Koofers

final - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:MGT 3303 - MGT OF ORGANIZATIO
Subject:Management
University:Texas State University - San Marcos
Term:Fall 2011
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
Extrinsic Reward payoff, from others, for performing a task
Content perspectives emphasizes needs that motivate
ERG Theory 3 Basic needs: existence, relatedness, growth
3 Kinds of needs: Existence, relatedness, growth
Generated by Koofers.com
Existence needs desire for physiological or material well-being
Relatedness needs desire for meaningful relationships
Growth needs desire to grow as a human being, full potential.
Acquired needs theory 3 Needs: Achievement, affiliation, power
Generated by Koofers.com
The need for power, book Sander Flaum. The 100 mile walk.

Older learned diligence and work over family

Younger learned to be self-reliant, skeptical, and balance work/home

Two-factor theory Work satisfaction and dissatisfaction result from two different  factors.

Satisfaction comes from motivating factors.
Dissat comes from hygiene factors.
hygiene factors Affect job context. Ex. Pay, conditions, policies, boss
motivating factors affects job content or work rewards. EX. Achievement, recognition, responsibility.
Generated by Koofers.com
Equity Theory focus on employee perceptions of fairness.

Compare ones outputs and inputs to another person to gauge fairness.
Lessons from equity theory Perceptions count.
Participation helps.
Have an appeal process.
Reward higher performance.
Expectancy Theory People will do an activity if they think they can do well and be rewarded for doing so.
Instrumentality belief that completion of some task will lead to a certain desired outcome.
Generated by Koofers.com
Valence value a worker assigns an outcome.
Goal-setting Theory, 4 parts 1.specific
2. challenging
3. achievable
4. action plans
Job Design division of a firms work among employees.

Job enrichment--increase tasks AND motivational factors


Reinforcement Theory Positive consequences--repeated behavior
Negative consequences--less of the behavior


Generated by Koofers.com
Negative reinforcement removal of unpleasant consequences following a behavior
Nonmonetary Motivators flexibility
thoughtfulness
work-life benefits
surroundings
skill building
leaves
Dont use teams when: isnt a clear purpose, or resources.
individual rewards.
managment monitors/controls group
Group two or more individuals sharing collective norms, goals, and have a COMMON IDENTITY
Generated by Koofers.com
Team small group committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach. Mutually accountable.

Formal group made to do something productive for org.
headed by a leader
Informal group Formed by people seeking friendship

Advice team broadens the info base for managerial decisions.
Incorporates findings and judgements into final decision.

Generated by Koofers.com
Productive team day to day operations
Project team work to do creative problem solving. specialized knowledge of members of a cross functional team.
Task forces, research groups.
Action team tasks that require people with specialized training and a high degree of coordination.
Hospital surgery team, SWAT team
Self Managed team groups of workers who are given administrative oversight for task domains
Generated by Koofers.com
Five stages of group development 1. forming
2. storming
3. norming
4. performing
5.adjourning
Forming process of getting acquainted
storming individual personalities and roles cause conflict

norming conflicts resolved, relationships, unity. cohesive group.
Generated by Koofers.com
performing concentrate on solving problem. Empower members
Adjourning members prepare for disbandment. Leaders should ease transition.
Small team 2-9 members
better interaction, morale, less social loafing

Cons:
fewer resources, less innovation, unfair work distribution
large team 10-16 members
Pros:
more resources, division of labor

Cons:
less interaction, low morale, social loafing
Generated by Koofers.com
Norms guidelines followed by most of the group.

Symptoms of groupthink Thoughts of invulnerability, morality, illusion of unanimity, peer pressure, self-censorship.
Preventing groupthink allow criticism
allow other perspectives
play devils advocate

Personality conflict personality clashes, scarce resources, time pressure, comm failure
Generated by Koofers.com
Intergroup conflict inconsistent goals, ambiguous jurisdiction, status differences
Avoiding "maybe the problem will go away"
Accommodating "lets do it your way"
forcing "you have to do it my way"
Generated by Koofers.com
Compromising "lets split the difference"
Collaborating "lets coop to reach a win-win scenario"
Stimulating constructive conflict 1.spur competition
2. change organization
3. bring in outsiders
4. use programmed conflict
programmed conflict devils advocacy

Or

Dialectic method- have to groups play opposing roles in a debate to get a better understanding
Generated by Koofers.com
Leadership ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue org's goals
Management vs. Leadership Management is coping with complexity.

Leadership is coping with change.
Leadership functions establish direction,
align people,
motivate and inspire,
goal= produce positive change

Mgmt functions Plans and budgets,
organizing staffing
controlling
goal= order, stability
Generated by Koofers.com
5 sources of power
  1. Legitimate
  2. reward
  3. coercive
  4. expert
  5. referent
Legitimate power comes from formal position
Reward power comes from authority to reward employees
Coercive Power comes from ability to punish employees
Generated by Koofers.com
Expert power comes from speialized knowledge or expertise
Referent power comes from one's personal attractiveness
Trait approach to leadership identifies distinct characteristics that account for good leadership.
Behavioral Leadership determines the distinctive styles used by leaders
Generated by Koofers.com
Contingency Leadership model determines if a leader is task or relationship oriented and if it is effective
Situational Control Leader-member relations: support, loyalty and trust of work group. Task Structure: extent to which tasks are routine and easily understood. Position power: how much power a leader has.

