Koofers

Exam 2 review - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:KIN 4370 - Exercise Testing
Subject:(Kinesiology)
University:University of Houston
Term:Fall 2014
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
Lactic acid during high intensity exercise generates ____ and allows continued glycolysis NAD+
NAD+ is involved in redox reactions and acts as a transporter for electrons.
Mass Action Effect Pyruvate is converted into lactate when its production exceeds uptake by mitochondria
For glycolysis to continue the _______ potential must be maintained cytosolic redox
Cori Cycle Most of the lactate produced during exercise is taken up by the liver and converted to glucose during the ______ and returned to the muscle
Generated by Koofers.com
Can non-exercising muscles sacrifice carbs for exercising muscles? Yes, it's known as the lactate shuffle
What % lactate is re-oxidized to pyruvate? ~20% through the Mass Action Effect and Lactate Shuffle
What % lactate is taken up by liver and converted to glucose? ~80% in the Cori Cycle
Does Lactic Acid raise or lower pH? lowers pH due to excess H+ ions in blood
Generated by Koofers.com
Does lactic acid directly cause muscle fatigue? No, the increase in H+ ions causing the acidic environment causes denaturing of proteins which leads to muscle failure

Lactic Acid INdirectly causes muscle fatigue
Types of Buffers BiCarbonate - carbonic acid, and sodium bicarbonate in blood
Phosphate - Disodium Phosphate in Kidneys
Protein - hemoglobin in cells and plasma
How does respiratory system maintain pH By releasing acid causing CO2
How do Kidneys regulate pH excretion of acidic or basic pH
Generated by Koofers.com
Sodium Bicarbonate ingestion may help performance by...
lowering RPE
lowering catecholamines
recruiting lactate shuffle
How does Specificity pertain to anaerobic testing? The test must incorporate muscles being used in specific sport
Also specific energy systems used in the sport (ATP vs Lactate)
Classifications of Anaerobic Testing Ultra Short - ATP-PC  -  <10sec
Short - Anaerobic endurance  -  30-60sec
Ultra Short Term Test examples Standing Broad Jump
Vertical Jump
Quebec 10 sec cycling test
Wingate 10 sec cycling test
Stair Sprinting
40,50,60 yard dashes
Generated by Koofers.com
Standing Broad Jump Correlation r>.80 to leg strength, sprinting and long jumping
Stair Sprinting Test Variables mass of subject
height of stairs
time between stairs

Stair Sprinting Test Procedure Run 6 stairs, 3 at a time
time 3rd stair to 9th stair
Stair Sprinting Test Correlation 40 yd dash r=.88
Vertical jump r=.31
Generated by Koofers.com
Wingate 30-60sec Test measurements Peak power
Mean Anaerobic Power
Fatigue Index

Anaerobic Treadmill Running done at 8mph, 7mph, 6mph @ 20% grade

r=.82 to endurance races
Fatigue Index Fastest time - slowest time (or max power - lowest power)
Anaerobic Stepping Correlated to 600 yard run r= .82
1 leg as many steps as possible in 1 min on 40cm bench
Generated by Koofers.com
Factors Associated w/ High Wingate Scores High Lactic Acid production
High stores of phosphogens
High buffering capacity
High motivation
High tolerance for pain
Wingate Test Drawbacks Relies on motivation
Aerobic capacity plays a role
Possibly too short a test
Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test For soccer
Requires previous VO2
Alternating interval workout
Biologic Indicators of High Anaerobic Power High Blood Lactate
Quick Glycogen depletion
Generated by Koofers.com
Increase in the amount of stored _____ substrates (ATP, PCr, free creatine and glycogen) anaerobic
1:3 Rest Relief Ratio Used during ATP-PC training
1:3 Work Relief Ratio Used during ATP-PC/LA training
1:2 Work Relief Ratio Used during LA/O2 training
Generated by Koofers.com
1:1/2 Work Relief Ratio Used during O2 training
Advantages of Diet for Weight Loss Quick
Simple
No Exercise
Disadvantages to Diet for Weightloss Low energy
Dehydration
Short term (Fat regain)
Muscle Loss

Advantages to Exercise for Weightloss High fat loss
Visceral fat loss
Better Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Preserves or grows muscle
Prevents fat regain

Generated by Koofers.com
Disadvantages to Exercise for Weightloss Slow
People hate exercise

Using Diet+Exercise for Weightloss (advantages) Best overall weightloss
Visceral fat loss
Better Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Preserves/Grows muscle
Best Sustainability

Using Diet+Exercise for Weightloss (disadvantages) Complicated
People hate exercise

_____ and _____ are not easily converted to fat under normal physiological conditions Carbohydrate and protein
Generated by Koofers.com
(True/False) By increasing fat intake you immediately stimulate fat oxidation
Fat is _____ (efficiently/inefficiently) stored efficiently
fat requires little energy for storage

