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Ch 11-15 - Flashcards

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Class:MGT 3370 - Organization and Management: Honors
Subject:MANAGEMENT
University:Texas Tech University
Term:Fall 2014
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Withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence is referred to as? Extinction
Instrumentality is best defined as? The perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome
The practice of using a fair process in decision making and making sure others know it was fair? Procedural justice
In context of Herzberg's two-factor theory, characteristics of the workplace that make people dissatisfied are known as? Hygiene factors
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Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory proposes that an individual will decide to behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be.
What is the highest level need in Maslow's hierarchy of needs? Self-actualization
Alderfer's ERG theory primarily focuses on? Existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs
Positive consequences that motivate behavior are referred to as Reinforcers
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Negative reinforcement refers to applying a(n) ____ consequence? Undesirable
Organizational behavior modification primarily attempts to? Improve performance
In Maslow's need hierarchy, the need found at the bottom of the pyramid is the? Physiological need
____ need refers to a need for friendship, affection, belonging, and love? Social
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The performance-to-outcome link in expectancy theory is called? Instrumentality
____ is intended to alleviate boredom by giving people different jobs to do at different times Job rotation
Which of these best describes constitutionalism? The rights of personal privacy, dissent, and due process

Stretch goals are best defined as? The targets that are exceptionally demanding and novel
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A consequence a person receives for his or her performance is? Outcome
Motivation refers to forces that? Energize, direct, and sustain a person's efforts
The most important needs for managers, according to McClelland, are? Achievement, affiliation, and power
Who formulated the law of effect? Edward Thorndike
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Vertical stretch goals are? aligned with current activities, including productivity and financial results
A difference between Maslow's need hierarchy and Alderfer's ERG theory is that? ERG theory states that various needs operate simultaneously
Which of the following levels of need includes the need for recognition and respect from others? EGO
Horizontal stretch goals are? Involve people's professional development
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For motivation to be high? Expectancy must be high
On receiving feedback, one should ideally? Avoid negative emotions
Which of the statements is supported by equity theory? Inequity causes dissatisfaction
Management Teams Coordinate and provide directions to the subunits under their jurisdiction and integrate work among subunits
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In context of teams, ___ work groups have no managerial responsibilities? Traditional
Groupthink When a tightly knit group is so cooperative that aggreeing with one another's opinions becomes the norm
Parading Entails simultaneously emphasizing internal team building and achieving external visibility
Cohesiveness When discussing social groups, a group is said to be in a state of cohesion when its members possess bonds linking them to one another and to the group as a whole.
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Advisory ___ relationships are created when teams with problems call on centralized sources of expert knowledge
___ roles are filled by individuals who have particular job-related skills and abilities? Task specialist
Self-managed teams report to a management representative known as the? Coach
____ relationships involve intermediaries between teams? Liason
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___ relationships develop when people not directly in the chain of command evaluate the other teams? Audit
In the context roles of a superior team leader, persuading refers to? Influencing team members, as well as obtaining external support for teams
In a __ work group, the first-line manager plans, organizes, staffs, directs, and controls them. Traditional
Which of the following holds true for a traditional work environment? Most information is "management property"
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Which of the following differentiates a group from a team? They do not necessarily perform as a unit

In the context role of a superior team leader, relating refers to? Exhibiting social and political awareness, caring for team members, and building trust
In a new work environment, which of the following is true? Cross-training is the norm
___ teams work toward a one-time product, disbanding once their work is completed. Project and development teams
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In the context roles of a superior team leader, empowering refers to? Delegating authority, being flexible regarding team decisions, and coaching
In the ___ stage of team development, rules and roles are established that set long-lasting precedents. Forming
__ teams differ from other work teams not only by being multicultural, but also geographically dispersed? Transnational
___ teams decide themselves whom to hire, whom to fire, and what tasks to perform. Self-designing
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Which of the following is a feature of a new team environment? Measured risk taking is encouraged and supported
Which of the following is a characteristic of a new team environment? Everyone works to continuously improve methods and processes
In the ___ stage of team development, hostilities and conflict arise. Storming
Which of the following is a characteristic of a traditional work environment? Rewards are based on individual performance
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In ___ teams, members often come from different units and asked to do work not normally done Parallel
Quality Circles Voluntary groups or people drawn from various production teams who make suggestions but have no say in decisions.
