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Test 4 - Flashcards

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Class:MICRO 305 - GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY
Subject:MICROBIOLOGY
University:Clemson University
Term:Fall 2009
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What are Bioinformatics? Bioinformatics is the application of information technology to the field of molecular biology. -Information of genomic analysis kept through computer databases
What is Transformation? In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the uptake, genomic incorporation, and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA). -Efficient only for gram-positive bacteria
What is an Operon? An operon is a functioning unit of key nucleotide sequences of DNA including an operator, a common promoter, and one or more structural genes, which is controlled as a unit to produce messenger RNA (mRNA), in the process of transcription by an RNA polymerase. -One or more genes transcribed into a single RNA and under the control of a single site (E. coli- often clusters with gal at 18 min and trp at 28 min)
What is Lateral Gene Transfer? Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without being the offspring of that organism. -Transfer of genes from a cell to another that is not it's offspring
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What are some Plasmid Characteristics? -Genetic Elements that replicate independently of the host chromosome -Exist inside cells freely -Carry only non-essential genes -Over 300 in E. coli alone -Consist of double stranded DNA
What is Copy Number Variation? A copy number variation (CNV) is a segment of DNA in which copy-number differences have been found by comparison of two or more genomes. -Determines the number that are present within the cell
What are Episomes? A plasmid is an extra chromosomal DNA molecule separate from the chromosomal DNA which is capable of replicating independently from the chromosomal DNA. -Plasmids that can integrate into the chromosome and come under it's control for replication
What is Curing? Removal due to inhibition of plasmid replication without that of the chromosome
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What is Conjugation? Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell to cell contact, or through a bridge-like connection between the two cells. -main method of cell to cell transfer
List the 5 types of plasmids. -Fertility plasmid -Resistance plasmid -Toxin and Virulence Characteristics Plasmids -Bacteriocins -Engineered plasmids
What are Resistance Plasmids? -Most widespread and well-studied -Produce resistance to antibiotics and various other growth inhibitors -Poses a medical problem with resistance -Plasmid R100
What are Toxin and Virulence Characteristic Plasmids? -Virulence: Disease causing -Encoded by the plasmid genes -Requires a colonization factor antigen
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What are Bacteriocins? Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain(s). -Inhibits or kills closely related species -Narrow spectrum of activity -Col plasmids are found on E. coli and encode various colicins which kill cells by disrupting some critical cell function
What are Engineered Plasmids? -Widely exploited and artificial ones have been constructed -Allow for transfer across the species barriers
What is Mutation? Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence of a cell's genome and are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic chemicals, as well as errors that occur during meiosis or DNA replication. -Heritable change in a base sequence of a genome
What is Genotype? The genotype is the genetic constitution of a cell, an organism, or an individual -Nucleotide sequence of a genome
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What is Phenotype? Observable properties of the mutant -Capital letter followed by two lowercase letters and a superscript - or +
What are the three types of Mutants? -Lethal -Morphological -Conditional (Expressed under certain conditions) -Some mutants are selectable like antibiotic resistance where the parent is killed but the mutant is not. -Some can be identified by screening: Noticeable difference when looking at the colonies
What is a Prototroph? A microorganism that has the ability to synthesize all of its amino acids, nucleic acids, vitamins, and other cellular constituents from inorganic nutrients.
What is an Auxotroph? An organism, such as a strain of bacteria, that has lost the ability to synthesize certain substances required for its growth and metabolism as the result of mutational changes. -Mutant with a nutritional requirement for growth -Use penicillin-selection to isolate auxotrophs
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What is Forward Mutation? Wild-type to Mutant form
What is Reverse Mutation? Mutant form to wild type
What is Spontaneous Mutation? Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence of a cell's genome and are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic chemicals, as well as errors that occur during meiosis or DNA replication.
What is Point Mutation? A point mutation (or single base substitution or single nucleotide mutation), is a type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material, DNA or RNA. -changing of one base pair: Two types -Transiton: A to G or T to C -Transversion: A to T or G to C -Results in changes to the amino acid sequencing
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What is Frameshift Mutation? A frameshift mutation (also called a framing error or a reading frame shift) is a genetic mutation caused by indels. -Caused by a deletion or insertion of base pairs: Causing a "Frame shift" -Hard to revert as it's caused by errors in DNA replication or damage to the DNA -Can result in death or loss of function
What is Induced Mutation? -Developed after mutagen exposure -Mutagen will damage or alter the chemistry of the DNA
What is Site Directed Mutagenesis? Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique in which a mutation is created at a defined site in a DNA molecule, usually a circular molecule known as a plasmid. -Gene with specific mutation is introduced in vitro -Transpons and synthetic DNA
What are Chemical Mutagens? -Nucleotide base analogs: Cause base pair substitutions. -Alkylating groups: Adds an alkyl group -Intercaluclating agenst: Inserts themselves in a DNA Sequence (Worst type)
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What are Physical Mutagens? -Radiation: Using UV Light with pyrimadine dimmers -Ionizing using x-rays and gamma rays: Use of free radicals
What is the S.O.S. System and when is it used? -DNA Repair system -Error prone: Only used when other systems fail -DNA Damage can induce RecA protease function to inactivate the LexA
What is Nonselectable in relation to mutation? No change in phenotype
What is Selectable in relation to mutation? A selectable marker is a gene introduced into a cell, especially a bacterium or to cells in culture, that confers a trait suitable for artificial selection. -Some type of advantage to the organism that possesses them
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What is Selection in relation to identifying mutants? -Placing an organism under constraints for particular growth
How can you identify mutants? -Screening: Observing for phenotypic changes -Replica plating technique: Detects auxotrophic
