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Exam 4 Terms - Flashcards

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Class:MGT 307 - HUMAN RESOURCE MGT
Subject:MANAGEMENT
University:Clemson University
Term:Spring 2012
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Marginal Tax Rate The percentage of an additional dollar of earnings that goes to taxes. A tax rate that applies to the last dollar of the tax base and is often applied to the change in once's tax obligation as income rises.
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) of 1985 Law that requires employers to permit employees to extend their health insurance coverage at group rates for up to 36 months following a "qualifying event" such as termination (except for gross misconduct), death, and other events.
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) Guarantees to pay employees a basic retirement benefit in the event that financial difficulties force a company to terminate or reduce employee pension benefits.
Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974 Law that increased the fiduciary responsibilities of pension plan trustees and established vesting rights and portability provisions.
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Cash Balance Plans An employer sets up an individual account for each employee and contributes a percentage of the employee's salary; the account earns interest at a predefined rate.
Summary Plan Description (SPD) Obligates employers to describe the plan's funding, eligibility requirements, risks, and so on.
Family and Medical Leave Act Law that requires organizations with 50 or more employees within a 75-mile radius to provide as much as 12 weeks of unpaid leave: after each childbirth or adoption; to care for a seriously ill child, spouse, or parent; or for an employee's own serious illness.
Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO) Focus on preventative care and outpatient treatment, requiring employees to use only their services and providing benefits on a prepaid basis. They pay physicians and other healthcare workers on a flat salary basis to reduce incentives to increase patient visits or tests.
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Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs) Groups of healthcare providers who contract with employees, insurance companies, and so on to provide healthcare at reduced fees.
Financial Accounting Statement (FAS) 106 This, issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, went into effect in 1993. It says that any benefits (excluding pensions) provided after retirement, such as healthcare, cannot be funded on a pay-as-you-go basis. Rather, they must be paid on an accrual basis and entered as future-cost obligations on financial statements. The initial impact on large corporations has been significant declines in net income. Require white-collars to pay premiums.
Checkoff Provision An automatic deduction of union dues from an employee's paycheck.
Closed Shop A union security provision under which a person must be a union member.
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Union Shop Requires a person to join the union within a certain length of time after beginning employment.
Agency Shop Similar to a union shop, but does not require union membership, only that an agency fee be paid.
Maintenance of Membership Requires only that those who join the union remain members through the life of the current contract.
Right-to-Work Laws As a function of the Taft-Harlety amendment of the NLRA, states may decide to make mandatory union membership (or even paying dues) illegal. The idea is that compulsory union membership infringes on the employee's right to freedom of association.
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Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 Law that added a list of unfair labor practices to the NLRA. For example, unions may not restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their section 7 rights.
Associate Union Membership A form of union membership in which the union receives dues in exchange for services but does not provide representation in collective bargaining.
Corporate Campaigns These seek to bring public, financial, or political pressure on employers during the organizing and negotiating process.
Distributive Bargaining Occurs when the parties are attempting to divide a fixed economic pie into 2 parts. What one party gains, the other party loses.
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Integrative Bargaining This has a win-win focus. It seeks solutions beneficial to both sides. If management needs to reduce labor costs, it could reach an agreement with the union to avoid layoffs in return for the union agreeing to changes in work rules that might enhance productivity.
Attitudinal Structuring Refers to the relationship between labor and management negotiators. This includes the level of trust--if low, it won't work.
Intraorganizational Bargaining The consensus-building and negotiations that go on between members of the same party. For instance, in a union, high seniority workers, who are least likely to be laid off, may be more willing to accept a contract that has layoffs.
Mediation This is provided by the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service. While the key person in this process has no formal authority to force a solution, he or she acts as a facilitator for the parties, trying to help find a way to resolve an impasse.
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Fact Finder Most commonly used in the public sector; his job is to investigate and report on the reasons for the dispute and both sides' positions.
Arbitration A process through which a neutral party makes a final and binding decision. Traditionally, (rights ____) interpretation of contract terms is widely accepted, while (interest ___) deciding upon the outcome of contract negotiation is used much less frequently.
Duty of Fair Representation This is mandated by the NLRA and requires that all bargaining-unit members, whether union or not, have equal access to appropriate representation in the grievance process.
Individualism/Collectivism The strength of the relation between an individual and other individuals in society.
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Power Distance Describes how a culture deals with hierarchical power relationships.
Uncertainty Avoidance Describes how cultures seek to deal with the fact that the future is not perfectly predictable, and the degree to which people in a culture prefer structured situations.
Masculinity/Femininity Describes the division of roles between the sexes within a society.
Long-Term/Short-Term Orientation The tendency of a culture to focus on either future benefit or current outcomes.
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Parent Country The country in which the company's corporate headquarters is located.
Host Country The country in which the parent country organization seeks to locate or has located a facility.