___ teams typically are well defined, a clear part of the formal organization, and composed of full time members. Work Teams
___ refers to the flow of information from higher to lower levels in the organizations hierarchy? Downward communication
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One-way communication A process in which information flows in a single direction, from sender to receiver, with no feed back loop
Refers to online publications created with contributions from many authors/users. Wikis
Noise An interference in the communication process that blocks perfect understanding
Coaching Dialogue with the goal of helping another be more effective
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Filtering The process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting information
Which of the following is true of the richest media? They are more personal than technological media
In ___, an application of web 2.0, users subscribe to receive news, blogs, or other info. Really simple syndication (RSS)
The degree to which a communication channel conveys information is called? Media richness
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The process of receiving and interpreting information is known as? Perception
Which of the following is an advantage of oral communication? The receiver can gauge the sender's sensitivity
Which of the following holds true for the use of electronic media at work? It encourages more people to participate and share their ideas with others
What is recommended when making a presentation to an audience who speaks a different language? Repeat each important idea using different words to explain the same concept
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Open-book Management A company shares its financial goals, income statements, budgets, sales, forecasts, and other relevant data about company performance
A manager wants to inform his team about a new health care policy adopted by the company. Which medium should he use? E-mail
Reflection Summarizing information to ensure that you understand correctly
Balance Sheet A report that shows the financial picture of a company at a given time
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___ are the values of the various items the corporation owns? Assets
__ show the relative amount of funds in the business supplied by creditors and shareholders? Leverage ratios
Which of the following is a definition of control? It is any process that directs the activities of individuals toward the achievement of organizational goals
When employees feel forced to attempt to "beat the system" Tactical behavior
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The level of expected performance for a given goal? Standard
The most common liquidity ratio is current assets to current liabilities? Current ratio
The last step in a typical control system? Taking action to correct the problems
What is the first step in a typical control system? Setting performance standards
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Management myopia Refers to the situation when managers focus on short-term earnings and profits at the expense of their longer-term strategic obligations
___ indicates the company's ability to meet its long-term financial obligations? Debt-equity ratio
Benchmarking The process of comparing a firm's practices with other organizations
___ is the amount accruing to the corporation's owners Stockholders' equity
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___ indicate a company's ability to pay short-term debts. Liquidity ratios
Control and ___ have been called the siamese twins of management? Planning
Clan Control Control based on the norms, values, goals, and trust among group members
The control process used while plans are being carried out? Concurrent
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An evaluation conducted by one organization of another organization? External Audit
To be effective, control systems must?
  • Based on valid performance standards
  • communicate adequate information to employees
  • Acceptable to employees
  • They use multiple approaches
  • They recognize the relationship between empowerment and control
Assets = Liabilities + Stockholders' Equity True
Profit and Loss Statement An itemized financial document of the income and the expenses of a company's operations
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Control based on the use of pricing mechanisms and economic information? Market control
___ indicate management's ability to generate financial return on sales or investment? Profitability ratios
Market controls involve the use of? Economic standards
___ are arrangements for jointly pursuing specific new technology development? Research partnerships
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The ___ approach redesigns tasks in a way that jointly optimizes the social and technical efficiency. Sociotechnical systems
Strengthening the new behaviors that support the change is known as? Refreezing
___ interventions include attracting good people, setting goals, and appraising performance. Human resources management
Which of the following describes a product champion? Promotes a new technology throughout the organization
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Who developed force-field analysis? Kurt Lewin
___ interventions include conflict resolution, team building, communication, and leadership. Human Process
The tendency of managers to miss significance of disruptive changes because they are focused on investing? The innovator's dilemma
___ interventions include helping organizations conduct mergers and acquisitions. Strategic 
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___ technologies have yet to prove their full value but have potential. Pacing
In assessing market receptiveness, executives should determine that the new technology... Has an immediate and valuable application in the short run
Which of the following is the first consideration in developing a strategy around tech. innovation? Market potential
Organizational Effectiveness Refers to improving the organizations ability to respond to customers, stockholders, governments, employees, etc...
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Flexible manufacturing practices such as JIT, mass customization, and simultaneous engineering are examples of? Process Innovations
Technology that is common place in the industry and provides little competitive adv? Base technology
Which of these describes an executive champion? Possesses the status, authority, and resources to support an innovation
___ technologies have proven effective but offer strategic advantage? Key
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Which is a characteristic of enduringly great companies? They undergo continuous change
Which of the following is a responsibility of the chief information officer? Identify ways that technology can support the company's strategy
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 Withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence is referred to as?Extinction
 Instrumentality is best defined as?The perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome
 The practice of using a fair process in decision making and making sure others know it was fair?Procedural justice
 In context of Herzberg's two-factor theory, characteristics of the workplace that make people dissatisfied are known as?Hygiene factors
 Expectancy TheoryExpectancy theory proposes that an individual will decide to behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be.