What is Replica Plating? In molecular biology and microbiology, replica plating is a technique in which one or more secondary Petri plates containing different solid (agar-based) selective growth media (lacking nutrients or containing chemical growth inhibitors such as antibiotics) are inoculated with the same colonies of microorganisms from a primary plate (or master dish), reproducing the original spatial pattern of colonies. -Press growth to velveteen and then transfer to fresh medium. Incubate and observe.
What is Mutagenesis Testing? -Based on the fact that many mutants are carcinogens -Screen using the ames test
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What is the Ames Test? The Ames test is a biological assay to assess the mutagenic potential of chemical compounds. -If the reversion rate is greater in the presence of a suspected carcinogen, then the agent is a mutagen and possibly carcinogenic. -Requires further testing.
What is Homologous Recombination in Prokaryotes and what are the steps? -Closely related gene sequences from two separate organisms are combined. Steps: 1. Gene strand is broken 2. SSB and RecA are formed 3. Crossover forms the ligated DNA
What is RecA? RecA is a 38 kilodalton E. coli protein essential for the repair and maintenance of DNA. -Takes the DNA to infect the host and add DNA
F+ Donor Cell during conjugation
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F- Recipient cell during conjugation
IS Insertable sequence: Transposable element
Tn Transposons that are transposable
Detecting recombinants -When placed in agar that lacks tryptophan, recombinant colonies will form from a mix of Trp- broth and Trp+ DNA
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Griffith's Experiment Griffith's experiment, conducted in 1928 by Frederick Griffith, was one of the first experiments suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation. -Smooth cells were virulent -Smooth cells were killed with heat= Live organism -Mixed smooth and rough cells= Dead organism
Transformation In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the uptake, genomic incorporation, and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA). -The uptake of free DNA from the enviornment -Plays an important role in the later gene transfer in nature -Requires the cell to be competent, meaning that it can take up DNA
Natural Transformation Transforming DNA enters through binding proteins, attaches to competence specific binding proteins and integrates into the chromosome
What is Artificial Transformation and what are some procedure to induce it? -Done with species that are not normally competent -Various things are done to make it more competent including adding calcium chloride to make it more permeable. -Heat shock method: Cold, hot, cold -Electroporation: Increase in the electrical conductivity and permeability of the cell membrane. Especially used in gram positive
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Transduction -Transfer of bacterial genes by viruses -Virulent are lytic and temperate are lysogenic
Generalized Transduction -Almost any part of the genome can be transferred -During the lytic cycle -During the assembly of the virus, host DNA fragments are accidentally packaged: Called a transducing particle.
Specialized Transduction -Only a specific part of the genome is transferred -Occurs when the prophage is incorrectly exercised -Phage DNA circularizes- Detached DNA replicates- Phage synthesis completes- Lyses cell and releases
Bacterial Conjugation Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell to cell contact, or through a bridge-like connection between the two cells. -Contecting pilus retracts to bring closer. Combine when one is nicked and F+ simultaneously replicates DNA strand into F-. DNA is transferred to F- and circularizes. Two cells detach. F+ becomes F- and F- becomes F+
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Transposons Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called transposition. -Process where a gene moves from one place in a genome to another -Has transposase, which is a short, inverted terminal that repeats at the end of their DNA -Carries larger, different genes including conjugative and composite TNs as well as TN mutagenesis
Insertion Sequences An insertion sequence (also known as an IS, an insertion sequence element, or an IS element) is a short DNA sequence that acts as a simple transposable element. -Has transposase (A short, inverted terminal that repeats at the end of their DNA) -Will only carry transposition genes in short segments that are about 1000 nucleotides long
Conservative Transposition -Donor DNA is left with a double stranded break at the previous position of the transposon.
Replicative Transposition Replicative transposition is a mechanism of transposition in molecular biology in which the transposable element is duplicated during the reaction, so that the transposing entity is a copy of the original element. -After replicative, both the donor and recipient DNA possess a copy of the transposon.
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Recombination -Nucleic Acid molecules are rearranged to create a new nucleotide sequence
Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct manipulation of an organism's genes. -Modification of genetic information to change it's genome.
Recombinant DNA Technology Recombinant DNA is a form of DNA that does not exist naturally, which is created by combining DNA sequences that would not normally occur together. -Used to carry out genetic engineering
Qhy are plasmids useful as cloning vectors? -Smaller, therefore better. -Pure form gene is isolated and put into a vector for multiplication -independent origin of replication -uses host cell DNA polymerase -has selectable markers
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Gene Cloning Process -Isolate the fragment/source of DNA -Join DNA fragments to a cloning vector using DNA ligase which seals the phosphodiester bonds -Introduce and maintain the cloned DNA in the organism.
Restriction enzymes A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded or single stranded DNA at specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sites. -act as the scissors to cut at certain DNA
DNA Ligase In molecular biology, DNA ligase is a special type of ligase () that can link together two DNA strands that have double-strand break (a break in both complementary strands of DNA). -the glue that allows for base pairing.
Gel Electrophoresis Gel electrophoresis is a technique used for the separation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), or protein molecules using an electric field applied to a gel matrix. -DNA is negative and uses ithidium bromide as the mutant
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Heat Shock In biochemistry, heat shock is the effect of subjecting a cell to a higher temperature than that of the ideal body temperature of the organism from which the cell line was derived. -hot, cold, hot
Electroporation Electroporation, or electropermeabilization, is a significant increase in the electrical conductivity and permeability of the cell plasma membrane caused by an externally applied electrical field. -use of an electric pulse to allow for cells to take up DNA
Southern Blotting A Southern blot is a method routinely used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. -used to detect specific DNA fragments using radioactive DNA probes. Uses autoradiography to detect those radioactively labeled molecules.
DNA Sequencing The term DNA sequencing refers to sequencing methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases-adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine-in a molecule of DNA.
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Synthetic Oligonucleotide Design Oligonucleotide is a short nucleic acid molecule