Atkin's Diet Low Carb
not recommended for athletes
Increases Ketone bodies

High Protein Diet Not recommended for people with kidney problems
Increases diet induced thermogenesis
Generated by Koofers.com
Do diets cause higher or lower BMR's lower
The body responds to lower calorie intake by lowering metabolism
What bodily processes require Energy Basal functions
digestion
absorption
metabolism

What are the 3 main components of energy expenditure? Resting Metabolic Rate
Diet Induced Thermogenesis
Exercise related energy expenditure (Thermic effect)
What % does RMR account for? 60-75%
for relatively inactive individuals
Generated by Koofers.com
What are physiologic influences on RMR Exercise
Thyroid activity
Nervous System
NA/K pump activity
Genetics
Gender
Body composition
Age
BMR vs RMR Nearly identical
BMR is measured after a 12-18 hour fast
How is RMR measured? Direct and Indirect Calorimetry
Closed and Open Circuit Spirometry

What % total energy expenditure is Diet Induced Thermogen.? ~10%
remains for about 8hours after meal
Result of digestion/ingestion/metabolism
Generated by Koofers.com
What is % cost of storing fat? ~3%
of energy of ingested meal
What is % cost of storing CHO as Glycogen? ~7%
of energy of ingested meal
What is % cost of breaking down/synthesis of protein? ~24%
of energy of ingested meal
What affects DIT Omega Adrenergic blocers lower DIT
Age lowers DIT (believed to be insulin related)
Generated by Koofers.com
What is the most variable component of daily energy exp.? Thermic Effect of Exercise
can be volunary (exercise) or involuntary (shivering)
As high as 8000Kc/day
30-80% of total energy expenditure
Why is 2 years used for weightloss studies? 2 years is the named length of time for any addiction study
How many min. of walking results in substantial health benefits? 150 minutes = a PASS rating of 6
How many min. of Vigorous Intensity exercise results in substantial health benefits 75 min = a PASS rating of 6
Generated by Koofers.com
for "additional" benefits how many min. of walking? 300 min = a PASS rating of 7
for "additional benefits how many min. of vigorous intensity exercise? 150 min = a PASS rating of 7
What is a healthy % body weight drop in 3-6 months? 5-10%
FITT Frequency
Intensity
Time
Type
Generated by Koofers.com
(TRUE/FALSE) Walking a mile burns as many calories as running a mile TRUE
*not including post exercise calorie burning (higher intensity has a longer lasting effect)
Formula for kcal expenditure per distance (METs) x(kg/60) = kcal/min
then multiply by how many minutes.
How many kcal in 1lb of body fat 3500kcal
How many pounds can diet alone lose per week healthily? 1 lb
Generated by Koofers.com
Body Composition fat vs fat free as a percentage of total mass 
Overweight Body weight exceeds average for person of same stature, sex, and age
Overfat Body fat is over the average for person of same sex and age
Obese Overfat to the extend that the risk of morbities is increased.
diabetes, CVD, cancer, etc
Generated by Koofers.com
Underweight/Underfat Below average for person of similar stature, sex, age
Can cause high health risks
Mostly affects women
What body comp. test uses air displacement? Bodpod
Hydrostatic weighing Gold standard.
takes long time and uncomfortable
DEXA Can show more than just lean/fat
Generated by Koofers.com
Calipers Quick and easy
relies on implementer significantly
Best way to predict race performance Previous race performance.
(TRUE/FALSE) VO2 does not necessarily increase with training True
Paula Radcliffe profile
Times get better but VO2 decreases
Lactate threshold speed increased
(TRUE/FALSE) Threshold is a good term to use when referring to aerobic/anaerobic transfer False
It is often debated because there is a spectrum from completely aerobic to completely anaerobic, not a black and white cut off
Generated by Koofers.com
Highest VO2 that can be obtained before an increase in blood lactate Lactate Threshold
aka Aerobic Threshold
aka Anaerobic Threshold

VO2 observed during incremental exercise associated with a BL of greater than 4mmol OBLA
Maximal Steady State Highest VO2 maintained over time w/o a continual increase in BL
aka Individual Anaerobic Threshold (IAT)
Ventilatory Threshold VT1 Disproportionate rise in BL in proportion to rise in VO2
VT1
Generated by Koofers.com
VT2 OBLA
VE Expired gas
Sudden increase in CO2 and VE Anaerobic Threshold
VE/VO2 VE/VCO2 Total volume of air breathed to O2 consumed or CO2 exhaled
usually around 20-25L/1L