 What is the highest level need in Maslow's hierarchy of needs?Self-actualization
 Alderfer's ERG theory primarily focuses on?Existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs
 Positive consequences that motivate behavior are referred to asReinforcers
 Negative reinforcement refers to applying a(n) ____ consequence?Undesirable
 Organizational behavior modification primarily attempts to?Improve performance
 In Maslow's need hierarchy, the need found at the bottom of the pyramid is the?Physiological need
 ____ need refers to a need for friendship, affection, belonging, and love?Social
 The performance-to-outcome link in expectancy theory is called?Instrumentality
 ____ is intended to alleviate boredom by giving people different jobs to do at different timesJob rotation
 Which of these best describes constitutionalism?The rights of personal privacy, dissent, and due process

 Stretch goals are best defined as?The targets that are exceptionally demanding and novel
 A consequence a person receives for his or her performance is?Outcome
 Motivation refers to forces that?Energize, direct, and sustain a person's efforts
 The most important needs for managers, according to McClelland, are?Achievement, affiliation, and power
 Who formulated the law of effect?Edward Thorndike
 Vertical stretch goals are?aligned with current activities, including productivity and financial results
 A difference between Maslow's need hierarchy and Alderfer's ERG theory is that?ERG theory states that various needs operate simultaneously
 Which of the following levels of need includes the need for recognition and respect from others?EGO
 Horizontal stretch goals are?Involve people's professional development
 For motivation to be high?Expectancy must be high
 On receiving feedback, one should ideally?Avoid negative emotions
 Which of the statements is supported by equity theory?Inequity causes dissatisfaction
 Management TeamsCoordinate and provide directions to the subunits under their jurisdiction and integrate work among subunits
 In context of teams, ___ work groups have no managerial responsibilities?Traditional
 GroupthinkWhen a tightly knit group is so cooperative that aggreeing with one another's opinions becomes the norm
 ParadingEntails simultaneously emphasizing internal team building and achieving external visibility
 CohesivenessWhen discussing social groups, a group is said to be in a state of cohesion when its members possess bonds linking them to one another and to the group as a whole.
 Advisory___ relationships are created when teams with problems call on centralized sources of expert knowledge
 ___ roles are filled by individuals who have particular job-related skills and abilities?Task specialist
 Self-managed teams report to a management representative known as the?Coach
 ____ relationships involve intermediaries between teams?Liason
 ___ relationships develop when people not directly in the chain of command evaluate the other teams?Audit
 In the context roles of a superior team leader, persuading refers to?Influencing team members, as well as obtaining external support for teams
 In a __ work group, the first-line manager plans, organizes, staffs, directs, and controls them.Traditional
 Which of the following holds true for a traditional work environment?Most information is "management property"
 Which of the following differentiates a group from a team?They do not necessarily perform as a unit

 In the context role of a superior team leader, relating refers to?Exhibiting social and political awareness, caring for team members, and building trust
 In a new work environment, which of the following is true?Cross-training is the norm
 ___ teams work toward a one-time product, disbanding once their work is completed.Project and development teams
 In the context roles of a superior team leader, empowering refers to?Delegating authority, being flexible regarding team decisions, and coaching
 In the ___ stage of team development, rules and roles are established that set long-lasting precedents.Forming
 __ teams differ from other work teams not only by being multicultural, but also geographically dispersed?Transnational
 ___ teams decide themselves whom to hire, whom to fire, and what tasks to perform.Self-designing
 Which of the following is a feature of a new team environment?Measured risk taking is encouraged and supported
 Which of the following is a characteristic of a new team environment?Everyone works to continuously improve methods and processes
 In the ___ stage of team development, hostilities and conflict arise.Storming
 Which of the following is a characteristic of a traditional work environment?Rewards are based on individual performance
 In ___ teams, members often come from different units and asked to do work not normally doneParallel
 Quality CirclesVoluntary groups or people drawn from various production teams who make suggestions but have no say in decisions.
