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Exam II. 11/15/12 - Flashcards

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Class:MANA 3318 - MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
Subject:Management
University:University of Texas - Arlington
Term:Fall 2012
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Equity Theory ex. of outcomes and inputs x
equity theory ex. of referents x
equity def. the state of being fair, impartial
overpayment inequity def. x when a person gets more money than they deserve
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how does the person react to overpayment inequity? slack off and does not work harder
what are the consequences of underpayment inequity? less motivation to work, unethical behavior, grievance, turnover, absenteeism, emotional conflict among employees
what are the consequences of overpayment inequity? perception change without working harder (waste of resources), grievance of other employees
why is it important to maintain equity? high job satisfaction, increased morale and productivity
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what are the managerial implications for equity theory? From the power point:
  • because inputs are likely to vary across workers outcomes should also vary. Make sure outcomes vary with inputs. Do not give all workers at a given lel or holding the same job title the same level of outcomes unless their inputs are identical. Relaize that failure to recornize above-average levels of inputs has major motivational implications
The perception of equity or inequity that drives motivation 
what is procedure justice? perceived fairness of the process used to determine outcome
how does procedure justice differ from equity theory (distributive justice) Procedural is the fairness in the process of determining outcome
Equity is the fairness of the outcome.
what are the consequences of procedural justice?
  • increased job satisfaction
  • increased organizational commitment
  • fewer negative reactions toward management
  • more organizational citizenship behaviors 
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what are the criteria a procedure should meet for it to be perceived as fair?
  1. be applied consistently across people and time.
  2. be free from bias
  3. ensure that accurate info is collected and used in decisions
  4. have some mechanism to correct flawed  or inaccurate decisions
  5. conform to personal or prevailing standards of ethics or morality
  6. ensure that the opinions of various groups affected by the decision have been taken into account.
when does procedural justice become especially important? when the outcome distribution is not favorable

ex: when a company has to cut bonus, layoff, or reduce salaries
what kind of goal is motivating? x
situation when setting different and specific goals will NOT lead to higher motivation/ performance
  • when employees lack the skills and abilities needed to perform at a high level
  • when employees are given a complicated and difficult task that requires all of their attention and requires a considerable amount of learning
  • when employees are not committed to the goal.
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Management by Objectives- (MBO) a goal setting process in which an employee meets with his or her supervisor to set goals and evaluate the extent to which perviously set goals have been achieved.
Management by Objectives- MBO application process
  • subordinate proposing goals and performance measures
  • subordinate and manager jointly develop specific goals and targets
  • subordinate attempt to achieve goals
  • results feedback and jointly performance review
  • setting new performance goals
Management by Objectives- Major features of MBO
  1. start at the top of the organization by clarifying strategies/ goals for the organization
  2. can be applied to both individual and group goal setting
  3. shift the emphasis from weakness and criticism to an analysis of strength and potential
  4. it involves a high level of participation from organization members
  5. supervisor's role is one of counseling, coaching, or process consultation
Management by Objectives- Strength of MBO
  • it helps to align group and individual goals with organizaion strategy
  • it increase goal acceptance and therefor motivation and satisfaction for organizaion members.
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Management by Objectives- limitations of MBO it requires a large amount of time, money, and effort
proper implementation of MBO requires improved managerial skills and competencies in communicating. coaching, and counseling., etc.
Scientific management approach- Basic characteristics of the job design following this approach
  • highly specialized behaviors - > low task variety and task identity
  • high specified behaviors - > low autonomy
scientific management approach- benefits
  • high control on work flow leads to stable performance
  • high behavior repetition leads to high efficiency
  • low selection and training costs
scientific management approach- disadvantages
  • low job satisfaction
  • low intrinsic motivation
  • low creativity at work
  • less adaptive to environmental changes
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Job characteristics model def. an approach to a job design that aims to identify characteristics that make jobs intrinsically motivating.
job characteristics model - what are the 5 core dimensions of individual job? what do they mean?
  1. skill variety - Experienced, meaningfulness of the work 
  2. task identity - =
  3. task significane - = 
  4. autonomy - experienced responsibility 
  5. feedback from work - knowledge of actual results
3 critical psychological states that lead to high motivation? SAM
  1. meaningfulness
  2. safety
  3. availability

