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Chapter 6: Individual Factors: Moral Philosophies .. - Flashcards

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Class:MGT 4334 - Ethical Leadership
Subject:Management
University:Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University
Term:Spring 2012
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Moral Philosophy Refers to the specific principles or rules that people use to decide what is right and wrong
Economic Value Orientation Associated with values that can be quantified by monetary means; according to this theory, if an act produces more value for its effort, then it should be accepted as ethical.
Idealism Moral philosophy that places special value on ideas and ideals as products of the mind - refers to the efforts required to account for all objects in nature and experience and to assign to them to a higher order of existence.
Realism View that an external world exists independent of our perception of it - assumes that humankind is not naturally benevolent and kind, but instead inherently self-centered and competitive.
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Monists Believe that only one thing is intrinsically good

Often characterized by hedonism
Hedonism The idea that pleasure is the ultimate good, or that the best moral end involves the greatest balance of pleasure over pain
Quantitative Hedonists Moral philosophers describe those tho believe that more pleasure is better
Qualitative Hedonists Those who believe that it is possible to get too much of a good thing (such as pleasure)
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Pluralists Often referred to as non-hedonists, take the opposite position that no one thing is intrinsically good
Goodness Theories Typically focus on the end result of actions and the goodness or happiness created by them
Obligation Theories Emphasize the means and motives by which actions are justified, and are divided into the categories of teleology and deontology
Teleology Refers to moral philosophies in which an act is considered morally right or acceptable if it produces some desired result, such as pleasure, knowledge, career growth, the realization of self-interest, utility, wealth, or even fame
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Egoism Defines right or acceptable behavior in terms of its consequences for the individual

Believe that they should make decisions that maximize their own self-interest, which is defined differently by each individual
Enlightened Egoism They take a long-range perspective and allow for the well-being of others although their own self-interest remains paramount.
Utilitarianism Concerned with consequences - seeks the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Rule Utilitarians Determine behavior on the basis of principles or rules designed to promote the greatest utility, rather than on individual examinations of each situation they encounter
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Act Utilitarians Examine specific actions, rather than the general rules governing them, to assess whether they will result in the greatest utility
Deontology Refers to moral philosophies that focus on the rights of individuals and on the intentions associated with a particular behavior rather than its consequences
Role Deontologists Believe that conformity to general moral principles based on logic determines ethicalness
Act Deontologists Hold that actions are the proper basis on which to judge morality or ethicalness
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Relativist Perspective Definitions of ethical behavior are derived subjectively from the experiences of individuals and groups
Descriptive Relativism Relates to observations of other cultures
Metaethical Relativism Proposes that people naturally see situations from their own perspectives and that there is no objective way of resolving ethical disputes between different value systems and individuals
Normative Relativism Assume that one person's opinion is as good as another's
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Virtue Ethics Argues that ethical behavior involves not only adhering to conventional moral standards but also considering what a mature person with a "good" moral character would deem appropriate in a given situation
Justice Fair treatment and due reward in accordance with ethical or legal standards, including the disposition to deal with perceived injustices of others
Distributive Justice Based on the evaluation of the outcomes or results of a business relationship

If some employees feel that they are paid less than their coworkers for the same work, they have concerns about this justice
Procedural Justice Considers the processes and activities that produce a particular outcome
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Interactional Justice Based on the relationships between organizational members, including the way employees and management treat one another

Linked to fairness within member interactions
Kohlberg's Model of Cognitive Model Development People make different decisions in similar ethical situations because they are in different moral development stages.
The six stages of Kohlberg's model 1) The stage of punishment and obedience
2) The stage of of individual instrumental purpose and exchange
3) The stage of mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and conformity
4) The stage of social system and conscience maintenance
5) The stage of prior rights, social contract, or utility
6) The stage of universal ethical principles

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 Moral PhilosophyRefers to the specific principles or rules that people use to decide what is right and wrong
 Economic Value OrientationAssociated with values that can be quantified by monetary means; according to this theory, if an act produces more value for its effort, then it should be accepted as ethical.
 IdealismMoral philosophy that places special value on ideas and ideals as products of the mind - refers to the efforts required to account for all objects in nature and experience and to assign to them to a higher order of existence.
 RealismView that an external world exists independent of our perception of it - assumes that humankind is not naturally benevolent and kind, but instead inherently self-centered and competitive.
 MonistsBelieve that only one thing is intrinsically good

Often characterized by hedonism
 HedonismThe idea that pleasure is the ultimate good, or that the best moral end involves the greatest balance of pleasure over pain
 Quantitative HedonistsMoral philosophers describe those tho believe that more pleasure is better
 Qualitative HedonistsThose who believe that it is possible to get too much of a good thing (such as pleasure)
 PluralistsOften referred to as non-hedonists, take the opposite position that no one thing is intrinsically good
 Goodness TheoriesTypically focus on the end result of actions and the goodness or happiness created by them
 Obligation TheoriesEmphasize the means and motives by which actions are justified, and are divided into the categories of teleology and deontology
 TeleologyRefers to moral philosophies in which an act is considered morally right or acceptable if it produces some desired result, such as pleasure, knowledge, career growth, the realization of self-interest, utility, wealth, or even fame
 EgoismDefines right or acceptable behavior in terms of its consequences for the individual

Believe that they should make decisions that maximize their own self-interest, which is defined differently by each individual
 Enlightened EgoismThey take a long-range perspective and allow for the well-being of others although their own self-interest remains paramount.
 UtilitarianismConcerned with consequences - seeks the greatest good for the greatest number of people
 Rule UtilitariansDetermine behavior on the basis of principles or rules designed to promote the greatest utility, rather than on individual examinations of each situation they encounter
 Act UtilitariansExamine specific actions, rather than the general rules governing them, to assess whether they will result in the greatest utility
 DeontologyRefers to moral philosophies that focus on the rights of individuals and on the intentions associated with a particular behavior rather than its consequences
 Role DeontologistsBelieve that conformity to general moral principles based on logic determines ethicalness
 Act DeontologistsHold that actions are the proper basis on which to judge morality or ethicalness
 Relativist PerspectiveDefinitions of ethical behavior are derived subjectively from the experiences of individuals and groups
 Descriptive RelativismRelates to observations of other cultures
 Metaethical RelativismProposes that people naturally see situations from their own perspectives and that there is no objective way of resolving ethical disputes between different value systems and individuals
 Normative RelativismAssume that one person's opinion is as good as another's
 Virtue EthicsArgues that ethical behavior involves not only adhering to conventional moral standards but also considering what a mature person with a "good" moral character would deem appropriate in a given situation
 JusticeFair treatment and due reward in accordance with ethical or legal standards, including the disposition to deal with perceived injustices of others
 Distributive JusticeBased on the evaluation of the outcomes or results of a business relationship

If some employees feel that they are paid less than their coworkers for the same work, they have concerns about this justice
 Procedural JusticeConsiders the processes and activities that produce a particular outcome
 Interactional JusticeBased on the relationships between organizational members, including the way employees and management treat one another

Linked to fairness within member interactions
 Kohlberg's Model of Cognitive Model DevelopmentPeople make different decisions in similar ethical situations because they are in different moral development stages.
 The six stages of Kohlberg's model1) The stage of punishment and obedience
2) The stage of of individual instrumental purpose and exchange
3) The stage of mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and conformity
4) The stage of social system and conscience maintenance
5) The stage of prior rights, social contract, or utility
6) The stage of universal ethical principles
  
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