Third Country A country other than the host or parent country.
Expatriate An employee sent by a company in one country to manage operations in a different country.
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Parent-Country Nationals (PCNs) Employees who were born and live in a parent country.
Host-Country Nationals (HCNs) Those employees who were born and raised in the host country.
Third-Country Nationals (TCNs) Employees born in a country other than the parent country or host country but who work in the host country.
Transnational Scope Refers to the fact that HR decisions must be made form a global rather than a national or regional perspective.
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Transnational Representation Reflects the multinational composition of a company's managers.
Transnational Process Refers to the extent to which the company's planning an decision-making processes include representatives and ideas from a variety of cultures. 
Transactional Activities Refer to the day-by-day transactions a company makes. These are low in their strategic value and include benefits administration, record keeping, and employee services.
Traditional Activities These are the nuts and bolts of HR such as performance management, training, recruiting, selection, compensation, and employee relations.
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Transformational Activities These create long-term capability and adaptability for the firm. These include knowledge management, management development, cultural change, and strategic redirection and renewal.
Audit Approach Focuses on reviewing the various outcomes of the HR functional areas.
Analytic Approach Focuses on either (1) determining whether the introduction of a program or practice has the intended effect or (2) estimating the financial costs and benefits resulting from an HR practice.
Outsourcing Entails contracting with an outside vendor to provide a product or service to the firm, as opposed to producing the product using employees within the firm.
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Reengineering A complete review of critical work processes and redesign to make them more efficient and able to deliver higher quality. (4 steps)
New Technologies Current applications of knowledge, procedures, and equipment that have not previously been used.
Transaction Processing Computations and calculations used to review and document HRM decisions and practices. These include documenting employee relocation, payroll expenses, and training course enrollments.
Decision Support Systems Systems designed to help managers solve problems. They usually include a "what-if" feature.
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Expert Systems Computer systems incorporating the decision rules of people deemed to have expertise in a certain area.
Client-Server Architecture A common form of network that provides the means of consolidating data and applications into a single system.
Relational Database Information is stored in separate files that look like tables and can be linked by common elements such as name. Allows databases to be stored in many locations and easy access to all.
Imaging The process of scanning documents, storing them electronically, and retrieving them. It is useful because paper files take a large volume of space and are difficult to access.
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Groupware A software application that enables multiple users to track, share, and organize information and to work on the same document simultaneously.
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 Marginal Tax RateThe percentage of an additional dollar of earnings that goes to taxes. A tax rate that applies to the last dollar of the tax base and is often applied to the change in once's tax obligation as income rises.
 Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) of 1985Law that requires employers to permit employees to extend their health insurance coverage at group rates for up to 36 months following a "qualifying event" such as termination (except for gross misconduct), death, and other events.
 Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC)Guarantees to pay employees a basic retirement benefit in the event that financial difficulties force a company to terminate or reduce employee pension benefits.
 Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974Law that increased the fiduciary responsibilities of pension plan trustees and established vesting rights and portability provisions.
 Cash Balance PlansAn employer sets up an individual account for each employee and contributes a percentage of the employee's salary; the account earns interest at a predefined rate.
 Summary Plan Description (SPD)Obligates employers to describe the plan's funding, eligibility requirements, risks, and so on.
 Family and Medical Leave ActLaw that requires organizations with 50 or more employees within a 75-mile radius to provide as much as 12 weeks of unpaid leave: after each childbirth or adoption; to care for a seriously ill child, spouse, or parent; or for an employee's own serious illness.
 Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO)Focus on preventative care and outpatient treatment, requiring employees to use only their services and providing benefits on a prepaid basis. They pay physicians and other healthcare workers on a flat salary basis to reduce incentives to increase patient visits or tests.
 Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs)Groups of healthcare providers who contract with employees, insurance companies, and so on to provide healthcare at reduced fees.
 Financial Accounting Statement (FAS) 106This, issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, went into effect in 1993. It says that any benefits (excluding pensions) provided after retirement, such as healthcare, cannot be funded on a pay-as-you-go basis. Rather, they must be paid on an accrual basis and entered as future-cost obligations on financial statements. The initial impact on large corporations has been significant declines in net income. Require white-collars to pay premiums.
 Checkoff ProvisionAn automatic deduction of union dues from an employee's paycheck.
 Closed ShopA union security provision under which a person must be a union member.
 Union ShopRequires a person to join the union within a certain length of time after beginning employment.
 Agency ShopSimilar to a union shop, but does not require union membership, only that an agency fee be paid.
 Maintenance of MembershipRequires only that those who join the union remain members through the life of the current contract.
 Right-to-Work LawsAs a function of the Taft-Harlety amendment of the NLRA, states may decide to make mandatory union membership (or even paying dues) illegal. The idea is that compulsory union membership infringes on the employee's right to freedom of association.
