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Class:MCDB 21 - IMMUNE SYSTEM/AIDS
Subject:Molecular, Cellular & Develop. Biology
University:University of California - Santa Barbara
Term:Spring 2013
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A protein shell of a virus. It consists of several polymere structural subunits made of protein called capsomers. Capsid
Purpose of virus Infect other host cells and replicate
People with HIV are prone to_____ and _____ Infections and tumours
Luc Montagnier first termed HIV as Lymphadenopathy associated virus
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Robbert Gallo termed HIV as MTLV _ human T - cell lympnotrpic virus
Polymers specialized for storing , transmitting and using genetic info Nucleic acids
Tri nucleotide units CODONS
Nucleotides are made up of Phosphate group , Nitrogen base and 5 carbon sugar
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3 types of lipids and their function Fats- storage and insulation
Sterols- Growth and development
Lipids- MAke up the cellular membrane
Function of the Golgi app Helps with the processing and packaging of proteins , lipids and other molecules
Living orgs should OHGRRAM
Organization
Homeostasis
Growth
Response to stimuli
Reproduce
Adaptation
Metabolise
No living forms Prions and viruses
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Examples of bacetria ( prokaryotes) , Protists, Fungi Bacteria- Streptococcus and mycobacterium TB

Protists- Toxoplasma Gondii and Gardia Lamblia

Fungi-  pneumocystis jirovecci and Candida albicans

Genome and Capsid Nucleocapsid
Monomers of capsid Capsomeres
NAme all the virus properties Genome _ DNA/RNA

Shape_ Cylindrical , spherical and comples

 Envelope - some have some dont. THose that have will have a lipi d bilayer
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How are viruses classified Phenotype , morphology , the disease that they cause , the host organism  nucleic acid, their way of reproducton
HOw viruses are classified via the Baltimore method Sense , mode of reproduction , nucleic acid strandedness
Other classification methods ICTV , Holmes methods, Casjnes and Kings
Which virus cause the common flu and which part of bod does it affect? Rhino virus , upper respiratory tracht

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Other common viral types of flu Coronavirus
Influenza viris
Adenovirus
infectious diseases Infectious diseases, also known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases comprise clinically evident illness resulting from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism.
Koch's postulates Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease.

: An organsim will always be found on an diseased individual

THe organism can be isolated form the diseased individual and placed into a pure culture

The pure culture will initiate and reproduce when placed into susceptible host

The organsim can be re-isolated from diseased individual


Issues with Koch's postulates Not every organism could be placed in vitro

Some disease could not affect humans

Thre are asymptomatic carriers : e.g Mary Mallon
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Molecular Koch's postulates A gene from a pathogenic microorganism is related to the disease
Typhoid symptoms and causes
Postulates theory is based on the fact that There exists a relationship between a causative microbe and a disease
NAMe the direct ways which the transmission of a disease may occur Veneral
Vector borne
Vertebral reservoir
Inhalations
Oral fecal
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FActors that affect the transmission rate The season
The amount of people susceptible to the disease
THe stage of the virus
Population density
What is Epidemology THe study of factors that affect health and illnesses in populations and 
Epidemic In epidemiology, an epidemic, meaning "upon or above" and (demos), meaning "people") occurs when new cases of a certain disease, in a given human population, and during a given period, substantially exceed what is expected based on recent experience.
Pandemic A pandemic is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
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Endemic When a disease is constant with a specific population.
Companies monitoring infectious disease CDC

WHO
Methods to control infectious disease VAccination , antibiotics , anti-viral drugs
Antibiotic resistance Antibiotic resistance is a form of drug resistance whereby some sub-populations of a microorganism, usually a bacterial species, are able to survive after exposure to one or more antibiotics; pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics are considered multidrug resistant (MDR) or, more colloquially, superbugs.
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What causes Antibiotic resistance The improper and repeated use of antibiotics
WHat is MRSA Methelicillin  Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
WHich is the emerging epidemic between CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA CA-MRSA
CA-MRSA Agressive and unique strain
Affects young people in the community
Easily transmitted in Gyms , workout fascilities 
Resistant to many anti-biotics
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Name the bacterias found on skin Streptococcus
Staphylococcus
Propioni bacterium
HOw intestinal flora benefits us Provides vitamins
Prevents colonization of other pathogens
Digests food.
Immune system is made up of Innate immunity and adaptive immunity
Innate immunity consists of Barriers 

Inflammation ( chemokines)

Phagocytosis ( macrophages and Dendritic cells and Neutrophils)
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Barriers Physical ( skin and mucous)

Chemical ( stomach acid and digestive enzymes, tears and saliva= lysoszome)

Microbial - Norma flora
Inflammation This is the process where white blood cells and chemicals protect body against infection.
Harmful stimuli Pathogen , damaged cells and irritants
Steps of inflammation Damaged tissue stimulates the release of histamines which then increases the blood flow.