Primers A primer is a strand of nucleic acid that serves as a starting point for DNA replication. -Short piece of DNA used to initiate synthesis of a new strand
Orobes -A strand of nucleic acid that can be labeled and used to connect with a complementary molecule in a mixture.
Taq Polymerase Taq polymerase (pronounced; tack poll-im-er-aze) is a thermostable DNA polymerase named after the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus from which it was originally isolated by Thomas D. -Used in a PCR because it's a hyperthermophile
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Site-Directed Mutagenesis Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique in which a mutation is created at a defined site in a DNA molecule, usually a circular molecule known as a plasmid. -Gene with a specific mutation can be constructed in vitro
Microbial Flora -Found on Skin, Oral Cavity, Respiratory Tract, and Urogenital Cavity. -Not found in blood, lymph, or nervous system. If it is, it's indicative of serious disease.
What are Skin Flora? Examples? What are characteristics? Why do they grow on the skin? The skin flora are the microorganisms which reside on the skin. -Resist dehydration, generally yeasts, weather, age and personal hygiene can all affect it. -S. aureus, Enterobacter -Skin is relatively dry and has sweat glands
Why is the Mouth good for flora growth? What are some Mouth Flora? -Anaerobic -Streptococcus, Lactobacillus -Mouth has food particles around the teeth and gums create conditions for growth
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What are some characteristics of Stomach flora? What are some examples? -Can survive in a hostile acidic conditions -Proteobacteria, fusobacteria -Stomach is highly acidic
What are some characteristics of Large Intestine Flora? What are some examples? Obligately anaerobic -Clostridium, Bacteriodes -Large intestine is anoxic
What are some characteristics of Upper Respiratory Tract Flora? What are some examples? -Aerobic -M. Tuberculosis, Streptococcus -S. pneumonia and S. aureus -lungs are oxygenated
What are some characteristics of Lower Respiratory Tract Flora? What are some examples? No natural flora
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What are some characteristics of Urogenital Tract Flora? What are some examples? Facultative aerobic gram negative rods and cocci -Escherichia
What are some characteristics of Vaginal Flora? What are some examples? The human vaginal region has a higher concentration of bacteria than any other part of the body other than the colon. -Weakly acidic -L. acidophilus
How does microbial flora cause infection or disease? -Generally begins in the mucous membrane -Microorganisms may adhere to the layer and cause a tissue infection by breaching the layer
Risk Factors for Microbial Flora Infection - Age - Stress - Diet - Compromised host
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Inate Immunity Non-specific, you are born with it -Begins with PRM recognizing PAMP -Antigen specific antibody is produced/recruited, leading to the binding and opsinization and cell death or Cell mediated: Begins with inflammation
Adaptive Immunity The adaptive immune system is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate or prevent pathogenic challenges. -Specific and acquired Begins with cell mediated or humoral
Lymphocytes A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell in the vertebrate immune system. -Responsible for specific immunity. -Plasma B cells and memory B cells- mature in the bone marrow -Tc cells and Th cells- mature in the thymus and responsible for specific cellular interaction
Monocytes Monocyte is a type of white blood cell, part of the human body's immune system. -Macrophages and dendritic cells- phagocytize and reside in the tissue, spleen, and lymph
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Granulocytes Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterised by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. -Neutrophils -Basophils
Neutrophils -Granulocyte - phagocytic -Migrate to sites to kill damaged tissue -First responders
Basophils Basophil granulocytes, sometimes referred to as basophils, are the least common of the granulocytes, representing about 0.01% to 0.3% of circulating white blood cells. -Play a role in the development of allergies
Antigen Presenting Cells An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays foreign antigen complex with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on its surface. -Begins the process of acquired immunity by engulfing, processing, and presenting the lymphocytes
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Phagocytosis Phagocytosis is the cellular process of phagocytes and protists of engulfing solid particles by the cell membrane to form an internal phagosome. -Engulfs the particle -To recognize there's a patter associated with your pagolysome that has recognition molecules -For a pathogen, another pathogen is used for recognition -Oxygen radicals can kill phagocytes as well as hydrolases
Inflammation -Response to injury with signs including redness, swelling, warmth, and pain -increased blood flow to the tissue causes edema and increases number of phagocytes -fever occurs to inhibit microbial growth -fibrin clot forms to limit the spread of the pathogen
Chemokines Chemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells. -Produced at the site by the damaged cells -Used to attract neutrophils to the injured tissue (Example, interleukin-8)
Cytokines Cytokines are any of a number of substances that are secreted by specific cells of the immune system which carry signals locally between cells, and thus have an effect on other cells. -Produced at the site by macrophages -activate other cell types (Example: TNF)
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Antigens An antigen (from antibody generator) originally defined as any molecule that binds specifically to an antibody, the term now also refers to any molecule or molecular fragment that can be bound by an MHC molecule and presented to a T-cell receptor. -Large, complex molecules with antigenic determining sites known as epitopes. -Can elicit an immune response and react with the products of that response
Haptens A hapten is a small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein; the carrier may be one that also does not elicit an immune response by itself. -Small molecules that bind to antibodies without producing an immune response -Can become antigenic when bound to other molecules (Example: Penicillin)
Cell mediated Immunity - Resides in the lymph tissue and has a major role in B-Cell activation -T-cell receptors are Ag specific that are bound to MHC Protei -MHC Protein- Functions as a molecular reference point for a T-cell to recognize and bond. -MHC 1- Found in all nucleated bodies: T-cells, CD8 -MHC 2- Found on antigen presenting cells like: TH and CD4 -Helper T-Cells- Recognize antigens on MHC 2 cells and are used to secrete cytokines. -Cytotoxic T-Cells- Kills Infected cells
Helper T-Cells T helper cells (also known as Th cells) are a sub-group of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell or leukocyte) that play an important role in establishing and maximizing the capabilities of the immune system. -Cell mediated immunity -Recognize antigens on MHC 2 cells and are used to secrete cytokines
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Antibody mediated Immunity -Aka Humoral Immune Response -B-cells- Originate in Marrow and mature in the lymphoid tissue. Not mobile -Antibodies are created by the B cells and found in serum, milk, etc. -Four steps: a. Viral Neutralization b. Toxin Neutralization c. Opsinization d. Immune complex formation through agglutination
