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Class:MICRO 414 - BASIC IMMUNOLOGY
Subject:MICROBIOLOGY
University:Clemson University
Term:Spring 2012
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Histocompatibility Antigen Antigens on tissues and cells
Determine rejection when grafted b/t 2 genetically different individuals
Major Histocompatibility Antigens Histocompatibility antigens that cause strong immune response
Most important in rejection
Major Histocompatibility Complex Collection of genes w/ long continuous stretch of DNA on CHROMOSOME 6

Chromosome 17 in mice
Cass I Genes (MHC) Encode glycoproteins on surface of nucleated cells

Major fxn of PRODUCTS is presentation of peptide antigens to Tc cells
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Class II Genes (MHC) Encode glycoproteins expressed on antigen presenting cells

Present processed antigenic peptides to Th cells
Class III Genes (MHC) Encode secreted proteins that have immune fxns

Polygeny Multiple MHC genes w/i an individual for a similar function
MHC genes are _______ expressed. Co-dominantly

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Polymorphism multiple variants of the same gene in a population
Isotypes products of the different genes in Class I or Class II

HLA-A
HLA-B
HLA-DR
Genetic Polymorphism presence of multiple alternative forms (alleles) of a gene
MHC Allotype products of different forms of any given gene
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Human MHCs are highly ______. Polymorphic
One person can have ______ alloypes. 2

MHC Polymorph Evolution is created by _____. Interallelic convertion/gene conversion
Chances of peptide presentation are increased by ______. Co-expression of polygenic MHC genes
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Cheetah's MHC are ______ polymorphic. MUCH less
Haplotypes combo of MHC alleles found on a single chromosome
Purpose of MHC Present antigens
ATCC antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicityCD

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____ and ____ involved in phagocytosis of microbial pathogenes Neutrophils
Macrophages
_____ involved in apoptosis NK cells

CD4+ helper T cells
CD8 cytotoxic t cells
CTL
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Naive T cells express_____. L-selectin
LEA-1 L-selectin
______ is the ligand for L-selectin ICAM-1
Secondary lymphoid tissues are located ______ ICAM-1
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Effector T cells express ______ integrin
VLA-4 integrin
_____is ths ligand for integrin VCAM-1
____ houses infected tissues VCAM-1
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Function of CD8 cytotoxic t cells kill virus-infected cells
Function of CD4 TH1 cell activate infected macrophages

provide help to B cells for antibody production
Function of CD4 TH2 cells provide help to B cells for antibody production

switching to IgE
Function of CD4 TH17 cells enhance neutrophil response

promote barrier integrety
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function of TFH cells b-cell help
isotype switching
antibody production
function of CD4 regulatory T cells Supress T-cell response
Cytotoxic effector molecules of T cells include ______ perforin, granzymes, granulysin, fas ligand, IFN-y
Macrophage-activating effector molecules of TH1 cells include___ IFN-y
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Barrier immunity activating effector molecules of TH2 cells include ____ IL-4
IL-5

Neutrophil recruitement effector molecules of TH17 cells include____ IL-17A
IL-17F
Suppressive cytokines of Treg cells include______ IL-10
TGF-B
TH-1 cells facilitate ________ intracellular bacteria killing
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After TH1 is activated_________ activates macrophage to destroy engulfed bacteria. IFN-y and CD40 ligand
After macrophage is activated, ______ kills infected macrophages, releasing bacteria Fas ligand
LT
____ induces T-cell proliferation, increasing the number of effector T cells IL-2
_______ induces macrophage differentiation in bone marrow IL-3 + GM-CSF
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_________ activates endothelium to induce macrophage adhesion TNF-a + LT
______ causes macrophages to accumulate at site of infection CXCL2
Regulatory T cells (Treg) CD4 T cells
Regulatory T cells express cell surface____ and transcriptional repressor protein ____ CD25

FoxP3
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Cytotoxic T lyphocyte (CTL) steps Conjugate formation (via class I MHC and LFA-1)
Membrane attack (Perforin pathway, Fas pathway)
CTL dissociation (down regulation of LFA-1)
Target cell destruction (apoptosis)

CTLs form holes in the cell, but does the cell die from lysis or apoptosis? apoptosis
NK cells are_________ NOT antigen specific
NK cells work as an effector by______ cell killing
cytokine secretion (INF-y)
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Proliferation and cytotoxicity of NK cells increased by INF-a and INF-B
NK cells are inhibited by IL-10
NK cells have receptors for MHC I

Cells that lose MHC I are attacked by NK cells
The 2 inhibitory receptors for NK cells are ________ C-type lectin-lice (CLIR) heterodimer CD94:NKG2
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs)

both bind to MHC I
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The activation receptor for NK cells is ______ NKG2D
Functions of NKT cells Innate immunity
Express NK cell receptors
Express TCR
Respond rapidly to infection
Mixed lyphocyte reaction Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not.
Adaptive immunity involves Memory
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Secondary immune responses are _____ faster/stronger
Short term memory involves ______ plasma cells
IgG
IgA
IgE
Long term memory involves ______ B and T cells
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 Histocompatibility AntigenAntigens on tissues and cells
Determine rejection when grafted b/t 2 genetically different individuals
 Major Histocompatibility AntigensHistocompatibility antigens that cause strong immune response
Most important in rejection
 Major Histocompatibility ComplexCollection of genes w/ long continuous stretch of DNA on CHROMOSOME 6

