Koofers

Exam 1 - Flashcards

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Class:MKTG 4154 - Marketing Research
Subject:Marketing
University:Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University
Term:Fall 2010
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Difference between a survey that includes only those who responded but not those who failed to respond Nonresponse error
when a respondent is consciously trying to be truthful and cooperative, response bias can arise from the question format, the question content, or some other stimulus that affects their response to a question Unconscious misrepresentation
a tendency to agree with all or most questions Acquiescence bias
tendency of some individuals to use extremes when responding to questions extremity bias
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tendency for respondents to react toward the survey sponsor auspices bias
presence of the interviewer influences respondents answers interviewer bias
screening procedure that involves a trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the survey design pretesting
What should be asked How should each question be phrased What sequence should the questions be arranged What questionnaire layout will best serve the research Key decisions in questionnaire design
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Pose some problem and ask respondents to answer in their own words Advantages - most beneficial in exploratory research, may reveal unanticipated reactions Disadvantages - high cost, possibility of interviewer bias Open-ended question
Questions in which respondents are given specific, limited alternative responses and asked to choose the one closest to their own viewpoint Advantages - require less interviewer skill, less time to answer, provides comparability of answers Disadvantages - lack of range in the response alternatives Fixed-alternative question
What are some things to avoid when writing research questions 1. Don't be too broad 2. Don't be too vague 3. Don't come up with a question that you already know the answer.
Theory A formal, logical explanation of some events that includes predictions of how things relate to one another
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Hypothesis A formal statement explaining some outcome
Qualitative research Data that are not characterized by number but rather are textual, visual, or oral Is used for exploratory research
Quantitative research Represent phenomena by assigning numbers in an ordered and meaningful way Is used for descriptive and causal research
How is exploratory research used in qualitative research? Uses small versus large samples Asks a broad range of questions versus structured questions Subjective interpretation (number scale) versus statistical analysis
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Phenomenology Originating in philosophy and psychology A philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experiences itself is subjective and determined by the context in which people live Seeks to describe, reflect upon, and interpret experiences
Ethnography Originating in anthropology Ways of studying cultures through methods that involve becoming highly active within that culture Uses participant observation - the researcher becomes immersed within the culture
Grounded theory Originated in sociology An inductive investigation in which the researcher poses questions about information provided by respondents or taken from historical records Theory is developed from data
Case studies Originating in psychology and in business research The documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event
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Focus group outline Includes written introductory comments informing the group about the focus group purpose and rules and then outlines topics or questions to be addressed in the group session
Focus group interview An unstructured, free-flowing interview with a small group (6-10) led by a moderator who encourages dialogue among respondents Advantages - fast, easy to execute, provides multiple perspectives Disadvantages - requires good moderators, not useful for discussing sensitive topics
Depth interviews A one-on-one interview between a professional researcher and a research respondent conducted about some relevant business or social topic
Conversations an informal data-gathering approach in which the researcher engages a respondent in a discussion of the relevant subject matter Disadvantage - prone to produce little relevant information
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Semi-structured interview Written form and ask respondents for short essay responses to specific open-ended questions Advantages - ability to address more specific issues, responses easier to interpret, without moderator they are very cost effective
Thematic apperception test (TAT) explores the underlying dynamics of personality,, presents subjects with an ambiguous picture and asks what is happening in the picture now and what might happen next
Projective research techniques Indirect means of questioning enabling respondents to project beliefs and feelings onto a third party, and inanimate object, or a task situation