p.235
how do the 5 core job characteristics affect the 3 critical psychological states? they affect engagement.
when engages people express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally as they perform their jobs
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how is a motivating potential score (MPS) calculated? skill variety + task identity + task significance / 3 
x autonomy x feedback
what are some basic ways to enrich job to make it more intrinsically motivating?
  • combine tasks
  • group tasks into natural work units
  • allow workers to interact with customers
  • vertically load jobs
  • open feedback channels
what core job dimension does each of these strategies help to improve?
  • combine tasks - variety, identity, and significance
  • group tasks into natural work units - task identity/ significance
  • allow workers to interact with customers - variety, autonomy, feedback, and task significance
  • vertically load jobs - autonomy
  • open feedback channels - feedback
what are the managerial implications drawing from the job design approach to motivation?
  • internal feels of achievement are important
  • the job can be carefully designed so that employees are motivated intrinsically (naturally) - don't always need a physical reward
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important aspects of stress
  • stress can be experienced because of both opportunities and threats
  • the person who is experiencing the opportunity or threat is not sure that he or she can effectively deal with it
  • whether people experience stress depends on how they perceive potential opportunities and threats and how they perceive their capabilities to deal with them
how do individual differences affect of experience of stress (ability/ personality) ability - stress can be experience when workers lack the abilities necessary to perform their jobs (lack of experiences)

personality - several personality traits are important for understanding why workers exposed to the same potential sources of stress may differ in extent to which they actually experience stress. (low self-esteem or type A personality)
consequences of stress? distress, erode morale, performance
how does stress affect performance?  low (distress) positive - worker is bored
optimum (eustress) - healthy, high performance
high (distress) negative - worker is paralyzed by intense stress, 
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Shall we manage stress or eliminate it? Why? manage - because stress is inevitable part of work and life. Managing leads to health and preventing stress/ strain
Major sources of stress? Life events
  • marriage/ divorce
  • death of family
  • buying a home/ moving
  • illness
organizational
  • role conflict
  • work overload
  • work conditions
2 basic ways of coping with stress? Differences?
  1. problem-focused coping - the steps people take to deal directly with and act on the source of stress
  2. emotion-focused coping - the steps people take to deal with and control their stressful feelings and emotions
what are some strategies of emotion-focus and problem-focused coping? (organizational/ individual) organizational
  • job redesign, goal setting, role negotiation, social support system
individual
  • positive thinking, time management, physical exercise, relaxation training, opening up, and professional help
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what is a group? a set of 2 or more people who interact with each other to achieve certain goals or to meet certain needs
what the five group development stages? what happens at each stage?
  1. forming - unclear purpose
  2. storming - conflict, power struggle, increased clarity
  3. norming - agreement, clear roles, facilitation
  4. performing - clear purpose, focus on goal achievement
  5. adjourning - task completion, good feeling, recognition
benefit of group vs. individual
  • more resources
  • synergy effect
  • division of labor increases efficiency
  • team work provides enriched job experiences
benefit of small group vs. large small - regular interaction, ease of sharing info, recognition of indivual contributions, strong identification with group, and high group satisfaction

large - more resources (knowledge/ perspectives) and division of labor
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group composition- homogeneous vs. heterogeneous homo - collegiality amongst group members, high info sharing, low levels of conflict, few coordination problems

hetero - diversity of views represented, variety of resources, high performance, if you can overcome coordination challenges.

Members of a heterogeneous group are characterized by diversity while homogeneous groups are characterized by similarity.    
what are group norms well understood standards of behavior within a group (attendance/ performance)
group norms- 3 ways to react to deviant behaviors
  1. try to change the deviant's behavior
  2. try to expel the deviant
  3. change the norm to be more in line with the deviant's behavior
how much conformity +deviance is effective? moderate use of both. 
conformity helps the group direct members' behaviors toward goal accomplishment and deviance forces the group to examine the appropriateness of its norms
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what is social loafing? the tendency for people to exert less effort when they work in a group then when they work alone
factors contributing to social loading
  1. large group size
  2. individual contribution not identifiable
  3. perception that individual effort is unnecessary or unimportant
how to reduce social loafing?
  • let each member know that he or she can make an important and worthwhile contribution to the group
  • peer evaluation
  • make performance in a group identifiable
what is group cohesiveness?
group members work well together, intolerance of deviance, communication, group achieves its goals
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what factors contribute to group cohesiveness
  • structure
  • purpose
  • diversity
  • creativity
factors of low, moderate, and high group cohesiveness low - information flows slowly within the group, little influence over its members
moderate - group members work well together, communication, participation
high - socialize excessively on the job, high level of conformity, intolerance of deviance, and achieves goals at the expense of other groups.
how much cohesiveness is most effect for team performance? moderate
what is leadership? the process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the work environment
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what is the behavior approach to leadership effectiveness? what do effective leaders do?