Antibodies Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are gamma globulin proteins that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses. -Protein molecules that are able to bind with antigenic determinants.
Agglutination -The clumping of cells in the presence of an antibody.
What are the five types of Immunoglobins? -Five types 1. IgG 2. IgM 3. IgE 4. IgD 5. IgA
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IgG Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a monomeric immunoglobulin, built of two heavy chains and two light chains. -Major circulating
IgM -First responder after vaccination
IgE In biology, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a class of antibody (or immunoglobulin "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. -Involved in allergic reactions
IgD Minor circulating
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IgA Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an antibody which plays a critical role in mucosal immunity. -Found in colostrum
Primary Immune Response -Those antibodies made when it first came into contact: -Generally IgM
Secondary Immune Response -Antibody made upon the second subsequent exposure. -Generally IgG
What is Natural Immunity? An example of active and passive? The innate immune system comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms, in a non-specific manner. -Active: Through immune response -Passive: Mother to Child in vitro or through colostrum
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What is Artificial Immunity? An example of active and passive? -Active: Antibodies resulting from a vaccination -Passive: Antibodies given in vitro by humans
Epidemiology Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. -Study of the occurence distribution and disease control
Epidemiologist -Traces the spread of a disease back to the origin -Studies pathogen-host interactions Determines the prevalence of a diseas
Prevalence In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. -Total number of diseased individuals/total population -Proportion of diseased individuals at a time
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Incidence -Number of cases of diseased individuals in a population
Morbidity -Incidence of contracting the disease in populations
Endemic Endemism is the ecological state of being unique to a particular geographic location, such as a specific island, habitat type, nation, or other defined zone. -Constantly present in generally low numbers such as asthma or diabetes
Epidemic In epidemiology, an epidemic occurs when new cases of a certain disease, in a given human population, and during a given period, substantially exceed what is "expected," based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during a specified period of time is called the "incidence rate"). -Occurrence of a disease in high numbers in a population -Example: Flu
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Pandemic A pandemic is an epidemic of infectious disease that is spreading through human populations across a large region; for instance a continent, or even worldwide. -Occurrence in high numbers world wide -Example: AIDS
What are the five steps of Disease Progression? -Infection -Incubation-From infection to first signs -Acute Period- When you're actually sick -Decline Period- Getting better -Convalescent Period- Better but still vulnerable
Disease Reservoir Natural reservoir or nidus, refers to the long-term host of the pathogen of an infectious disease. -Stems from where it lives -Ex. C. tetani
Zoonosis A zoonosis () or zoonose is any infectious disease that can be transmitted (in some instances, by a vector) from non-human animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to non-human animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). -Spread from animals -Ex. Avian Flu or plague
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Disease Carrier -Pathogen infected but showing no signs -Ex. Typhoid Mary
What is Disease Transmission? What are direct and indirect disease transmission? In medicine, transmission is the passing of a disease from an infected individual or group to a previously uninfected individual or group. -Direct: from infected host to susceptible host -Indirect: using vectors and fomites to deliver to the susceptible host
Fomites A fomite is any object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms (such as germs or parasites) and hence transferring them from one individual to another.
Herd Immunity Herd immunity (or community immunity) describes a type of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of a portion of the population (or herd) provides protection to unprotected individuals. -Resistance of a population to a disease requires most of the population to be resistant -70% for polio and dip -90-95% for the chicken pox
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Nosocomial Infection Nosocomial infections are infections which are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit, but secondary to the patient's original condition. -Hospital acquired and found in about 5% S. aureus. -2 million per year -80,000 deaths per year
Common Source Epidemic -Rapid peaking such as contaminated food or water
Host to Host Epidemics -Slow to rise and gradual decline like the flu
What are some Public Health Precautions that can be taken? -Against the Reservoir- Immunization of the population and destroy infected animals -Against transmission- Destroy the pathogen in and on the vehicle -Quarantine -Surveillance- Observation, recognition, reporting to the CDC -Pathogen Eradication (Ex. Smallpox)
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Emerging Diseases -Disease whose incidence has increased over the past 20 years or is threatening to increase
What are some emergence factors? -Human Behavior -Technology and industry -Travel -Natural occurrences that are disturbed. (Ex. Heavy rain and warm winter bring out larger mice populations with more animal droppings)
Reemerging Diseases -One disease thought to be under control that produces a new epidemic
Biological Warfare Biological warfare (BW), also known as germ warfare, is the use of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, other disease-causing biological agents, or the toxins produced by them as biological weapons (or bioweapons).
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Biological Weapons -Organisms or toxins that are easy to produce/deliver -Safe to use by offensive soldiers -Reproducible in a consistent manner
What is AIDS? What does it do? How many are infected? How many have died? Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). -Attacks the immune system -At least 70 million infected and 25 million deaths
What is SARS? What caused it? How many cases were there? How many deaths? Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS; , ) is a respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). -Caused by the coronavirus -8,500 cases and 800 deaths -Through fecal contact and contamination
Smallpox -Spread by aerosol or contact -30% mortality -Live Vaccination available
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What is Anthrax? How many were killed? Anthrax is an acute disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. -Endospore producing where inhalation will lead to a pulmonary infection that is lethal if not treated -US attacked in 2001 -5 killed -looks like powder
What is a Transiton Mutation? -Transiton: A to G or T to C
What is a Transversion Mutation Transversion: A to T or G to C
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 What are Bioinformatics?Bioinformatics is the application of information technology to the field of molecular biology.

