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Exam 3 - Flashcards

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Class:KIN 4403 - Motor Learning
Subject:Kinesiology
University:University of Texas - San Antonio
Term:Fall 2011
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Reaction Time

the interval of time between the onset of a signal (stimulus) and the initiation of a response. An index of preparation required to produce action.

Movement time

the interval of time between the initiation of a movement and the completion of the movement.

Response time

the time interval involving both reaction time and movement time; that is, the time from the onset of a signal (stimulus) to the completion of a response.

Motor Time a component of reaction time and it is the period of time from the increase in muscle activity until the actual beginning of observable limb movement
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Hick's Law a law of human performance stating that reaction time will increase logarithmically as the number of stimulus-response choices increases.
Stroop effect a phenomenon that occurs when a person must verbally respond to the ink color of a word that names a color.
Vigilance Research the long term maintenance of alertness. an individual must perform an appropriate action when he or she detects a signal to act. The problem is that signals occur very infrequently and irregularly.
Pre-motor a period of time between the onset of the stimulus signal and the beginning of the muscle activity.
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Motor Time period of time from the increase in muscle activity until the actual beginning of observable limb movement.
Psychological refractory period a delay period during which a person cannot select the second movement until after he or she selects and initiates the first. It reflects a distinct limitation in the action preparation process.
Flexible Capacity Theory the amount of available attention can vary depending on certain conditions related to the individual, the tasks being performed, and the situation.
Multiple Resource Theory

contend that we have several attention mechanisms, each having limited resources. Each resource pool is specific to a component of performing skills.

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Dual-Task theory experimental procedure used in the study of attention to determine the amount of attention required to perform an action, or a part of an action; the procedure involves assessing the degree of interference caused by one task when a person is simultaneously performing another task.
Attentional Focus the directing of attention to specific characteristics in a performance environment, or to action-preparation activities.
Event Occlusion identifies the specific visual information a person uses to make the required response.
Temporal Occlusion allows an investigation of the amount of time a person requires to visually detect the environmental context information he or she uses to perform a skill.
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Automaticity

used to indicate that a person performs a skill or engages in an information-processing activity without demands on attention capacity.

Attention Switching situations that require us to shift the type of attention focus and the object of that attention.
Feedback information from the sensory system that indicates the status of a movement to the central nervous system.
Cocktail party phenomenon in a room filled with people and having a conversation with someone then suddenly you hear someone near you mention your name in a conversation that person is having with other people. You then direct your attention to that conversation
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Name Recognition our own name is meaningful to us and when we hear someone say it we then direct our attention to that person.
Vocal Attention hearing a person’s voice get loud and then you direct attention to it
Enduring Despositions the basic rule of “involuntary” attention, which concern those things that seem to naturally attract our attention.
Autominicty Performing a skill without having to use your attention capacity
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Peripheral vision Kind of vision that eye movement recordings allow researchers to gain information from
Episodic Memory knowledge about personally experienced events and enables us to mentally travelback in time.
Semamtic Memory

store general knowledge about the world that has developed from our many experiences.

Procedural memory stores and retrieves information about motor skills. Best described as the memory system that enables us to know “how to do” something, as opposed to enabling us to know “what to do”
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Trace Decay

when forgetting occurs with the passing of time. It can be effectively tested as a cause of forgetting only in working memory.

     states that if a person does not access and use the memory representation they have formed the memory trace will fade or decay over time

Proactive Interference activity that occurs prior to the presentation of information that is to be remembered and negatively affects the remembering of that information.
Retroactive interference an interfering activity occurs after we perform a movement we need to remember and results in poorer retention performance than if no activity had occurred
Chunking

grouping or organizing large amounts of information into units to help an individual remember.

I.E. the use of syllables to spell correctly, or grouping of digits to remember a phone number.

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Compartmentalizing

To separate into distinct parts, categories, or compartments

Information Overload

It refers to the difficulty a person can have understanding an issue and making decisions that can be caused by the presence of too much information.

Encoding Specifity memory principle that indicates the close relationship between encoding and retrieval memory processes; it states that memory test performance is directly related to the amount of similarity between the practice and the text contexts.
Stimulus Response spatial arrangement of stimuli and limb movement required to respond to them. I.E. stovetop arrangement.
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Learning Response

the ability to continually perform a particular behavior because of a specific stimulus being present. I.E. a ball being thrown at you and performing the motor behavior in order to catch it.

Somating Organization Somatic is explained as the physical aspect of cognitive awareness and movement. Therefore it can be concluded that this involves the processes that occur in order for a somatic motor movement to be successful. I.E. motor unit summation required to take a step.
Muscle Memory a form of procedural memory that involves consolidating a specific motor task into memory through repetition. When a movement is repeated over time, a long-term muscle memory is created for that task, eventually allowing it to be performed without conscious effort.
Invariant

aspects of a motor program that do not change

 

Ex.  basket height, distance of free throw line.

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Variant the aspects of a motor program that change from one performance attempt to another; Including bodily states, environmental factors, and task goals.
Visual Search Parameters the process of directing visual attention to locate relevant information in the environment that will enable a person to determine how to perform a skill in a specific situation.
Memory Storage System memory, short term memory, long term memory
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 Reaction Time

the interval of time between the onset of a signal (stimulus) and the initiation of a response. An index of preparation required to produce action.

