of blood clotting substances, found in green leafy veg
 Amino Acidsunits that make up proteins
 Calciumbone and tooth formation, muscle contraction and nerve function, found in dairy products
 Sodiummaintenance of fluid balance
 Proteinsmake up structural components of body. needed for growth, maintenance, and repair of body tissue 
 Phosphorusskeletal development and tooth formation, found in meats, dairy, and protein rich foods
 Ironformation of hemoglobin, energy from fats carbs proteins, found in red meats
 Anorexia athleticaspecific to athletes, similar to anorexia nervosa except no self starvation 
 Lacto vegplant and dairy diet
 Semi Vegprimarily plant but other stuff is consumed besides red meat
 Total vegall plant diet
 1-2 lbshow many pounds per week lost during weight loss program
 Antioxidantsinclude vitamins A C and E, prevent premature aging, cancers, heart disease and other health problems
 Ephedirinestimulant used in diet pills, banned
 Creatinenaturally occurring substance in the body produced by kidney pancreas and liver, role in metabolism, found in meat and fish
 Ginkgobilobamedicinal herb, use of ginkgo for memory enhancement in healthy subjects, altitude (mountain) sickness, symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), age-related eye disorders, and the reduction of chemotherapy-induced end-organ vascular damage.
 Guaranaa bushy plant prevalent in the Amazon Basin, has been used in traditional medicine to treat fevers, headaches, and dysentery. Actions of guarana are attributed primarily to caffeine present in its seeds. It is promoted as an appetite suppressant, stimulant, as an aphrodisiac, and to alleviate fatigue.
 Alcoholdepressant, causes decreased coordination, slow reaction time and alertness, increases the production of urine causing body water loss, 
 Akinasialoss of control of voluntary muscle movements
 mahaung- plant that contains ephedrine
 St. Johns wartplant from greece, used for depression
 LiverWhere are sugars processed
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