-Information of genomic analysis kept through computer databases
 What is Transformation?In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the uptake, genomic incorporation, and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA).

-Efficient only for gram-positive bacteria
 What is an Operon?An operon is a functioning unit of key nucleotide sequences of DNA including an operator, a common promoter, and one or more structural genes, which is controlled as a unit to produce messenger RNA (mRNA), in the process of transcription by an RNA polymerase.

-One or more genes transcribed into a single RNA and under the control of a single site (E. coli- often clusters with gal at 18 min and trp at 28 min)
 What is Lateral Gene Transfer?Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without being the offspring of that organism.

-Transfer of genes from a cell to another that is not it's offspring
 What are some Plasmid Characteristics?-Genetic Elements that replicate independently of the host chromosome
-Exist inside cells freely
-Carry only non-essential genes
-Over 300 in E. coli alone
-Consist of double stranded DNA
 What is Copy Number Variation?A copy number variation (CNV) is a segment of DNA in which copy-number differences have been found by comparison of two or more genomes.

-Determines the number that are present within the cell
 What are Episomes?A plasmid is an extra chromosomal DNA molecule separate from the chromosomal DNA which is capable of replicating independently from the chromosomal DNA.

-Plasmids that can integrate into the chromosome and come under it's control for replication
 What is Curing?Removal due to inhibition of plasmid replication without that of the chromosome
 What is Conjugation?Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell to cell contact, or through a bridge-like connection between the two cells.

-main method of cell to cell transfer
 List the 5 types of plasmids.-Fertility plasmid
-Resistance plasmid
-Toxin and Virulence Characteristics Plasmids
-Bacteriocins
-Engineered plasmids
 What are Resistance Plasmids?-Most widespread and well-studied
-Produce resistance to antibiotics and various other growth inhibitors
-Poses a medical problem with resistance
-Plasmid R100
 What are Toxin and Virulence Characteristic Plasmids?-Virulence: Disease causing
-Encoded by the plasmid genes
-Requires a colonization factor antigen
 What are Bacteriocins?Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain(s).

-Inhibits or kills closely related species
-Narrow spectrum of activity
-Col plasmids are found on E. coli and encode various colicins which kill cells by disrupting some critical cell function
 What are Engineered Plasmids?-Widely exploited and artificial ones have been constructed
-Allow for transfer across the species barriers
 What is Mutation?Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence of a cell's genome and are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic chemicals, as well as errors that occur during meiosis or DNA replication.

-Heritable change in a base sequence of a genome
 What is Genotype?The genotype is the genetic constitution of a cell, an organism, or an individual

-Nucleotide sequence of a genome
 What is Phenotype?Observable properties of the mutant

-Capital letter followed by two lowercase letters and a superscript - or +
 What are the three types of Mutants?-Lethal
-Morphological
-Conditional (Expressed under certain conditions)

-Some mutants are selectable like antibiotic resistance where the parent is killed but the mutant is not.
-Some can be identified by screening: Noticeable difference when looking at the colonies
 What is a Prototroph?A microorganism that has the ability to synthesize all of its amino acids, nucleic acids, vitamins, and other cellular constituents from inorganic nutrients.
 What is an Auxotroph?An organism, such as a strain of bacteria, that has lost the ability to synthesize certain substances required for its growth and metabolism as the result of mutational changes.

-Mutant with a nutritional requirement for growth
-Use penicillin-selection to isolate auxotrophs
 What is Forward Mutation?Wild-type to Mutant form
 What is Reverse Mutation?Mutant form to wild type
 What is Spontaneous Mutation?Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence of a cell's genome and are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic chemicals, as well as errors that occur during meiosis or DNA replication.
 What is Point Mutation?A point mutation (or single base substitution or single nucleotide mutation), is a type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material, DNA or RNA.

-changing of one base pair: Two types
-Transiton: A to G or T to C
-Transversion: A to T or G to C

-Results in changes to the amino acid sequencing
 What is Frameshift Mutation?A frameshift mutation (also called a framing error or a reading frame shift) is a genetic mutation caused by indels.

-Caused by a deletion or insertion of base pairs: Causing a "Frame shift"
-Hard to revert as it's caused by errors in DNA replication or damage to the DNA
-Can result in death or loss of function
 What is Induced Mutation?-Developed after mutagen exposure
-Mutagen will damage or alter the chemistry of the DNA
 What is Site Directed Mutagenesis?Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique in which a mutation is created at a defined site in a DNA molecule, usually a circular molecule known as a plasmid.

-Gene with specific mutation is introduced in vitro
-Transpons and synthetic DNA
 What are Chemical Mutagens?-Nucleotide base analogs: Cause base pair substitutions.
-Alkylating groups: Adds an alkyl group
-Intercaluclating agenst: Inserts themselves in a DNA Sequence (Worst type)
 What are Physical Mutagens?-Radiation: Using UV Light with pyrimadine dimmers
-Ionizing using x-rays and gamma rays: Use of free radicals
 What is the S.O.S. System and when is it used?-DNA Repair system
-Error prone: Only used when other systems fail
-DNA Damage can induce RecA protease function to inactivate the LexA
 What is Nonselectable in relation to mutation?No change in phenotype
 What is Selectable in relation to mutation?A selectable marker is a gene introduced into a cell, especially a bacterium or to cells in culture, that confers a trait suitable for artificial selection.

-Some type of advantage to the organism that possesses them
 What is Selection in relation to identifying mutants?-Placing an organism under constraints for particular growth
 How can you identify mutants?-Screening: Observing for phenotypic changes
-Replica plating technique: Detects auxotrophic
 What is Replica Plating?In molecular biology and microbiology, replica plating is a technique in which one or more secondary Petri plates containing different solid (agar-based) selective growth media (lacking nutrients or containing chemical growth inhibitors such as antibiotics) are inoculated with the same colonies of microorganisms from a primary plate (or master dish), reproducing the original spatial pattern of colonies.

-Press growth to velveteen and then transfer to fresh medium. Incubate and observe.
 What is Mutagenesis Testing?-Based on the fact that many mutants are carcinogens
-Screen using the ames test
 What is the Ames Test?The Ames test is a biological assay to assess the mutagenic potential of chemical compounds.