 Movement time

the interval of time between the initiation of a movement and the completion of the movement.

 Response time

the time interval involving both reaction time and movement time; that is, the time from the onset of a signal (stimulus) to the completion of a response.

 Motor Timea component of reaction time and it is the period of time from the increase in muscle activity until the actual beginning of observable limb movement
 Hick's Lawa law of human performance stating that reaction time will increase logarithmically as the number of stimulus-response choices increases.
 Stroop effecta phenomenon that occurs when a person must verbally respond to the ink color of a word that names a color.
 Vigilance Researchthe long term maintenance of alertness. an individual must perform an appropriate action when he or she detects a signal to act. The problem is that signals occur very infrequently and irregularly.
 Pre-motora period of time between the onset of the stimulus signal and the beginning of the muscle activity.
 Motor Timeperiod of time from the increase in muscle activity until the actual beginning of observable limb movement.
 Psychological refractory perioda delay period during which a person cannot select the second movement until after he or she selects and initiates the first. It reflects a distinct limitation in the action preparation process.
 Flexible Capacity Theorythe amount of available attention can vary depending on certain conditions related to the individual, the tasks being performed, and the situation.
 Multiple Resource Theory

contend that we have several attention mechanisms, each having limited resources. Each resource pool is specific to a component of performing skills.

 Dual-Task theoryexperimental procedure used in the study of attention to determine the amount of attention required to perform an action, or a part of an action; the procedure involves assessing the degree of interference caused by one task when a person is simultaneously performing another task.
 Attentional Focusthe directing of attention to specific characteristics in a performance environment, or to action-preparation activities.
 Event Occlusionidentifies the specific visual information a person uses to make the required response.
 Temporal Occlusionallows an investigation of the amount of time a person requires to visually detect the environmental context information he or she uses to perform a skill.
 Automaticity

used to indicate that a person performs a skill or engages in an information-processing activity without demands on attention capacity.

 Attention Switchingsituations that require us to shift the type of attention focus and the object of that attention.
 Feedbackinformation from the sensory system that indicates the status of a movement to the central nervous system.
 Cocktail party phenomenonin a room filled with people and having a conversation with someone then suddenly you hear someone near you mention your name in a conversation that person is having with other people. You then direct your attention to that conversation
 Name Recognitionour own name is meaningful to us and when we hear someone say it we then direct our attention to that person.
 Vocal Attentionhearing a person’s voice get loud and then you direct attention to it
 Enduring Despositionsthe basic rule of “involuntary” attention, which concern those things that seem to naturally attract our attention.
 AutominictyPerforming a skill without having to use your attention capacity
 Peripheral visionKind of vision that eye movement recordings allow researchers to gain information from
 Episodic Memoryknowledge about personally experienced events and enables us to mentally travelback in time.
 Semamtic Memory

store general knowledge about the world that has developed from our many experiences.

 Procedural memorystores and retrieves information about motor skills. Best described as the memory system that enables us to know “how to do” something, as opposed to enabling us to know “what to do”
 Trace Decay

when forgetting occurs with the passing of time. It can be effectively tested as a cause of forgetting only in working memory.

     states that if a person does not access and use the memory representation they have formed the memory trace will fade or decay over time

 Proactive Interferenceactivity that occurs prior to the presentation of information that is to be remembered and negatively affects the remembering of that information.
 Retroactive interferencean interfering activity occurs after we perform a movement we need to remember and results in poorer retention performance than if no activity had occurred
 Chunking

grouping or organizing large amounts of information into units to help an individual remember.

I.E. the use of syllables to spell correctly, or grouping of digits to remember a phone number.

 Compartmentalizing

To separate into distinct parts, categories, or compartments

 Information Overload

It refers to the difficulty a person can have understanding an issue and making decisions that can be caused by the presence of too much information.

 Encoding Specifitymemory principle that indicates the close relationship between encoding and retrieval memory processes; it states that memory test performance is directly related to the amount of similarity between the practice and the text contexts.
 Stimulus Responsespatial arrangement of stimuli and limb movement required to respond to them. I.E. stovetop arrangement.
 Learning Response

the ability to continually perform a particular behavior because of a specific stimulus being present. I.E. a ball being thrown at you and performing the motor behavior in order to catch it.

 Somating OrganizationSomatic is explained as the physical aspect of cognitive awareness and movement. Therefore it can be concluded that this involves the processes that occur in order for a somatic motor movement to be successful. I.E. motor unit summation required to take a step.
 Muscle Memorya form of procedural memory that involves consolidating a specific motor task into memory through repetition. When a movement is repeated over time, a long-term muscle memory is created for that task, eventually allowing it to be performed without conscious effort.
 Invariant

aspects of a motor program that do not change

 

Ex.  basket height, distance of free throw line.

 Variantthe aspects of a motor program that change from one performance attempt to another; Including bodily states, environmental factors, and task goals.
 Visual Search Parametersthe process of directing visual attention to locate relevant information in the environment that will enable a person to determine how to perform a skill in a specific situation.
 Memory Storage Systemmemory, short term memory, long term memory
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