 Taft-Hartley Act of 1947Law that added a list of unfair labor practices to the NLRA. For example, unions may not restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their section 7 rights.
 Associate Union MembershipA form of union membership in which the union receives dues in exchange for services but does not provide representation in collective bargaining.
 Corporate CampaignsThese seek to bring public, financial, or political pressure on employers during the organizing and negotiating process.
 Distributive BargainingOccurs when the parties are attempting to divide a fixed economic pie into 2 parts. What one party gains, the other party loses.
 Integrative BargainingThis has a win-win focus. It seeks solutions beneficial to both sides. If management needs to reduce labor costs, it could reach an agreement with the union to avoid layoffs in return for the union agreeing to changes in work rules that might enhance productivity.
 Attitudinal StructuringRefers to the relationship between labor and management negotiators. This includes the level of trust--if low, it won't work.
 Intraorganizational BargainingThe consensus-building and negotiations that go on between members of the same party. For instance, in a union, high seniority workers, who are least likely to be laid off, may be more willing to accept a contract that has layoffs.
 MediationThis is provided by the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service. While the key person in this process has no formal authority to force a solution, he or she acts as a facilitator for the parties, trying to help find a way to resolve an impasse.
 Fact FinderMost commonly used in the public sector; his job is to investigate and report on the reasons for the dispute and both sides' positions.
 ArbitrationA process through which a neutral party makes a final and binding decision. Traditionally, (rights ____) interpretation of contract terms is widely accepted, while (interest ___) deciding upon the outcome of contract negotiation is used much less frequently.
 Duty of Fair RepresentationThis is mandated by the NLRA and requires that all bargaining-unit members, whether union or not, have equal access to appropriate representation in the grievance process.
 Individualism/CollectivismThe strength of the relation between an individual and other individuals in society.
 Power DistanceDescribes how a culture deals with hierarchical power relationships.
 Uncertainty AvoidanceDescribes how cultures seek to deal with the fact that the future is not perfectly predictable, and the degree to which people in a culture prefer structured situations.
 Masculinity/FemininityDescribes the division of roles between the sexes within a society.
 Long-Term/Short-Term OrientationThe tendency of a culture to focus on either future benefit or current outcomes.
 Parent CountryThe country in which the company's corporate headquarters is located.
 Host CountryThe country in which the parent country organization seeks to locate or has located a facility.
 Third CountryA country other than the host or parent country.
 ExpatriateAn employee sent by a company in one country to manage operations in a different country.
 Parent-Country Nationals (PCNs)Employees who were born and live in a parent country.
 Host-Country Nationals (HCNs)Those employees who were born and raised in the host country.
 Third-Country Nationals (TCNs)Employees born in a country other than the parent country or host country but who work in the host country.
 Transnational ScopeRefers to the fact that HR decisions must be made form a global rather than a national or regional perspective.
 Transnational RepresentationReflects the multinational composition of a company's managers.
 Transnational ProcessRefers to the extent to which the company's planning an decision-making processes include representatives and ideas from a variety of cultures. 
 Transactional ActivitiesRefer to the day-by-day transactions a company makes. These are low in their strategic value and include benefits administration, record keeping, and employee services.
 Traditional ActivitiesThese are the nuts and bolts of HR such as performance management, training, recruiting, selection, compensation, and employee relations.
 Transformational ActivitiesThese create long-term capability and adaptability for the firm. These include knowledge management, management development, cultural change, and strategic redirection and renewal.
 Audit ApproachFocuses on reviewing the various outcomes of the HR functional areas.
 Analytic ApproachFocuses on either (1) determining whether the introduction of a program or practice has the intended effect or (2) estimating the financial costs and benefits resulting from an HR practice.
 OutsourcingEntails contracting with an outside vendor to provide a product or service to the firm, as opposed to producing the product using employees within the firm.
 ReengineeringA complete review of critical work processes and redesign to make them more efficient and able to deliver higher quality. (4 steps)
 New TechnologiesCurrent applications of knowledge, procedures, and equipment that have not previously been used.
 Transaction ProcessingComputations and calculations used to review and document HRM decisions and practices. These include documenting employee relocation, payroll expenses, and training course enrollments.
 Decision Support SystemsSystems designed to help managers solve problems. They usually include a "what-if" feature.
 Expert SystemsComputer systems incorporating the decision rules of people deemed to have expertise in a certain area.
 Client-Server ArchitectureA common form of network that provides the means of consolidating data and applications into a single system.
 Relational DatabaseInformation is stored in separate files that look like tables and can be linked by common elements such as name. Allows databases to be stored in many locations and easy access to all.
 ImagingThe process of scanning documents, storing them electronically, and retrieving them. It is useful because paper files take a large volume of space and are difficult to access.
 GroupwareA software application that enables multiple users to track, share, and organize information and to work on the same document simultaneously.
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