-If the reversion rate is greater in the presence of a suspected carcinogen, then the agent is a mutagen and possibly carcinogenic.
-Requires further testing.
 What is Homologous Recombination in Prokaryotes and what are the steps?-Closely related gene sequences from two separate organisms are combined.

Steps:
1. Gene strand is broken
2. SSB and RecA are formed
3. Crossover forms the ligated DNA
 What is RecA?RecA is a 38 kilodalton E. coli protein essential for the repair and maintenance of DNA.

-Takes the DNA to infect the host and add DNA
 F+Donor Cell during conjugation
 F-Recipient cell during conjugation
 ISInsertable sequence: Transposable element
 TnTransposons that are transposable
 Detecting recombinants-When placed in agar that lacks tryptophan, recombinant colonies will form from a mix of Trp- broth and Trp+ DNA
 Griffith's ExperimentGriffith's experiment, conducted in 1928 by Frederick Griffith, was one of the first experiments suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation.

-Smooth cells were virulent
-Smooth cells were killed with heat= Live organism
-Mixed smooth and rough cells= Dead organism
 TransformationIn molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the uptake, genomic incorporation, and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA).

-The uptake of free DNA from the enviornment
-Plays an important role in the later gene transfer in nature
-Requires the cell to be competent, meaning that it can take up DNA
 Natural TransformationTransforming DNA enters through binding proteins, attaches to competence specific binding proteins and integrates into the chromosome
 What is Artificial Transformation and what are some procedure to induce it?-Done with species that are not normally competent
-Various things are done to make it more competent including adding calcium chloride to make it more permeable.

-Heat shock method: Cold, hot, cold
-Electroporation: Increase in the electrical conductivity and permeability of the cell membrane. Especially used in gram positive
 Transduction-Transfer of bacterial genes by viruses
-Virulent are lytic and temperate are lysogenic
 Generalized Transduction-Almost any part of the genome can be transferred
-During the lytic cycle
-During the assembly of the virus, host DNA fragments are accidentally packaged: Called a transducing particle.
 Specialized Transduction-Only a specific part of the genome is transferred
-Occurs when the prophage is incorrectly exercised
-Phage DNA circularizes- Detached DNA replicates- Phage synthesis completes- Lyses cell and releases
 Bacterial ConjugationBacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell to cell contact, or through a bridge-like connection between the two cells.

-Contecting pilus retracts to bring closer. Combine when one is nicked and F+ simultaneously replicates DNA strand into F-. DNA is transferred to F- and circularizes. Two cells detach. F+ becomes F- and F- becomes F+
 TransposonsTransposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called transposition.

-Process where a gene moves from one place in a genome to another
-Has transposase, which is a short, inverted terminal that repeats at the end of their DNA
-Carries larger, different genes including conjugative and composite TNs as well as TN mutagenesis
 Insertion SequencesAn insertion sequence (also known as an IS, an insertion sequence element, or an IS element) is a short DNA sequence that acts as a simple transposable element.

-Has transposase (A short, inverted terminal that repeats at the end of their DNA)
-Will only carry transposition genes in short segments that are about 1000 nucleotides long
 Conservative Transposition-Donor DNA is left with a double stranded break at the previous position of the transposon.
 Replicative TranspositionReplicative transposition is a mechanism of transposition in molecular biology in which the transposable element is duplicated during the reaction, so that the transposing entity is a copy of the original element.

-After replicative, both the donor and recipient DNA possess a copy of the transposon.
 Recombination-Nucleic Acid molecules are rearranged to create a new nucleotide sequence
 Genetic EngineeringGenetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct manipulation of an organism's genes.

-Modification of genetic information to change it's genome.
 Recombinant DNA TechnologyRecombinant DNA is a form of DNA that does not exist naturally, which is created by combining DNA sequences that would not normally occur together.

-Used to carry out genetic engineering
 Qhy are plasmids useful as cloning vectors?-Smaller, therefore better.
-Pure form gene is isolated and put into a vector for multiplication
-independent origin of replication
-uses host cell DNA polymerase
-has selectable markers
 Gene Cloning Process-Isolate the fragment/source of DNA
-Join DNA fragments to a cloning vector using DNA ligase which seals the phosphodiester bonds
-Introduce and maintain the cloned DNA in the organism.
 Restriction enzymesA restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded or single stranded DNA at specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sites.

-act as the scissors to cut at certain DNA
 DNA LigaseIn molecular biology, DNA ligase is a special type of ligase () that can link together two DNA strands that have double-strand break (a break in both complementary strands of DNA).

-the glue that allows for base pairing.
 Gel ElectrophoresisGel electrophoresis is a technique used for the separation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), or protein molecules using an electric field applied to a gel matrix.

-DNA is negative and uses ithidium bromide as the mutant
 Heat ShockIn biochemistry, heat shock is the effect of subjecting a cell to a higher temperature than that of the ideal body temperature of the organism from which the cell line was derived.

-hot, cold, hot
 ElectroporationElectroporation, or electropermeabilization, is a significant increase in the electrical conductivity and permeability of the cell plasma membrane caused by an externally applied electrical field.

-use of an electric pulse to allow for cells to take up DNA
 Southern BlottingA Southern blot is a method routinely used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples.

-used to detect specific DNA fragments using radioactive DNA probes. Uses autoradiography to detect those radioactively labeled molecules.
 DNA SequencingThe term DNA sequencing refers to sequencing methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases-adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine-in a molecule of DNA.
 Synthetic Oligonucleotide DesignOligonucleotide is a short nucleic acid molecule
 PrimersA primer is a strand of nucleic acid that serves as a starting point for DNA replication.

-Short piece of DNA used to initiate synthesis of a new strand
 Orobes-A strand of nucleic acid that can be labeled and used to connect with a complementary molecule in a mixture.
 Taq PolymeraseTaq polymerase (pronounced; tack poll-im-er-aze) is a thermostable DNA polymerase named after the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus from which it was originally isolated by Thomas D.