Path-Goal Leadership model makes available desirable rewards in the workplace. motivation by clarifying correct path.
"leadership by objective"
Situational Leadership Theory adjust leadership style according to readiness of employees
Generated by Koofers.com
Transactional Leadership clarifying employee roles and task requirements and providing rewards and punishment based on performance
Transformational Leadership transform employees to pursue org's goals over self interest. Influenced by individual character and org's culture.
Things to do to be a transformational leader
  1. use code of ethics
  2. choose right people
  3. make performance expectations reflect employee treatment
  4. value diversity
  5. reward high moral conduct


Leader-Member Exchange leaders have different sorts of relationships with different employees
Generated by Koofers.com
Shared Leadership ongoing mutual influence process in which people share responsibility for leading.
Servant Leader meet goals of followers and the org, rather than themselves.
Controlling monitoring performance and taking corrective action
Control Process
  1. Establish standards
  2. Measure performance
  3. compare performance to standards
  4. take corrective action


Generated by Koofers.com
Levels of control
  1. Strategic (3 mo+)
  2. Tactical (weekly, monthly)
  3. Operational (daily)
balanced scoreboard fast comprehensive view of:
  1. customer satisfaction
  2. internal process
  3. innovation, improvement
  4. financial measures


Measurement Management senior managers set metrics against which employees are compared.
Incremental budgeting funds allocated using last years budget as a reference
Generated by Koofers.com
fixed budget resources allocated based on a single cost estimate
variable budget resources vary with the level of activity
balanced sheet summarizes assets and liabilities at a certain point
Income statement revenues and expenses over a given period
Generated by Koofers.com
debt mgmt ratio degree to which a firm can meet its future obligations
return ratios profit generated by management
Audit External--done by outside firm
Internal--done by org
Total Quality Mgmt dedicated to continuous quality improvement

Core principles:
  1. people orientation--focus on delivering value to customers
  2. improvement orientation--improving work process
Generated by Koofers.com
RATER scale enables customers to rate quality of service
TQM techniques
  • benchmarking
  • outsourcing
  • reduced cycle time
  • statistical process control
  • six sigma


Successful control systems:
  1. strategic
  2. timely, accurate
  3. realistic, positive, understandable
  4. flexible
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 91 Print
 
Front
Back
 Extrinsic Rewardpayoff, from others, for performing a task
 Content perspectivesemphasizes needs that motivate
 ERG Theory3 Basic needs: existence, relatedness, growth
 3 Kinds of needs:Existence, relatedness, growth
 Existence needsdesire for physiological or material well-being
 Relatedness needsdesire for meaningful relationships
 Growth needsdesire to grow as a human being, full potential.
 Acquired needs theory3 Needs: Achievement, affiliation, power
 The need for power, bookSander Flaum. The 100 mile walk.

Older learned diligence and work over family

Younger learned to be self-reliant, skeptical, and balance work/home

 Two-factor theoryWork satisfaction and dissatisfaction result from two different  factors.

Satisfaction comes from motivating factors.
Dissat comes from hygiene factors.
 hygiene factorsAffect job context. Ex. Pay, conditions, policies, boss
 motivating factorsaffects job content or work rewards. EX. Achievement, recognition, responsibility.
 Equity Theoryfocus on employee perceptions of fairness.

Compare ones outputs and inputs to another person to gauge fairness.
 Lessons from equity theoryPerceptions count.
Participation helps.
Have an appeal process.
Reward higher performance.
 Expectancy TheoryPeople will do an activity if they think they can do well and be rewarded for doing so.
 Instrumentalitybelief that completion of some task will lead to a certain desired outcome.
 Valencevalue a worker assigns an outcome.
 Goal-setting Theory, 4 parts1.specific
2. challenging
3. achievable
4. action plans
 Job Designdivision of a firms work among employees.

Job enrichment--increase tasks AND motivational factors


 Reinforcement TheoryPositive consequences--repeated behavior
Negative consequences--less of the behavior


 Negative reinforcementremoval of unpleasant consequences following a behavior
 Nonmonetary Motivatorsflexibility
thoughtfulness
work-life benefits
surroundings
skill building
leaves
 Dont use teams when:isnt a clear purpose, or resources.
individual rewards.
managment monitors/controls group
 Grouptwo or more individuals sharing collective norms, goals, and have a COMMON IDENTITY
 Teamsmall group committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach. Mutually accountable.

 Formal groupmade to do something productive for org.
headed by a leader
 Informal groupFormed by people seeking friendship

 Advice teambroadens the info base for managerial decisions.
Incorporates findings and judgements into final decision.