This then caused vessels to dilate and leakage to occur. The phagocytic cells and clotting factors are released and they begin engulphing dead cells, debris and bacteria 

The platelets are then released and begin sealing the wound
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5 signs of inflammation Erythema ( redness)
Edema ( swelling)
Pain
Heat ( fever)
altered functiom
Lymphatic system consists of two sets, mention where they are formed Primary - formed in Bone marrow and THymus


Secondary - Are formed in spleen , payer's patches and lymph nodes
what is an antigen  a foreign material which is able to trigger immune response
antigenic determinant aka epitope is a protein molecule found on the surface of antibody
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bacterium is a complex set of antigenic determinants
Lipids and nucleic acids are only antigenic if combined to polysaccaride and protein
Adaptive immunity is made up of two sections humoral and cell mediated sections
Humoral is associated with B cells and antibodies , associated with pathogens that are extracellular.
Work with MHC 2
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Cell mediated immunity is associated with cytotoxins thattarget intracellualr pathogens, Work with MHC 1
LAbel this structire and mentions the diff functions
Functions of antibodies Stimulates the removal of pathogen
Stops a pathogen from entering or damaging cell
Triggers the direct destruction path
IgE IgA IgD IgG IgM Allergins

brest milk , secretions

B lymphocyte

Most abundant

First produced
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Bone marrow has stem cells that make T cells
B cells
Platelets
Bone marrow's certain stem cells are called Hematopoietic stem cell
Hematopoietic stem cell creates two cells Lymphoid and Myloid cells
Lymphoid cells form Tcells
Bcells ( memory and plasma cell)

and natural killer cell
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communication mollecules aka. cytokines
cytokines are protein substances which also trigger or stimulate the immune response, involved in inflammation
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 A protein shell of a virus. It consists of several polymere structural subunits made of protein called capsomers.Capsid
 Purpose of virusInfect other host cells and replicate
 People with HIV are prone to_____ and _____Infections and tumours
 Luc Montagnier first termed HIV asLymphadenopathy associated virus
 Robbert Gallo termed HIV asMTLV _ human T - cell lympnotrpic virus
 Polymers specialized for storing , transmitting and using genetic infoNucleic acids
 Tri nucleotide unitsCODONS
 Nucleotides are made up ofPhosphate group , Nitrogen base and 5 carbon sugar
 3 types of lipids and their functionFats- storage and insulation
Sterols- Growth and development
Lipids- MAke up the cellular membrane
 Function of the Golgi appHelps with the processing and packaging of proteins , lipids and other molecules
 Living orgs shouldOHGRRAM
Organization
Homeostasis
Growth
Response to stimuli
Reproduce
Adaptation
Metabolise
 No living formsPrions and viruses
 Examples of bacetria ( prokaryotes) , Protists, FungiBacteria- Streptococcus and mycobacterium TB

Protists- Toxoplasma Gondii and Gardia Lamblia

Fungi-  pneumocystis jirovecci and Candida albicans

 Genome and CapsidNucleocapsid
 Monomers of capsidCapsomeres
 NAme all the virus propertiesGenome _ DNA/RNA

Shape_ Cylindrical , spherical and comples

 Envelope - some have some dont. THose that have will have a lipi d bilayer
 How are viruses classifiedPhenotype , morphology , the disease that they cause , the host organism  nucleic acid, their way of reproducton
 HOw viruses are classified via the Baltimore methodSense , mode of reproduction , nucleic acid strandedness
 Other classification methodsICTV , Holmes methods, Casjnes and Kings
 Which virus cause the common flu and which part of bod does it affect?Rhino virus , upper respiratory tracht

 Other common viral types of fluCoronavirus
Influenza viris
Adenovirus
 infectious diseasesInfectious diseases, also known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases comprise clinically evident illness resulting from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism.
 Koch's postulatesKoch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease.