An increase in VE/VO2 usually means body is trying to get CO2 out
Generated by Koofers.com
VE at rest about 5L
@ 25:1 VE/VO2 means O2 consumed is around 0.2L at rest
LA changes in body Enzyme deficiencies
CHO enzymes lacking means no LA but VT still reached
CHO loading
VT doesnt change but LT is later
Altitude changes LA
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 90 Print
 
Front
Back
 Lactic acid during high intensity exercise generates ____ and allows continued glycolysisNAD+
NAD+ is involved in redox reactions and acts as a transporter for electrons.
 Mass Action EffectPyruvate is converted into lactate when its production exceeds uptake by mitochondria
 For glycolysis to continue the _______ potential must be maintainedcytosolic redox
 Cori CycleMost of the lactate produced during exercise is taken up by the liver and converted to glucose during the ______ and returned to the muscle
 Can non-exercising muscles sacrifice carbs for exercising muscles?Yes, it's known as the lactate shuffle
 What % lactate is re-oxidized to pyruvate?~20% through the Mass Action Effect and Lactate Shuffle
 What % lactate is taken up by liver and converted to glucose?~80% in the Cori Cycle
 Does Lactic Acid raise or lower pH?lowers pH due to excess H+ ions in blood
 Does lactic acid directly cause muscle fatigue?No, the increase in H+ ions causing the acidic environment causes denaturing of proteins which leads to muscle failure

Lactic Acid INdirectly causes muscle fatigue
 Types of BuffersBiCarbonate - carbonic acid, and sodium bicarbonate in blood
Phosphate - Disodium Phosphate in Kidneys
Protein - hemoglobin in cells and plasma
 How does respiratory system maintain pHBy releasing acid causing CO2
 How do Kidneys regulate pHexcretion of acidic or basic pH
 Sodium Bicarbonate ingestion may help performance by...
lowering RPE
lowering catecholamines
recruiting lactate shuffle
 How does Specificity pertain to anaerobic testing?The test must incorporate muscles being used in specific sport
Also specific energy systems used in the sport (ATP vs Lactate)
 Classifications of Anaerobic TestingUltra Short - ATP-PC  -  <10sec
Short - Anaerobic endurance  -  30-60sec
 Ultra Short Term Test examplesStanding Broad Jump
Vertical Jump
Quebec 10 sec cycling test
Wingate 10 sec cycling test
Stair Sprinting
40,50,60 yard dashes
 Standing Broad Jump Correlationr>.80 to leg strength, sprinting and long jumping
 Stair Sprinting Test Variablesmass of subject
height of stairs
time between stairs

 Stair Sprinting Test ProcedureRun 6 stairs, 3 at a time
time 3rd stair to 9th stair
 Stair Sprinting Test Correlation40 yd dash r=.88
Vertical jump r=.31
 Wingate 30-60sec Test measurementsPeak power
Mean Anaerobic Power
Fatigue Index

 Anaerobic Treadmill Runningdone at 8mph, 7mph, 6mph @ 20% grade

r=.82 to endurance races
 Fatigue IndexFastest time - slowest time (or max power - lowest power)
 Anaerobic SteppingCorrelated to 600 yard run r= .82
1 leg as many steps as possible in 1 min on 40cm bench
 Factors Associated w/ High Wingate ScoresHigh Lactic Acid production
High stores of phosphogens
High buffering capacity
High motivation
High tolerance for pain
 Wingate Test DrawbacksRelies on motivation
Aerobic capacity plays a role
Possibly too short a test
 Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle TestFor soccer
Requires previous VO2
Alternating interval workout
 Biologic Indicators of High Anaerobic PowerHigh Blood Lactate
Quick Glycogen depletion
 Increase in the amount of stored _____ substrates (ATP, PCr, free creatine and glycogen)anaerobic
 1:3 Rest Relief RatioUsed during ATP-PC training
 1:3 Work Relief RatioUsed during ATP-PC/LA training
 1:2 Work Relief RatioUsed during LA/O2 training
 1:1/2 Work Relief RatioUsed during O2 training
 Advantages of Diet for Weight LossQuick
Simple
No Exercise
 Disadvantages to Diet for WeightlossLow energy
Dehydration
Short term (Fat regain)
Muscle Loss

 Advantages to Exercise for WeightlossHigh fat loss
Visceral fat loss
Better Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Preserves or grows muscle
Prevents fat regain

 Disadvantages to Exercise for WeightlossSlow
People hate exercise

 Using Diet+Exercise for Weightloss (advantages)Best overall weightloss
Visceral fat loss
Better Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Preserves/Grows muscle
Best Sustainability

 Using Diet+Exercise for Weightloss (disadvantages)Complicated
People hate exercise

 _____ and _____ are not easily converted to fat under normal physiological conditionsCarbohydrate and protein
 (True/False) By increasing fat intake you immediately stimulate fat oxidation 
 Fat is _____ (efficiently/inefficiently) storedefficiently
fat requires little energy for storage