p.195
what are the 2 major categories of leadership behavior formal and informal leadership
what is the common limitation of the trait and behavior approaches to leadership? X
what is the contingency approach to leadership? it emphasizes the importance of contextual factors such as the
  • leader's authority and discretion
  • the nature of the work performed by the leader's unit
  • attributes of the subordinates
  • nature of the external environment
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Fiedler's LPC contingency theory of leadership: what is it? how to use it to predict leadership effectiveness different leadership styles work effectively in different situations.

predict with LPC scale
leadership styles 2
  • relationship-oriented
  • task oriented
situational characteristics? 3
  1. leader-member
  2. task structure
  3. position power
what is path-goal theory? aspects of the situation such as 
  • nature of the task
  • work environment
  • subordinate attributes 
used to determine the optimal amount of each type of leader behavior for improving subordinate satisfaction 
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what are the 4 types of path-goal leader behaviors?
  1. directive behavior - subs know what tasks need to be performed/ how
  2. supportive behavior - subs know that their leader cares
  3. participative behavior - enable subs to be involved in decision making
  4. achievement - oriented behavior - push sub to do best
which leader behavior is most effective under what situations? x big fucking chart. how the fuck am i gonna memorize that?!
what is transformational leadership? inspire stimulate followers to high performance levels through
  • charisma
  • individual consideration
  • inspirational motivation
  • intellectual stimulation
understand the formal sources and informal sources of individual power formal - the power that stems from a person's position in a n organization's hierarchy

informal - power that stems from personal characteristics
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what is conflict? the struggle that arises when the goal-directed behavior of one person or group blocks the goal-directed behavior of another person or group.
is conflict good or bad? person focus conflict is dysfunctional
problem focused can be functional

too high levels of conflict is also dysfuctional
what are the 5 major conflict management styles? ac c ac
  1. accommodation 
  2. collaboration
  3. compromise
  4. avoidance
  5. competition
conflict management: avoidance issue is of minor or passing importance
insufficient info to effectively deal with the conflict
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conflict management: Competition/ Forcing emergencies requiring quick actions
unpopular courses of action
conflict management: accommodation effective in short run when
  • need to defuse explosive emotional situation
  • need to keep harmony
  • conflict is primarily based on personality
conflict management: collaboration most practical when
  • high level of cooperation is needed
  • sufficient parity in power exists
  • potential mutual benefits
conflict management: compromise
  • agreeing enables each person to be better off
  • achieving a total win-win agreeement is not possible
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major communication problems and their meaning?
  •  information distortion
  • filtering 
  • poor listening skills
  • lack of or inappropriate feedback
  • cross-cultural differences in communication styles (low vs. high context orientation
  • the issue of credibility

major communication problems: information distortion  - when a message changes as it travels through a series of different senders to the receivers
major communication problems: filtering - when sender withhold part of a message because they think the receiver doesn't not need the info 
major communication problems: poor listening skills Bad
  • not paying attention
  • interrupting
  • feeling defensive
  • listening for point of disagreement
Good
  • paying attention
  • listening for the whole message
  • hearing before evaluating
  • paraphrasing what was heard
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major communication problems: cross-cultural differences in communication styles low vs. high context orientation
what is the credibility issue? x
major disadvantages of using electronic group
  • takes longer to accomplish tasks than groups
  • members lack many of the verbal and nonverbal cues that regulate group discussions
  • often causes group members to feel anonymous and de-personalized.
what is the classical model of decision making? a prescriptive model
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what are the assumptions for the prescriptive model?
  • all available info concerning alternatives has been obtained
  • alternatives are ranked by explicit criteria
  • alternative selected will provide the max gain possible for the decision maker
what are the steps of decision making according to this model?
  1. list all alternative
  2. list the consequences
  3. consider one's preferences for each alternative
  4. select the alternative
what are its limitations?
  • decision makers dont always know all the alternatives
  • dont always know the consequences
  • may not be able to rank all consequences based on clear preferences
  • limited ability in information processing
what is March and Simon's model of decision making? descriptive approach - describes how people actually make decisions in organizations
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what is satisficing? searching for and choosing an acceptable response or solution, not necessarily the best possible one.
what is bounded rationality? an ability to reason that is constrained by the limitations of the human mind itself
how does this model differ from the classical model? N/A
what are the managerial implications?
  • realizing that different members will define the same problem in different ways
  • carefully examine how you define problems and opportunities
  • team up with others to examine the situation from multiple angles.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making compared with individual decision making?