: An organsim will always be found on an diseased individual

THe organism can be isolated form the diseased individual and placed into a pure culture

The pure culture will initiate and reproduce when placed into susceptible host

The organsim can be re-isolated from diseased individual


 Issues with Koch's postulatesNot every organism could be placed in vitro

Some disease could not affect humans

Thre are asymptomatic carriers : e.g Mary Mallon
 Molecular Koch's postulatesA gene from a pathogenic microorganism is related to the disease
 Typhoid symptoms and causes
 Postulates theory is based on the fact thatThere exists a relationship between a causative microbe and a disease
 NAMe the direct ways which the transmission of a disease may occurVeneral
Vector borne
Vertebral reservoir
Inhalations
Oral fecal
 FActors that affect the transmission rateThe season
The amount of people susceptible to the disease
THe stage of the virus
Population density
 What is EpidemologyTHe study of factors that affect health and illnesses in populations and 
 EpidemicIn epidemiology, an epidemic, meaning "upon or above" and (demos), meaning "people") occurs when new cases of a certain disease, in a given human population, and during a given period, substantially exceed what is expected based on recent experience.
 PandemicA pandemic is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
 EndemicWhen a disease is constant with a specific population.
 Companies monitoring infectious diseaseCDC

WHO
 Methods to control infectious diseaseVAccination , antibiotics , anti-viral drugs
 Antibiotic resistanceAntibiotic resistance is a form of drug resistance whereby some sub-populations of a microorganism, usually a bacterial species, are able to survive after exposure to one or more antibiotics; pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics are considered multidrug resistant (MDR) or, more colloquially, superbugs.
 What causes Antibiotic resistanceThe improper and repeated use of antibiotics
 WHat is MRSAMethelicillin  Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
 WHich is the emerging epidemic between CA-MRSA and HA-MRSACA-MRSA
 CA-MRSAAgressive and unique strain
Affects young people in the community
Easily transmitted in Gyms , workout fascilities 
Resistant to many anti-biotics
 Name the bacterias found on skinStreptococcus
Staphylococcus
Propioni bacterium
 HOw intestinal flora benefits usProvides vitamins
Prevents colonization of other pathogens
Digests food.
 Immune system is made up ofInnate immunity and adaptive immunity
 Innate immunity consists ofBarriers 

Inflammation ( chemokines)

Phagocytosis ( macrophages and Dendritic cells and Neutrophils)
 BarriersPhysical ( skin and mucous)

Chemical ( stomach acid and digestive enzymes, tears and saliva= lysoszome)

Microbial - Norma flora
 InflammationThis is the process where white blood cells and chemicals protect body against infection.
 Harmful stimuliPathogen , damaged cells and irritants
 Steps of inflammationDamaged tissue stimulates the release of histamines which then increases the blood flow.

This then caused vessels to dilate and leakage to occur. The phagocytic cells and clotting factors are released and they begin engulphing dead cells, debris and bacteria 

The platelets are then released and begin sealing the wound
 5 signs of inflammationErythema ( redness)
Edema ( swelling)
Pain
Heat ( fever)
altered functiom
 Lymphatic system consists of two sets, mention where they are formedPrimary - formed in Bone marrow and THymus


Secondary - Are formed in spleen , payer's patches and lymph nodes
 what is an antigen a foreign material which is able to trigger immune response
 antigenic determinant aka epitopeis a protein molecule found on the surface of antibody
 bacterium is acomplex set of antigenic determinants
 Lipids and nucleic acids are only antigenic if combined topolysaccaride and protein
 Adaptive immunity is made up of two sectionshumoral and cell mediated sections
 Humoralis associated with B cells and antibodies , associated with pathogens that are extracellular.
Work with MHC 2
 Cell mediated immunityis associated with cytotoxins thattarget intracellualr pathogens, Work with MHC 1
 LAbel this structire and mentions the diff functions
 Functions of antibodiesStimulates the removal of pathogen
Stops a pathogen from entering or damaging cell
Triggers the direct destruction path
 IgE IgA IgD IgG IgMAllergins

brest milk , secretions

B lymphocyte

Most abundant

First produced
 Bone marrow has stem cells that makeT cells
B cells
Platelets
 Bone marrow's certain stem cells are calledHematopoietic stem cell
 Hematopoietic stem cell creates two cellsLymphoid and Myloid cells
 Lymphoid cells formTcells
Bcells ( memory and plasma cell)

and natural killer cell
 communication mollecules aka.cytokines
 cytokinesare protein substances which also trigger or stimulate the immune response, involved in inflammation
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