What are advantages of seconday data? Less expensive Less time to collect May be more representative of the target population than primary data
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Fact finding Identification of consumer behavior for a product category
Model Building Estimating market potential Forecasting Sales Analysis of trade areas and sites
Database marketing The use of customer relationship management databases to promote one-to-one relationships with customers and create precisely targeted promotions
internal and proprietary sources of secondary data Accounting info Sales info and backorders Customer complaints, service records, warranty card returns Intranets
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External sources of seconday data Libraries Internet Vendors Producers (books, government, media)
A method of collecting primary data in which information is gathered by communicating with a representative sample of people Survey
What kind of info surveys gather Info on what is happening, what people believe, what they are like, or to learn the reasons for a particular marketing activity Gather descriptive research Gather quantitative and qualitative research
Advantages of surveys Quick Inexpensive Efficient Accurate
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Disadvantages of surveys Poor design Improper execution
a statistical fluctuation that occurs because of chance variation in the elements selected for a sample Random sampling error
error resulting from some imperfect aspect of the research design that causes respondent error or from a mistake in the execution of the research error resulting from some imperfect aspect of the research design that causes respondent error or from a mistake in the execution of the research
Difference between a survey that includes only those who responded but not those who failed to respond Nonresponse error
Generated by Koofers.com
when a respondent is consciously trying to be truthful and cooperative, response bias can arise from the question format, the question content, or some other stimulus that affects their response to a question Unconscious misrepresentation
a tendency to agree with all or most questions Acquiescence bias
tendency of some individuals to use extremes when responding to questions extremity bias
tendency for respondents to react toward the survey sponsor auspices bias
Generated by Koofers.com
presence of the interviewer influences respondents answers interviewer bias
screening procedure that involves a trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the survey design pretesting
What should be asked How should each question be phrased What sequence should the questions be arranged What questionnaire layout will best serve the research Key decisions in questionnaire design
Pose some problem and ask respondents to answer in their own words Advantages - most beneficial in exploratory research, may reveal unanticipated reactions Disadvantages - high cost, possibility of interviewer bias Open-ended question
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Questions in which respondents are given specific, limited alternative responses and asked to choose the one closest to their own viewpoint Advantages - require less interviewer skill, less time to answer, provides comparability of answers Disadvantages - lack of range in the response alternatives Fixed-alternative question
Definition
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 Difference between a survey that includes only those who responded but not those who failed to respond
Nonresponse error
 when a respondent is consciously trying to be truthful and cooperative, response bias can arise from the question format, the question content, or some other stimulus that affects their response to a question
Unconscious misrepresentation
 a tendency to agree with all or most questions
Acquiescence bias
 tendency of some individuals to use extremes when responding to questions
extremity bias
 tendency for respondents to react toward the survey sponsor
auspices bias
 presence of the interviewer influences respondents answers
interviewer bias
 screening procedure that involves a trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the survey design
pretesting
 What should be asked How should each question be phrased What sequence should the questions be arranged What questionnaire layout will best serve the research
Key decisions in questionnaire design
 Pose some problem and ask respondents to answer in their own words Advantages - most beneficial in exploratory research, may reveal unanticipated reactions Disadvantages - high cost, possibility of interviewer bias
Open-ended question
 Questions in which respondents are given specific, limited alternative responses and asked to choose the one closest to their own viewpoint Advantages - require less interviewer skill, less time to answer, provides comparability of answers Disadvantages - lack of range in the response alternatives
Fixed-alternative question
 What are some things to avoid when writing research questions1. Don't be too broad