  • ·        Disadvantages

o   Time

o   Potential for  groupthink

 

  • ·         Advantages

o   Availability and diversity

o   Enhanced memory for facts

o   Increased capability to detect errors

o   Greater decision acceptance 

What is groupthink?

  • ·         A pattern of faulty decision making that occurs in cohesive groups whose members strive for agreement at the expense of accurately assessing info relevant to the decision.

what are the symptoms of groupthink?
  1. illusion of invulnerability - optimistic
  2. belief in inherent morality of the group - ethical
  3. collective rationalization - ignore rethink
  4. stereotypes of other groups - groups with opposing views are viewed as incompetent
  5. self censorship - fail to mention doubts
  6. illusions of unanimity - believe they are in total agreement
  7. direct pressure on dissenters - disagreer is urged to change
  8. emergence of self appointed mind guards - shield group from info for reconsideration
how to prevent groupthink?

  • ·       Group leader encourages all members to be critical of proposed alternatives
  • ·       Leader refrains from expressing his or her own opinion and views
  • ·       Encourages members to gather info
  • ·       One or two members play the role of devils advocate
  • ·       Leader holds a meeting so that members are given a chance to discuss any doubts that they may have 

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functions of vertical and horizontal links in organization structural design

  • ·       Horizontal

o   Coordination, learning, innovation, flexibility

  • ·       Vertical

o   Control, efficiency, stability, reliability

The 3 traditional structural designs and their meanings
  1. functional structure - employees grouped by dept.
  2. divisional structure 
  • product structure - divided by product
  • market = divided by type of customer they serve
  • geographic = divided by geographic structure
     3. matrix structure - groups people by function and by product team
what advantages and disadvantages of network based structure?

  • ·       Advantages

o   Enable each member to exploit its distinct competence

o   Accumulate resources

o   Increased adaptability

  • ·       Disadvantages

o   Coordinating difficulty

what are symptoms of structural problems

  • ·       Bad job design
  • ·       Right hand does not know what the left is doing
  • ·       Persistent conflict between departments
  • ·       Slow response times
  • ·       Decision made with incomplete info

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how to restructure organizations?

  • ·       Improve the existing design using integrating mechanisms
  • ·       Change the structure into a different design

how to integrate mechanisms to improve and existing structural design?

·       Direct contact – face to face working relationships

·       Liaison roles- coordinate the activities of different divisions

·       Teams and task forces

·       Cross functional teams- assigned to work full time on a team to bring a new product or service to the market

what is organizational culture?

  • ·       Pattern of basic assumptions, values, norms shared by organization members

What are the 4 levels of organization culture?

  1. ·      Artifacts
  2. ·       Norms
  3. ·       Values
  4. ·       Basic assumptions

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Understand the 5 key values that describe national culture

  1. ·       Context orientation- meanings are conveyed through explicit words
  2. ·       Power distance- members in a society accept that power is distributed unequally in an organization
  3. ·       Uncertainty avoidance- extent to which members of an organization tolerate the unfamiliar and unpredictable
  4. ·       Achievement orientation- members value assertiveness and the acquisition of material goods
  5. Individualism- extent to which people believe they should be responsible for themselves and their immediate families    

Is it possible to change organization culture? Why?

  • ·       Yes its possible
  • ·       It takes a long time
  • ·       Tricky

What are some important issues to be aware of in terms of managing organizational culture?

  • ·       Culture is rooted in deep values and taken for granted assumptions
  • ·       Managerial ideology might not be consistent with employee beliefs and values
  • ·       Different groups may have different sub cultures
  • ·       Be aware of cultures influence

Who is Kurt Lewin? psychologist that developed the idea of group dynamics/ organizational development
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What are the 3 sequential steps in Lewins change model?

  1. ·       Unfreezing
  2. ·       Movement
  3. ·       Refreezing 

What is Lewins suggestion of an effective change strategy and why?

  • ·       Modifying forces maintaining the status quo before increasing forces for change is a more effective change strategy

Resistance to change: organizational & group factors

  • ·       Organizational factors

o   Power and conflict

o   Differences in functional orientation

o   Mechanistic structure

o   Organizational culture

  • ·       Group factors

o   Group norms

o   Group cohesiveness

o   Groupthink

Resistance to change: individual
  • fear
  • not necessary
  • uncertainty
  • i wasnt consulted
  • i am so used to the current