 ___ teams typically are well defined, a clear part of the formal organization, and composed of full time members.Work Teams
 ___ refers to the flow of information from higher to lower levels in the organizations hierarchy?Downward communication
 One-way communicationA process in which information flows in a single direction, from sender to receiver, with no feed back loop
 Refers to online publications created with contributions from many authors/users.Wikis
 NoiseAn interference in the communication process that blocks perfect understanding
 CoachingDialogue with the goal of helping another be more effective
 FilteringThe process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting information
 Which of the following is true of the richest media?They are more personal than technological media
 In ___, an application of web 2.0, users subscribe to receive news, blogs, or other info.Really simple syndication (RSS)
 The degree to which a communication channel conveys information is called?Media richness
 The process of receiving and interpreting information is known as?Perception
 Which of the following is an advantage of oral communication?The receiver can gauge the sender's sensitivity
 Which of the following holds true for the use of electronic media at work?It encourages more people to participate and share their ideas with others
 What is recommended when making a presentation to an audience who speaks a different language?Repeat each important idea using different words to explain the same concept
 Open-book ManagementA company shares its financial goals, income statements, budgets, sales, forecasts, and other relevant data about company performance
 A manager wants to inform his team about a new health care policy adopted by the company. Which medium should he use?E-mail
 ReflectionSummarizing information to ensure that you understand correctly
 Balance SheetA report that shows the financial picture of a company at a given time
 ___ are the values of the various items the corporation owns?Assets
 __ show the relative amount of funds in the business supplied by creditors and shareholders?Leverage ratios
 Which of the following is a definition of control?It is any process that directs the activities of individuals toward the achievement of organizational goals
 When employees feel forced to attempt to "beat the system"Tactical behavior
 The level of expected performance for a given goal?Standard
 The most common liquidity ratio is current assets to current liabilities?Current ratio
 The last step in a typical control system?Taking action to correct the problems
 What is the first step in a typical control system?Setting performance standards
 Management myopiaRefers to the situation when managers focus on short-term earnings and profits at the expense of their longer-term strategic obligations
 ___ indicates the company's ability to meet its long-term financial obligations?Debt-equity ratio
 BenchmarkingThe process of comparing a firm's practices with other organizations
 ___ is the amount accruing to the corporation's ownersStockholders' equity
 ___ indicate a company's ability to pay short-term debts.Liquidity ratios
 Control and ___ have been called the siamese twins of management?Planning
 Clan ControlControl based on the norms, values, goals, and trust among group members
 The control process used while plans are being carried out?Concurrent
 An evaluation conducted by one organization of another organization?External Audit
 To be effective, control systems must?
  • Based on valid performance standards
  • communicate adequate information to employees
  • Acceptable to employees
  • They use multiple approaches
  • They recognize the relationship between empowerment and control
 Assets = Liabilities + Stockholders' EquityTrue
 Profit and Loss StatementAn itemized financial document of the income and the expenses of a company's operations
 Control based on the use of pricing mechanisms and economic information?Market control
 ___ indicate management's ability to generate financial return on sales or investment?Profitability ratios
 Market controls involve the use of?Economic standards
 ___ are arrangements for jointly pursuing specific new technology development?Research partnerships
 The ___ approach redesigns tasks in a way that jointly optimizes the social and technical efficiency.Sociotechnical systems
 Strengthening the new behaviors that support the change is known as?Refreezing
 ___ interventions include attracting good people, setting goals, and appraising performance.Human resources management
 Which of the following describes a product champion?Promotes a new technology throughout the organization
 Who developed force-field analysis?Kurt Lewin
 ___ interventions include conflict resolution, team building, communication, and leadership.Human Process
 The tendency of managers to miss significance of disruptive changes because they are focused on investing?The innovator's dilemma
 ___ interventions include helping organizations conduct mergers and acquisitions.Strategic 
 ___ technologies have yet to prove their full value but have potential.Pacing
 In assessing market receptiveness, executives should determine that the new technology...Has an immediate and valuable application in the short run
 Which of the following is the first consideration in developing a strategy around tech. innovation?Market potential
 Organizational EffectivenessRefers to improving the organizations ability to respond to customers, stockholders, governments, employees, etc...
 Flexible manufacturing practices such as JIT, mass customization, and simultaneous engineering are examples of?Process Innovations
 Technology that is common place in the industry and provides little competitive adv?Base technology
 Which of these describes an executive champion?Possesses the status, authority, and resources to support an innovation
 ___ technologies have proven effective but offer strategic advantage?Key
 Which is a characteristic of enduringly great companies?They undergo continuous change
 Which of the following is a responsibility of the chief information officer?Identify ways that technology can support the company's strategy
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