Chromosome 17 in mice
 Cass I Genes (MHC)Encode glycoproteins on surface of nucleated cells

Major fxn of PRODUCTS is presentation of peptide antigens to Tc cells
 Class II Genes (MHC)Encode glycoproteins expressed on antigen presenting cells

Present processed antigenic peptides to Th cells
 Class III Genes (MHC)Encode secreted proteins that have immune fxns

 PolygenyMultiple MHC genes w/i an individual for a similar function
 MHC genes are _______ expressed.Co-dominantly

 Polymorphismmultiple variants of the same gene in a population
 Isotypesproducts of the different genes in Class I or Class II

HLA-A
HLA-B
HLA-DR
 Genetic Polymorphismpresence of multiple alternative forms (alleles) of a gene
 MHC Allotypeproducts of different forms of any given gene
 Human MHCs are highly ______.Polymorphic
 One person can have ______ alloypes.2

 MHC Polymorph Evolution is created by _____.Interallelic convertion/gene conversion
 Chances of peptide presentation are increased by ______.Co-expression of polygenic MHC genes
 Cheetah's MHC are ______ polymorphic.MUCH less
 Haplotypescombo of MHC alleles found on a single chromosome
 Purpose of MHCPresent antigens
 ATCCantibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicityCD

 ____ and ____ involved in phagocytosis of microbial pathogenesNeutrophils
Macrophages
 _____ involved in apoptosisNK cells

 CD4+helper T cells
 CD8cytotoxic t cells
CTL
 Naive T cells express_____.L-selectin
 LEA-1L-selectin
 ______ is the ligand for L-selectinICAM-1
 Secondary lymphoid tissues are located ______ICAM-1
 Effector T cells express ______integrin
 VLA-4integrin
 _____is ths ligand for integrinVCAM-1
 ____ houses infected tissuesVCAM-1
 Function of CD8 cytotoxic t cellskill virus-infected cells
 Function of CD4 TH1 cellactivate infected macrophages

provide help to B cells for antibody production
 Function of CD4 TH2 cellsprovide help to B cells for antibody production

switching to IgE
 Function of CD4 TH17 cellsenhance neutrophil response

promote barrier integrety
 function of TFH cellsb-cell help
isotype switching
antibody production
 function of CD4 regulatory T cellsSupress T-cell response
 Cytotoxic effector molecules of T cells include ______perforin, granzymes, granulysin, fas ligand, IFN-y
 Macrophage-activating effector molecules of TH1 cells include___IFN-y
 Barrier immunity activating effector molecules of TH2 cells include ____IL-4
IL-5

 Neutrophil recruitement effector molecules of TH17 cells include____IL-17A
IL-17F
 Suppressive cytokines of Treg cells include______IL-10
TGF-B
 TH-1 cells facilitate ________intracellular bacteria killing
 After TH1 is activated_________ activates macrophage to destroy engulfed bacteria.IFN-y and CD40 ligand
 After macrophage is activated, ______ kills infected macrophages, releasing bacteriaFas ligand
LT
 ____ induces T-cell proliferation, increasing the number of effector T cellsIL-2
 _______ induces macrophage differentiation in bone marrowIL-3 + GM-CSF
 _________ activates endothelium to induce macrophage adhesionTNF-a + LT
 ______ causes macrophages to accumulate at site of infectionCXCL2
 Regulatory T cells (Treg)CD4 T cells
 Regulatory T cells express cell surface____ and transcriptional repressor protein ____CD25

FoxP3
 Cytotoxic T lyphocyte (CTL) stepsConjugate formation (via class I MHC and LFA-1)
Membrane attack (Perforin pathway, Fas pathway)
CTL dissociation (down regulation of LFA-1)
Target cell destruction (apoptosis)

 CTLs form holes in the cell, but does the cell die from lysis or apoptosis?apoptosis
 NK cells are_________NOT antigen specific
 NK cells work as an effector by______cell killing
cytokine secretion (INF-y)
 Proliferation and cytotoxicity of NK cells increased byINF-a and INF-B
 NK cells are inhibited byIL-10
 NK cells have receptors forMHC I

Cells that lose MHC I are attacked by NK cells
 The 2 inhibitory receptors for NK cells are ________C-type lectin-lice (CLIR) heterodimer CD94:NKG2
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs)

both bind to MHC I
 The activation receptor for NK cells is ______NKG2D
 Functions of NKT cellsInnate immunity
Express NK cell receptors
Express TCR
Respond rapidly to infection
 Mixed lyphocyte reactionMeasure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not.
 Adaptive immunity involvesMemory
 Secondary immune responses are _____faster/stronger
 Short term memory involves ______plasma cells
IgG
IgA
IgE
 Long term memory involves ______B and T cells
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