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Resistance to change: How to overcome resistance

o   Creating a felt need for change

o   Conveying credible expectations

o   Listening and understanding

o   Sharing info

o   particiaption

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 Equity Theory ex. of outcomes and inputs x
 equity theory ex. of referents x 
 equity def.the state of being fair, impartial
 overpayment inequity def. xwhen a person gets more money than they deserve
 how does the person react to overpayment inequity?slack off and does not work harder
 what are the consequences of underpayment inequity?less motivation to work, unethical behavior, grievance, turnover, absenteeism, emotional conflict among employees
 what are the consequences of overpayment inequity?perception change without working harder (waste of resources), grievance of other employees
 why is it important to maintain equity?high job satisfaction, increased morale and productivity
 what are the managerial implications for equity theory?From the power point:
  • because inputs are likely to vary across workers outcomes should also vary. Make sure outcomes vary with inputs. Do not give all workers at a given lel or holding the same job title the same level of outcomes unless their inputs are identical. Relaize that failure to recornize above-average levels of inputs has major motivational implications
The perception of equity or inequity that drives motivation 
 what is procedure justice?perceived fairness of the process used to determine outcome
 how does procedure justice differ from equity theory (distributive justice)Procedural is the fairness in the process of determining outcome
Equity is the fairness of the outcome.
 what are the consequences of procedural justice?
  • increased job satisfaction
  • increased organizational commitment
  • fewer negative reactions toward management
  • more organizational citizenship behaviors 
 what are the criteria a procedure should meet for it to be perceived as fair?
  1. be applied consistently across people and time.
  2. be free from bias
  3. ensure that accurate info is collected and used in decisions
  4. have some mechanism to correct flawed  or inaccurate decisions
  5. conform to personal or prevailing standards of ethics or morality
  6. ensure that the opinions of various groups affected by the decision have been taken into account.
 when does procedural justice become especially important?when the outcome distribution is not favorable

ex: when a company has to cut bonus, layoff, or reduce salaries
 what kind of goal is motivating? x
 situation when setting different and specific goals will NOT lead to higher motivation/ performance
  • when employees lack the skills and abilities needed to perform at a high level
  • when employees are given a complicated and difficult task that requires all of their attention and requires a considerable amount of learning
  • when employees are not committed to the goal.
 Management by Objectives- (MBO)a goal setting process in which an employee meets with his or her supervisor to set goals and evaluate the extent to which perviously set goals have been achieved.
 Management by Objectives- MBO application process
  • subordinate proposing goals and performance measures
  • subordinate and manager jointly develop specific goals and targets
  • subordinate attempt to achieve goals
  • results feedback and jointly performance review
  • setting new performance goals
 Management by Objectives- Major features of MBO
  1. start at the top of the organization by clarifying strategies/ goals for the organization
  2. can be applied to both individual and group goal setting
  3. shift the emphasis from weakness and criticism to an analysis of strength and potential
  4. it involves a high level of participation from organization members
  5. supervisor's role is one of counseling, coaching, or process consultation
 Management by Objectives- Strength of MBO
  • it helps to align group and individual goals with organizaion strategy
  • it increase goal acceptance and therefor motivation and satisfaction for organizaion members.
 Management by Objectives- limitations of MBOit requires a large amount of time, money, and effort
proper implementation of MBO requires improved managerial skills and competencies in communicating. coaching, and counseling., etc.
 Scientific management approach- Basic characteristics of the job design following this approach
  • highly specialized behaviors - > low task variety and task identity
  • high specified behaviors - > low autonomy
 scientific management approach- benefits
  • high control on work flow leads to stable performance
  • high behavior repetition leads to high efficiency
  • low selection and training costs
 scientific management approach- disadvantages
  • low job satisfaction
  • low intrinsic motivation
  • low creativity at work
  • less adaptive to environmental changes
 Job characteristics model def.an approach to a job design that aims to identify characteristics that make jobs intrinsically motivating.
 job characteristics model - what are the 5 core dimensions of individual job? what do they mean?
  1. skill variety - Experienced, meaningfulness of the work 
  2. task identity - =
  3. task significane - = 
  4. autonomy - experienced responsibility 
  5. feedback from work - knowledge of actual results
 3 critical psychological states that lead to high motivation? SAM
  1. meaningfulness
  2. safety
  3. availability

