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CHAPTER 2: MANAGEMENT THEORY - Flashcards

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Class:MGT 3304 - Mgt Th & Lead Pract
Subject:Management
University:Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University
Term:Spring 2013
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evidence-based management translating principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing rationality to the decision-making process 
historical perspective includes classical, behavioral and quantitative viewpoints
contemporary perspective includes systems, contingency and quality-management viewpoints
classical viewpoint emphasizes finding ways to manage work more efficiently, two branches: scientific and administrative 
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scientific management emphasizes the scientific study or work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers, chief proponents Frederick W. Taylor and Frank and Gillian Gilbreth
administrative management concerned with managing the total organization, pioneering theorists Henri Fayol and Max Weber 
behavioral viewpoint emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement, Pioneers Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Follett and Elton Mayo
human relations movement proposed that better human relations could increase worker productivity 
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behavioral science relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers 
quantitative management application to management of quantitative techniques as statistics and computer simulations, two branches are management science and operations management 
management science focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making 
system set of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose 
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systems viewpoint regards the organization as a system of interrelated parts 
subsystems parts making up the whole system 
inputs people, money, information, equipment and materials required to produce an organization's goods or services 
transformation processes organization's capabilities in management, internal processes and technology that are applied to converting inputs into outputs 
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outputs products, services, profits, losses and employee satisfaction or discontent that are produced by the organization 
feedback information about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that affects the inputs 
open system system that continually interacts with its environment 
closed system system that has little interaction with its environment 
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complexity theory study of how order and pattern arise from very complicated, apparently chaotic system 
contingency viewpoint emphasizes that a manager's approach should vary according to, that is be contingent on, the individual and the environmental situation
quality-management viewpoint includes quality control, quality assurance and total quality management
quality refers to the total ability of a product or service to meet customer needs
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quality control strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage or production 
quality assurance focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for zero defects
total quality management TQM comprehensive approach, led by top management and supported throughout the organization, dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training and customer satisfaction 
learning organization organization that actively creates, acquires and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge 
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 evidence-based managementtranslating principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing rationality to the decision-making process 
 historical perspectiveincludes classical, behavioral and quantitative viewpoints
 contemporary perspectiveincludes systems, contingency and quality-management viewpoints
 classical viewpointemphasizes finding ways to manage work more efficiently, two branches: scientific and administrative 
 scientific managementemphasizes the scientific study or work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers, chief proponents Frederick W. Taylor and Frank and Gillian Gilbreth
 administrative managementconcerned with managing the total organization, pioneering theorists Henri Fayol and Max Weber 
 behavioral viewpointemphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement, Pioneers Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Follett and Elton Mayo
 human relations movementproposed that better human relations could increase worker productivity 
 behavioral sciencerelies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers 
 quantitative managementapplication to management of quantitative techniques as statistics and computer simulations, two branches are management science and operations management 
 management sciencefocuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making 
 systemset of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose 
 systems viewpointregards the organization as a system of interrelated parts 
 subsystemsparts making up the whole system 
 inputspeople, money, information, equipment and materials required to produce an organization's goods or services 
 transformation processesorganization's capabilities in management, internal processes and technology that are applied to converting inputs into outputs 
 outputsproducts, services, profits, losses and employee satisfaction or discontent that are produced by the organization 
 feedbackinformation about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that affects the inputs 
 open systemsystem that continually interacts with its environment 
 closed systemsystem that has little interaction with its environment 
 complexity theorystudy of how order and pattern arise from very complicated, apparently chaotic system 
 contingency viewpointemphasizes that a manager's approach should vary according to, that is be contingent on, the individual and the environmental situation
 quality-management viewpointincludes quality control, quality assurance and total quality management
 qualityrefers to the total ability of a product or service to meet customer needs
 quality controlstrategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage or production 
 quality assurancefocuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for zero defects
 total quality management TQMcomprehensive approach, led by top management and supported throughout the organization, dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training and customer satisfaction 
 learning organizationorganization that actively creates, acquires and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge 
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