2. Don't be too vague
3. Don't come up with a question that you already know the answer.
 TheoryA formal, logical explanation of some events that includes predictions of how things relate to one another
 HypothesisA formal statement explaining some outcome
 Qualitative researchData that are not characterized by number but rather are textual, visual, or oral
Is used for exploratory research
 Quantitative researchRepresent phenomena by assigning numbers in an ordered and meaningful way
Is used for descriptive and causal research
 How is exploratory research used in qualitative research?Uses small versus large samples
Asks a broad range of questions versus structured questions
Subjective interpretation (number scale) versus statistical analysis
 PhenomenologyOriginating in philosophy and psychology
A philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experiences itself is subjective and determined by the context in which people live
Seeks to describe, reflect upon, and interpret experiences
 EthnographyOriginating in anthropology
Ways of studying cultures through methods that involve becoming highly active within that culture
Uses participant observation - the researcher becomes immersed within the culture

 Grounded theoryOriginated in sociology
An inductive investigation in which the researcher poses questions about information provided by respondents or taken from historical records
Theory is developed from data
 Case studiesOriginating in psychology and in business research
The documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event
 Focus group outlineIncludes written introductory comments informing the group about the focus group purpose and rules and then outlines topics or questions to be addressed in the group session
 Focus group interviewAn unstructured, free-flowing interview with a small group (6-10) led by a moderator who encourages dialogue among respondents
Advantages - fast, easy to execute, provides multiple perspectives
Disadvantages - requires good moderators, not useful for discussing sensitive topics
 Depth interviewsA one-on-one interview between a professional researcher and a research respondent conducted about some relevant business or social topic
 Conversationsan informal data-gathering approach in which the researcher engages a respondent in a discussion of the relevant subject matter
Disadvantage - prone to produce little relevant information
 Semi-structured interviewWritten form and ask respondents for short essay responses to specific open-ended questions
Advantages - ability to address more specific issues, responses easier to interpret, without moderator they are very cost effective
 Thematic apperception test (TAT)explores the underlying dynamics of personality,, presents subjects with an ambiguous picture and asks what is happening in the picture now and what might happen next
 Projective research techniquesIndirect means of questioning enabling respondents to project beliefs and feelings onto a third party, and inanimate object, or a task situation
 What are advantages of seconday data?Less expensive
Less time to collect
May be more representative of the target population than primary data
 Fact findingIdentification of consumer behavior for a product category
 Model BuildingEstimating market potential
Forecasting Sales
Analysis of trade areas and sites
 Database marketingThe use of customer relationship management databases to promote one-to-one relationships with customers and create precisely targeted promotions
 internal and proprietary sources of secondary dataAccounting info
Sales info and backorders
Customer complaints, service records, warranty card returns
Intranets
 External sources of seconday dataLibraries
Internet
Vendors
Producers (books, government, media)
 A method of collecting primary data in which information is gathered by communicating with a representative sample of peopleSurvey
 What kind of info surveys gatherInfo on what is happening, what people believe, what they are like, or to learn the reasons for a particular marketing activity
Gather descriptive research
Gather quantitative and qualitative research
 Advantages of surveysQuick
Inexpensive
Efficient
Accurate
 Disadvantages of surveysPoor design
Improper execution
 a statistical fluctuation that occurs because of chance variation in the elements selected for a sampleRandom sampling error
 error resulting from some imperfect aspect of the research design that causes respondent error or from a mistake in the execution of the researcherror resulting from some imperfect aspect of the research design that causes respondent error or from a mistake in the execution of the research
 Difference between a survey that includes only those who responded but not those who failed to respondNonresponse error
 when a respondent is consciously trying to be truthful and cooperative, response bias can arise from the question format, the question content, or some other stimulus that affects their response to a questionUnconscious misrepresentation
 a tendency to agree with all or most questionsAcquiescence bias
 tendency of some individuals to use extremes when responding to questionsextremity bias
 tendency for respondents to react toward the survey sponsor auspices bias
 presence of the interviewer influences respondents answersinterviewer bias
 screening procedure that involves a trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the survey designpretesting
 What should be asked How should each question be phrased What sequence should the questions be arranged What questionnaire layout will best serve the researchKey decisions in questionnaire design
 Pose some problem and ask respondents to answer in their own words Advantages - most beneficial in exploratory research, may reveal unanticipated reactions Disadvantages - high cost, possibility of interviewer biasOpen-ended question
 Questions in which respondents are given specific, limited alternative responses and asked to choose the one closest to their own viewpoint Advantages - require less interviewer skill, less time to answer, provides comparability of answers Disadvantages - lack of range in the response alternativesFixed-alternative question
  Definition
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