p.235
 how do the 5 core job characteristics affect the 3 critical psychological states?they affect engagement.
when engages people express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally as they perform their jobs
 how is a motivating potential score (MPS) calculated?skill variety + task identity + task significance / 3 
x autonomy x feedback
 what are some basic ways to enrich job to make it more intrinsically motivating?
  • combine tasks
  • group tasks into natural work units
  • allow workers to interact with customers
  • vertically load jobs
  • open feedback channels
 what core job dimension does each of these strategies help to improve?
  • combine tasks - variety, identity, and significance
  • group tasks into natural work units - task identity/ significance
  • allow workers to interact with customers - variety, autonomy, feedback, and task significance
  • vertically load jobs - autonomy
  • open feedback channels - feedback
 what are the managerial implications drawing from the job design approach to motivation?
  • internal feels of achievement are important
  • the job can be carefully designed so that employees are motivated intrinsically (naturally) - don't always need a physical reward
 important aspects of stress
  • stress can be experienced because of both opportunities and threats
  • the person who is experiencing the opportunity or threat is not sure that he or she can effectively deal with it
  • whether people experience stress depends on how they perceive potential opportunities and threats and how they perceive their capabilities to deal with them
 how do individual differences affect of experience of stress (ability/ personality)ability - stress can be experience when workers lack the abilities necessary to perform their jobs (lack of experiences)

personality - several personality traits are important for understanding why workers exposed to the same potential sources of stress may differ in extent to which they actually experience stress. (low self-esteem or type A personality)
 consequences of stress?distress, erode morale, performance
 how does stress affect performance? low (distress) positive - worker is bored
optimum (eustress) - healthy, high performance
high (distress) negative - worker is paralyzed by intense stress, 
 Shall we manage stress or eliminate it? Why?manage - because stress is inevitable part of work and life. Managing leads to health and preventing stress/ strain
 Major sources of stress?Life events
  • marriage/ divorce
  • death of family
  • buying a home/ moving
  • illness
organizational
  • role conflict
  • work overload
  • work conditions
 2 basic ways of coping with stress? Differences?
  1. problem-focused coping - the steps people take to deal directly with and act on the source of stress
  2. emotion-focused coping - the steps people take to deal with and control their stressful feelings and emotions
 what are some strategies of emotion-focus and problem-focused coping? (organizational/ individual)organizational
  • job redesign, goal setting, role negotiation, social support system
individual
  • positive thinking, time management, physical exercise, relaxation training, opening up, and professional help
 what is a group?a set of 2 or more people who interact with each other to achieve certain goals or to meet certain needs
 what the five group development stages? what happens at each stage?
  1. forming - unclear purpose
  2. storming - conflict, power struggle, increased clarity
  3. norming - agreement, clear roles, facilitation
  4. performing - clear purpose, focus on goal achievement
  5. adjourning - task completion, good feeling, recognition
 benefit of group vs. individual
  • more resources
  • synergy effect
  • division of labor increases efficiency
  • team work provides enriched job experiences
 benefit of small group vs. largesmall - regular interaction, ease of sharing info, recognition of indivual contributions, strong identification with group, and high group satisfaction

large - more resources (knowledge/ perspectives) and division of labor
 group composition- homogeneous vs. heterogeneoushomo - collegiality amongst group members, high info sharing, low levels of conflict, few coordination problems

hetero - diversity of views represented, variety of resources, high performance, if you can overcome coordination challenges.

Members of a heterogeneous group are characterized by diversity while homogeneous groups are characterized by similarity.    
 what are group normswell understood standards of behavior within a group (attendance/ performance)
 group norms- 3 ways to react to deviant behaviors
  1. try to change the deviant's behavior
  2. try to expel the deviant
  3. change the norm to be more in line with the deviant's behavior
 how much conformity +deviance is effective?moderate use of both. 
conformity helps the group direct members' behaviors toward goal accomplishment and deviance forces the group to examine the appropriateness of its norms
 what is social loafing?the tendency for people to exert less effort when they work in a group then when they work alone
 factors contributing to social loading
  1. large group size
  2. individual contribution not identifiable
  3. perception that individual effort is unnecessary or unimportant
 how to reduce social loafing?
  • let each member know that he or she can make an important and worthwhile contribution to the group
  • peer evaluation
  • make performance in a group identifiable
 what is group cohesiveness?
group members work well together, intolerance of deviance, communication, group achieves its goals
 what factors contribute to group cohesiveness
  • structure
  • purpose
  • diversity
  • creativity
 factors of low, moderate, and high group cohesivenesslow - information flows slowly within the group, little influence over its members
moderate - group members work well together, communication, participation
high - socialize excessively on the job, high level of conformity, intolerance of deviance, and achieves goals at the expense of other groups.
 how much cohesiveness is most effect for team performance?moderate
 what is leadership?the process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the work environment
 what is the behavior approach to leadership effectiveness?what do effective leaders do?