-Used in a PCR because it's a hyperthermophile
 Site-Directed MutagenesisSite-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique in which a mutation is created at a defined site in a DNA molecule, usually a circular molecule known as a plasmid.

-Gene with a specific mutation can be constructed in vitro
 Microbial Flora-Found on Skin, Oral Cavity, Respiratory Tract, and Urogenital Cavity.
-Not found in blood, lymph, or nervous system. If it is, it's indicative of serious disease.
 What are Skin Flora? Examples? What are characteristics? Why do they grow on the skin?The skin flora are the microorganisms which reside on the skin.

-Resist dehydration, generally yeasts, weather, age and personal hygiene can all affect it.

-S. aureus, Enterobacter

-Skin is relatively dry and has sweat glands
 Why is the Mouth good for flora growth? What are some Mouth Flora?-Anaerobic
-Streptococcus, Lactobacillus

-Mouth has food particles around the teeth and gums create conditions for growth
 What are some characteristics of Stomach flora? What are some examples?-Can survive in a hostile acidic conditions

-Proteobacteria, fusobacteria

-Stomach is highly acidic
 What are some characteristics of Large Intestine Flora? What are some examples?Obligately anaerobic

-Clostridium, Bacteriodes

-Large intestine is anoxic
 What are some characteristics of Upper Respiratory Tract Flora? What are some examples?-Aerobic

-M. Tuberculosis, Streptococcus
-S. pneumonia and S. aureus

-lungs are oxygenated
 What are some characteristics of Lower Respiratory Tract Flora? What are some examples?No natural flora
 What are some characteristics of Urogenital Tract Flora? What are some examples?Facultative aerobic gram negative rods and cocci

-Escherichia
 What are some characteristics of Vaginal Flora? What are some examples?The human vaginal region has a higher concentration of bacteria than any other part of the body other than the colon.

-Weakly acidic

-L. acidophilus
 How does microbial flora cause infection or disease?-Generally begins in the mucous membrane
-Microorganisms may adhere to the layer and cause a tissue infection by breaching the layer
 Risk Factors for Microbial Flora Infection- Age
- Stress
- Diet
- Compromised host
 Inate ImmunityNon-specific, you are born with it

-Begins with PRM recognizing PAMP
-Antigen specific antibody is produced/recruited, leading to the binding and opsinization and cell death
or
Cell mediated: Begins with inflammation
 Adaptive ImmunityThe adaptive immune system is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate or prevent pathogenic challenges.

-Specific and acquired

Begins with cell mediated or humoral
 LymphocytesA lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell in the vertebrate immune system.

-Responsible for specific immunity.
-Plasma B cells and memory B cells- mature in the bone marrow
-Tc cells and Th cells- mature in the thymus and responsible for specific cellular interaction
 MonocytesMonocyte is a type of white blood cell, part of the human body's immune system.

-Macrophages and dendritic cells- phagocytize and reside in the tissue, spleen, and lymph
 GranulocytesGranulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterised by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.

-Neutrophils
-Basophils
 Neutrophils-Granulocyte
- phagocytic
-Migrate to sites to kill damaged tissue
-First responders
 BasophilsBasophil granulocytes, sometimes referred to as basophils, are the least common of the granulocytes, representing about 0.01% to 0.3% of circulating white blood cells.

-Play a role in the development of allergies
 Antigen Presenting CellsAn antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays foreign antigen complex with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on its surface.

-Begins the process of acquired immunity by engulfing, processing, and presenting the lymphocytes
 PhagocytosisPhagocytosis is the cellular process of phagocytes and protists of engulfing solid particles by the cell membrane to form an internal phagosome.

-Engulfs the particle
-To recognize there's a patter associated with your pagolysome that has recognition molecules
-For a pathogen, another pathogen is used for recognition
-Oxygen radicals can kill phagocytes as well as hydrolases
 Inflammation-Response to injury with signs including redness, swelling, warmth, and pain

-increased blood flow to the tissue causes edema and increases number of phagocytes
-fever occurs to inhibit microbial growth
-fibrin clot forms to limit the spread of the pathogen
 ChemokinesChemokines are a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells.

-Produced at the site by the damaged cells
-Used to attract neutrophils to the injured tissue (Example, interleukin-8)
 CytokinesCytokines are any of a number of substances that are secreted by specific cells of the immune system which carry signals locally between cells, and thus have an effect on other cells.

-Produced at the site by macrophages
-activate other cell types (Example: TNF)
 AntigensAn antigen (from antibody generator) originally defined as any molecule that binds specifically to an antibody, the term now also refers to any molecule or molecular fragment that can be bound by an MHC molecule and presented to a T-cell receptor.

-Large, complex molecules with antigenic determining sites known as epitopes.
-Can elicit an immune response and react with the products of that response
 HaptensA hapten is a small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein; the carrier may be one that also does not elicit an immune response by itself.

-Small molecules that bind to antibodies without producing an immune response
-Can become antigenic when bound to other molecules (Example: Penicillin)
 Cell mediated Immunity- Resides in the lymph tissue and has a major role in B-Cell activation
-T-cell receptors are Ag specific that are bound to MHC Protei
-MHC Protein- Functions as a molecular reference point for a T-cell to recognize and bond.
-MHC 1- Found in all nucleated bodies: T-cells, CD8
-MHC 2- Found on antigen presenting cells like: TH and CD4
-Helper T-Cells- Recognize antigens on MHC 2 cells and are used to secrete cytokines.
-Cytotoxic T-Cells- Kills Infected cells
 Helper T-CellsT helper cells (also known as Th cells) are a sub-group of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell or leukocyte) that play an important role in establishing and maximizing the capabilities of the immune system.