 Productive teamday to day operations
 Project teamwork to do creative problem solving. specialized knowledge of members of a cross functional team.
Task forces, research groups.
 Action teamtasks that require people with specialized training and a high degree of coordination.
Hospital surgery team, SWAT team
 Self Managed teamgroups of workers who are given administrative oversight for task domains
 Five stages of group development1. forming
2. storming
3. norming
4. performing
5.adjourning
 Formingprocess of getting acquainted
 stormingindividual personalities and roles cause conflict

 normingconflicts resolved, relationships, unity. cohesive group.
 performingconcentrate on solving problem. Empower members
 Adjourningmembers prepare for disbandment. Leaders should ease transition.
 Small team2-9 members
better interaction, morale, less social loafing

Cons:
fewer resources, less innovation, unfair work distribution
 large team10-16 members
Pros:
more resources, division of labor

Cons:
less interaction, low morale, social loafing
 Normsguidelines followed by most of the group.

 Symptoms of groupthinkThoughts of invulnerability, morality, illusion of unanimity, peer pressure, self-censorship.
 Preventing groupthinkallow criticism
allow other perspectives
play devils advocate

 Personality conflictpersonality clashes, scarce resources, time pressure, comm failure
 Intergroup conflictinconsistent goals, ambiguous jurisdiction, status differences
 Avoiding"maybe the problem will go away"
 Accommodating"lets do it your way"
 forcing"you have to do it my way"
 Compromising"lets split the difference"
 Collaborating"lets coop to reach a win-win scenario"
 Stimulating constructive conflict1.spur competition
2. change organization
3. bring in outsiders
4. use programmed conflict
 programmed conflictdevils advocacy

Or

Dialectic method- have to groups play opposing roles in a debate to get a better understanding
 Leadershipability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue org's goals
 Management vs. LeadershipManagement is coping with complexity.

Leadership is coping with change.
 Leadership functionsestablish direction,
align people,
motivate and inspire,
goal= produce positive change

 Mgmt functionsPlans and budgets,
organizing staffing
controlling
goal= order, stability
 5 sources of power
  1. Legitimate
  2. reward
  3. coercive
  4. expert
  5. referent
 Legitimate powercomes from formal position
 Reward powercomes from authority to reward employees
 Coercive Powercomes from ability to punish employees
 Expert powercomes from speialized knowledge or expertise
 Referent powercomes from one's personal attractiveness
 Trait approach to leadershipidentifies distinct characteristics that account for good leadership.
 Behavioral Leadershipdetermines the distinctive styles used by leaders
 Contingency Leadership modeldetermines if a leader is task or relationship oriented and if it is effective
 Situational ControlLeader-member relations: support, loyalty and trust of work group. Task Structure: extent to which tasks are routine and easily understood. Position power: how much power a leader has.

 Path-Goal Leadership modelmakes available desirable rewards in the workplace. motivation by clarifying correct path.
"leadership by objective"
 Situational Leadership Theoryadjust leadership style according to readiness of employees
 Transactional Leadershipclarifying employee roles and task requirements and providing rewards and punishment based on performance
 Transformational Leadershiptransform employees to pursue org's goals over self interest. Influenced by individual character and org's culture.
 Things to do to be a transformational leader
  1. use code of ethics
  2. choose right people
  3. make performance expectations reflect employee treatment
  4. value diversity
  5. reward high moral conduct


 Leader-Member Exchangeleaders have different sorts of relationships with different employees
 Shared Leadershipongoing mutual influence process in which people share responsibility for leading.
 Servant Leadermeet goals of followers and the org, rather than themselves.
 Controllingmonitoring performance and taking corrective action
 Control Process
  1. Establish standards
  2. Measure performance
  3. compare performance to standards
  4. take corrective action


 Levels of control
  1. Strategic (3 mo+)
  2. Tactical (weekly, monthly)
  3. Operational (daily)
 balanced scoreboardfast comprehensive view of:
  1. customer satisfaction
  2. internal process
  3. innovation, improvement
  4. financial measures


 Measurement Managementsenior managers set metrics against which employees are compared.
 Incremental budgetingfunds allocated using last years budget as a reference
 fixed budgetresources allocated based on a single cost estimate
 variable budgetresources vary with the level of activity
 balanced sheetsummarizes assets and liabilities at a certain point
 Income statementrevenues and expenses over a given period
 debt mgmt ratiodegree to which a firm can meet its future obligations
 return ratiosprofit generated by management
 AuditExternal--done by outside firm
Internal--done by org
 Total Quality Mgmtdedicated to continuous quality improvement

Core principles:
  1. people orientation--focus on delivering value to customers
  2. improvement orientation--improving work process
 RATER scaleenables customers to rate quality of service
 TQM techniques
  • benchmarking
  • outsourcing
  • reduced cycle time
  • statistical process control
  • six sigma


 Successful control systems:
  1. strategic
  2. timely, accurate
  3. realistic, positive, understandable
  4. flexible
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"