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 what are the 2 major categories of leadership behaviorformal and informal leadership
 what is the common limitation of the trait and behavior approaches to leadership? X
 what is the contingency approach to leadership?it emphasizes the importance of contextual factors such as the
  • leader's authority and discretion
  • the nature of the work performed by the leader's unit
  • attributes of the subordinates
  • nature of the external environment
 Fiedler's LPC contingency theory of leadership: what is it? how to use it to predict leadership effectivenessdifferent leadership styles work effectively in different situations.

predict with LPC scale
 leadership styles 2
  • relationship-oriented
  • task oriented
 situational characteristics? 3
  1. leader-member
  2. task structure
  3. position power
 what is path-goal theory?aspects of the situation such as 
  • nature of the task
  • work environment
  • subordinate attributes 
used to determine the optimal amount of each type of leader behavior for improving subordinate satisfaction 
 what are the 4 types of path-goal leader behaviors?
  1. directive behavior - subs know what tasks need to be performed/ how
  2. supportive behavior - subs know that their leader cares
  3. participative behavior - enable subs to be involved in decision making
  4. achievement - oriented behavior - push sub to do best
 which leader behavior is most effective under what situations? xbig fucking chart. how the fuck am i gonna memorize that?!
 what is transformational leadership?inspire stimulate followers to high performance levels through
  • charisma
  • individual consideration
  • inspirational motivation
  • intellectual stimulation
 understand the formal sources and informal sources of individual powerformal - the power that stems from a person's position in a n organization's hierarchy

informal - power that stems from personal characteristics
 what is conflict?the struggle that arises when the goal-directed behavior of one person or group blocks the goal-directed behavior of another person or group.
 is conflict good or bad?person focus conflict is dysfunctional
problem focused can be functional

too high levels of conflict is also dysfuctional
 what are the 5 major conflict management styles? ac c ac
  1. accommodation 
  2. collaboration
  3. compromise
  4. avoidance
  5. competition
 conflict management: avoidanceissue is of minor or passing importance
insufficient info to effectively deal with the conflict
 conflict management: Competition/ Forcingemergencies requiring quick actions
unpopular courses of action
 conflict management: accommodationeffective in short run when
  • need to defuse explosive emotional situation
  • need to keep harmony
  • conflict is primarily based on personality
 conflict management: collaborationmost practical when
  • high level of cooperation is needed
  • sufficient parity in power exists
  • potential mutual benefits
 conflict management: compromise
  • agreeing enables each person to be better off
  • achieving a total win-win agreeement is not possible
 major communication problems and their meaning?
  •  information distortion
  • filtering 
  • poor listening skills
  • lack of or inappropriate feedback
  • cross-cultural differences in communication styles (low vs. high context orientation
  • the issue of credibility

 major communication problems: information distortion - when a message changes as it travels through a series of different senders to the receivers
 major communication problems: filtering- when sender withhold part of a message because they think the receiver doesn't not need the info 
 major communication problems: poor listening skillsBad
  • not paying attention
  • interrupting
  • feeling defensive
  • listening for point of disagreement
Good
  • paying attention
  • listening for the whole message
  • hearing before evaluating
  • paraphrasing what was heard
 major communication problems: cross-cultural differences in communication styleslow vs. high context orientation
 what is the credibility issue? x
 major disadvantages of using electronic group
  • takes longer to accomplish tasks than groups
  • members lack many of the verbal and nonverbal cues that regulate group discussions
  • often causes group members to feel anonymous and de-personalized.
 what is the classical model of decision making?a prescriptive model
 what are the assumptions for the prescriptive model?
  • all available info concerning alternatives has been obtained
  • alternatives are ranked by explicit criteria
  • alternative selected will provide the max gain possible for the decision maker
 what are the steps of decision making according to this model?
  1. list all alternative
  2. list the consequences
  3. consider one's preferences for each alternative
  4. select the alternative
 what are its limitations?
  • decision makers dont always know all the alternatives
  • dont always know the consequences
  • may not be able to rank all consequences based on clear preferences
  • limited ability in information processing
 what is March and Simon's model of decision making?descriptive approach - describes how people actually make decisions in organizations
 what is satisficing?searching for and choosing an acceptable response or solution, not necessarily the best possible one.
 what is bounded rationality?an ability to reason that is constrained by the limitations of the human mind itself
 how does this model differ from the classical model?N/A
 what are the managerial implications?
  • realizing that different members will define the same problem in different ways
  • carefully examine how you define problems and opportunities
  • team up with others to examine the situation from multiple angles.
 What are the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making compared with individual decision making?