-Cell mediated immunity
-Recognize antigens on MHC 2 cells and are used to secrete cytokines
 Antibody mediated Immunity-Aka Humoral Immune Response
-B-cells- Originate in Marrow and mature in the lymphoid tissue. Not mobile
-Antibodies are created by the B cells and found in serum, milk, etc.
-Four steps:
a. Viral Neutralization
b. Toxin Neutralization
c. Opsinization
d. Immune complex formation through agglutination
 AntibodiesAntibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are gamma globulin proteins that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses.

-Protein molecules that are able to bind with antigenic determinants.
 Agglutination-The clumping of cells in the presence of an antibody.
 What are the five types of Immunoglobins?-Five types
1. IgG
2. IgM
3. IgE
4. IgD
5. IgA
 IgGImmunoglobulin G (IgG) is a monomeric immunoglobulin, built of two heavy chains and two light chains.

-Major circulating
 IgM-First responder after vaccination
 IgEIn biology, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a class of antibody (or immunoglobulin "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.

-Involved in allergic reactions
 IgDMinor circulating
 IgAImmunoglobulin A (IgA) is an antibody which plays a critical role in mucosal immunity.

-Found in colostrum
 Primary Immune Response-Those antibodies made when it first came into contact: -Generally IgM
 Secondary Immune Response-Antibody made upon the second subsequent exposure.
-Generally IgG
 What is Natural Immunity? An example of active and passive?The innate immune system comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms, in a non-specific manner.

-Active: Through immune response
-Passive: Mother to Child in vitro or through colostrum
 What is Artificial Immunity? An example of active and passive?-Active: Antibodies resulting from a vaccination
-Passive: Antibodies given in vitro by humans
 EpidemiologyEpidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine.

-Study of the occurence distribution and disease control
 Epidemiologist-Traces the spread of a disease back to the origin
-Studies pathogen-host interactions
Determines the prevalence of a diseas
 PrevalenceIn epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population.

-Total number of diseased individuals/total population
-Proportion of diseased individuals at a time
 Incidence-Number of cases of diseased individuals in a population
 Morbidity-Incidence of contracting the disease in populations
 EndemicEndemism is the ecological state of being unique to a particular geographic location, such as a specific island, habitat type, nation, or other defined zone.

-Constantly present in generally low numbers such as asthma or diabetes
 EpidemicIn epidemiology, an epidemic occurs when new cases of a certain disease, in a given human population, and during a given period, substantially exceed what is "expected," based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during a specified period of time is called the "incidence rate").

-Occurrence of a disease in high numbers in a population
-Example: Flu
 PandemicA pandemic is an epidemic of infectious disease that is spreading through human populations across a large region; for instance a continent, or even worldwide.

-Occurrence in high numbers world wide
-Example: AIDS
 What are the five steps of Disease Progression?-Infection
-Incubation-From infection to first signs
-Acute Period- When you're actually sick
-Decline Period- Getting better
-Convalescent Period- Better but still vulnerable
 Disease ReservoirNatural reservoir or nidus, refers to the long-term host of the pathogen of an infectious disease.

-Stems from where it lives
-Ex. C. tetani
 ZoonosisA zoonosis () or zoonose is any infectious disease that can be transmitted (in some instances, by a vector) from non-human animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to non-human animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis).

-Spread from animals
-Ex. Avian Flu or plague
 Disease Carrier-Pathogen infected but showing no signs
-Ex. Typhoid Mary
 What is Disease Transmission? What are direct and indirect disease transmission?In medicine, transmission is the passing of a disease from an infected individual or group to a previously uninfected individual or group.

-Direct: from infected host to susceptible host
-Indirect: using vectors and fomites to deliver to the susceptible host
 FomitesA fomite is any object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms (such as germs or parasites) and hence transferring them from one individual to another.
 Herd ImmunityHerd immunity (or community immunity) describes a type of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of a portion of the population (or herd) provides protection to unprotected individuals.

-Resistance of a population to a disease requires most of the population to be resistant
-70% for polio and dip
-90-95% for the chicken pox
 Nosocomial InfectionNosocomial infections are infections which are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit, but secondary to the patient's original condition.

-Hospital acquired and found in about 5% S. aureus.
-2 million per year
-80,000 deaths per year
 Common Source Epidemic-Rapid peaking such as contaminated food or water
 Host to Host Epidemics-Slow to rise and gradual decline like the flu
 What are some Public Health Precautions that can be taken?-Against the Reservoir- Immunization of the population and destroy infected animals
-Against transmission- Destroy the pathogen in and on the vehicle
-Quarantine
-Surveillance- Observation, recognition, reporting to the CDC
-Pathogen Eradication (Ex. Smallpox)
 Emerging Diseases-Disease whose incidence has increased over the past 20 years or is threatening to increase
 What are some emergence factors?-Human Behavior
-Technology and industry
-Travel
-Natural occurrences that are disturbed. (Ex. Heavy rain and warm winter bring out larger mice populations with more animal droppings)
 Reemerging Diseases-One disease thought to be under control that produces a new epidemic
 Biological WarfareBiological warfare (BW), also known as germ warfare, is the use of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, other disease-causing biological agents, or the toxins produced by them as biological weapons (or bioweapons).
 Biological Weapons-Organisms or toxins that are easy to produce/deliver
-Safe to use by offensive soldiers
-Reproducible in a consistent manner
 What is AIDS? What does it do? How many are infected? How many have died?Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

-Attacks the immune system
-At least 70 million infected and 25 million deaths
 What is SARS? What caused it? How many cases were there? How many deaths?Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS; , ) is a respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

-Caused by the coronavirus
-8,500 cases and 800 deaths
-Through fecal contact and contamination
 Smallpox-Spread by aerosol or contact
-30% mortality
-Live Vaccination available
 What is Anthrax? How many were killed?Anthrax is an acute disease caused by Bacillus anthracis.

-Endospore producing where inhalation will lead to a pulmonary infection that is lethal if not treated
-US attacked in 2001
-5 killed
-looks like powder
 What is a Transiton Mutation?-Transiton: A to G or T to C
 What is a Transversion MutationTransversion: A to T or G to C
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