 Atkin's DietLow Carb
not recommended for athletes
Increases Ketone bodies

 High Protein DietNot recommended for people with kidney problems
Increases diet induced thermogenesis
 Do diets cause higher or lower BMR'slower
The body responds to lower calorie intake by lowering metabolism
 What bodily processes require EnergyBasal functions
digestion
absorption
metabolism

 What are the 3 main components of energy expenditure?Resting Metabolic Rate
Diet Induced Thermogenesis
Exercise related energy expenditure (Thermic effect)
 What % does RMR account for?60-75%
for relatively inactive individuals
 What are physiologic influences on RMRExercise
Thyroid activity
Nervous System
NA/K pump activity
Genetics
Gender
Body composition
Age
 BMR vs RMRNearly identical
BMR is measured after a 12-18 hour fast
 How is RMR measured?Direct and Indirect Calorimetry
Closed and Open Circuit Spirometry

 What % total energy expenditure is Diet Induced Thermogen.?~10%
remains for about 8hours after meal
Result of digestion/ingestion/metabolism
 What is % cost of storing fat?~3%
of energy of ingested meal
 What is % cost of storing CHO as Glycogen?~7%
of energy of ingested meal
 What is % cost of breaking down/synthesis of protein?~24%
of energy of ingested meal
 What affects DITOmega Adrenergic blocers lower DIT
Age lowers DIT (believed to be insulin related)
 What is the most variable component of daily energy exp.?Thermic Effect of Exercise
can be volunary (exercise) or involuntary (shivering)
As high as 8000Kc/day
30-80% of total energy expenditure
 Why is 2 years used for weightloss studies?2 years is the named length of time for any addiction study
 How many min. of walking results in substantial health benefits?150 minutes = a PASS rating of 6
 How many min. of Vigorous Intensity exercise results in substantial health benefits75 min = a PASS rating of 6
 for "additional" benefits how many min. of walking?300 min = a PASS rating of 7
 for "additional benefits how many min. of vigorous intensity exercise?150 min = a PASS rating of 7
 What is a healthy % body weight drop in 3-6 months?5-10%
 FITTFrequency
Intensity
Time
Type
 (TRUE/FALSE) Walking a mile burns as many calories as running a mileTRUE
*not including post exercise calorie burning (higher intensity has a longer lasting effect)
 Formula for kcal expenditure per distance(METs) x(kg/60) = kcal/min
then multiply by how many minutes.
 How many kcal in 1lb of body fat3500kcal
 How many pounds can diet alone lose per week healthily?1 lb
 Body Compositionfat vs fat free as a percentage of total mass 
 OverweightBody weight exceeds average for person of same stature, sex, and age
 OverfatBody fat is over the average for person of same sex and age
 ObeseOverfat to the extend that the risk of morbities is increased.
diabetes, CVD, cancer, etc
 Underweight/UnderfatBelow average for person of similar stature, sex, age
Can cause high health risks
Mostly affects women
 What body comp. test uses air displacement?Bodpod
 Hydrostatic weighingGold standard.
takes long time and uncomfortable
 DEXACan show more than just lean/fat
 CalipersQuick and easy
relies on implementer significantly
 Best way to predict race performancePrevious race performance.
 (TRUE/FALSE) VO2 does not necessarily increase with trainingTrue
Paula Radcliffe profile
Times get better but VO2 decreases
Lactate threshold speed increased
 (TRUE/FALSE) Threshold is a good term to use when referring to aerobic/anaerobic transferFalse
It is often debated because there is a spectrum from completely aerobic to completely anaerobic, not a black and white cut off
 Highest VO2 that can be obtained before an increase in blood lactateLactate Threshold
aka Aerobic Threshold
aka Anaerobic Threshold

 VO2 observed during incremental exercise associated with a BL of greater than 4mmolOBLA
 Maximal Steady StateHighest VO2 maintained over time w/o a continual increase in BL
aka Individual Anaerobic Threshold (IAT)
 Ventilatory Threshold VT1Disproportionate rise in BL in proportion to rise in VO2
VT1
 VT2OBLA
 VEExpired gas
 Sudden increase in CO2 and VEAnaerobic Threshold
 VE/VO2 VE/VCO2Total volume of air breathed to O2 consumed or CO2 exhaled
usually around 20-25L/1L

An increase in VE/VO2 usually means body is trying to get CO2 out
 VE at restabout 5L
@ 25:1 VE/VO2 means O2 consumed is around 0.2L at rest
 LA changes in bodyEnzyme deficiencies
CHO enzymes lacking means no LA but VT still reached
CHO loading
VT doesnt change but LT is later
Altitude changes LA
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"