  • ·        Disadvantages

o   Time

o   Potential for  groupthink

 

  • ·         Advantages

o   Availability and diversity

o   Enhanced memory for facts

o   Increased capability to detect errors

o   Greater decision acceptance 

 What is groupthink?

  • ·         A pattern of faulty decision making that occurs in cohesive groups whose members strive for agreement at the expense of accurately assessing info relevant to the decision.

 what are the symptoms of groupthink?
  1. illusion of invulnerability - optimistic
  2. belief in inherent morality of the group - ethical
  3. collective rationalization - ignore rethink
  4. stereotypes of other groups - groups with opposing views are viewed as incompetent
  5. self censorship - fail to mention doubts
  6. illusions of unanimity - believe they are in total agreement
  7. direct pressure on dissenters - disagreer is urged to change
  8. emergence of self appointed mind guards - shield group from info for reconsideration
 how to prevent groupthink?

  • ·       Group leader encourages all members to be critical of proposed alternatives
  • ·       Leader refrains from expressing his or her own opinion and views
  • ·       Encourages members to gather info
  • ·       One or two members play the role of devils advocate
  • ·       Leader holds a meeting so that members are given a chance to discuss any doubts that they may have 

 functions of vertical and horizontal links in organization structural design

  • ·       Horizontal

o   Coordination, learning, innovation, flexibility

  • ·       Vertical

o   Control, efficiency, stability, reliability

 The 3 traditional structural designs and their meanings
  1. functional structure - employees grouped by dept.
  2. divisional structure 
  • product structure - divided by product
  • market = divided by type of customer they serve
  • geographic = divided by geographic structure
     3. matrix structure - groups people by function and by product team
 what advantages and disadvantages of network based structure?

  • ·       Advantages

o   Enable each member to exploit its distinct competence

o   Accumulate resources

o   Increased adaptability

  • ·       Disadvantages

o   Coordinating difficulty

 what are symptoms of structural problems

  • ·       Bad job design
  • ·       Right hand does not know what the left is doing
  • ·       Persistent conflict between departments
  • ·       Slow response times
  • ·       Decision made with incomplete info

 how to restructure organizations?

  • ·       Improve the existing design using integrating mechanisms
  • ·       Change the structure into a different design

 how to integrate mechanisms to improve and existing structural design?

·       Direct contact – face to face working relationships

·       Liaison roles- coordinate the activities of different divisions

·       Teams and task forces

·       Cross functional teams- assigned to work full time on a team to bring a new product or service to the market

 what is organizational culture?

  • ·       Pattern of basic assumptions, values, norms shared by organization members

 What are the 4 levels of organization culture?

  1. ·      Artifacts
  2. ·       Norms
  3. ·       Values
  4. ·       Basic assumptions

 Understand the 5 key values that describe national culture

  1. ·       Context orientation- meanings are conveyed through explicit words
  2. ·       Power distance- members in a society accept that power is distributed unequally in an organization
  3. ·       Uncertainty avoidance- extent to which members of an organization tolerate the unfamiliar and unpredictable
  4. ·       Achievement orientation- members value assertiveness and the acquisition of material goods
  5. Individualism- extent to which people believe they should be responsible for themselves and their immediate families    

 Is it possible to change organization culture? Why?

  • ·       Yes its possible
  • ·       It takes a long time
  • ·       Tricky

 What are some important issues to be aware of in terms of managing organizational culture?

  • ·       Culture is rooted in deep values and taken for granted assumptions
  • ·       Managerial ideology might not be consistent with employee beliefs and values
  • ·       Different groups may have different sub cultures
  • ·       Be aware of cultures influence

 Who is Kurt Lewin?psychologist that developed the idea of group dynamics/ organizational development
 What are the 3 sequential steps in Lewins change model?

  1. ·       Unfreezing
  2. ·       Movement
  3. ·       Refreezing 

 What is Lewins suggestion of an effective change strategy and why?

  • ·       Modifying forces maintaining the status quo before increasing forces for change is a more effective change strategy

 Resistance to change: organizational & group factors

  • ·       Organizational factors

o   Power and conflict

o   Differences in functional orientation

o   Mechanistic structure

o   Organizational culture

  • ·       Group factors

o   Group norms

o   Group cohesiveness

o   Groupthink

 Resistance to change: individual
  • fear
  • not necessary
  • uncertainty
  • i wasnt consulted
  • i am so used to the current

 Resistance to change: How to overcome resistance

o   Creating a felt need for change

o   Conveying credible expectations

o   Listening and understanding

o   Sharing info

o   particiaption

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