Koofers

Exam 2 - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:MKTG 4154 - Marketing Research
Subject:Marketing
University:Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University
Term:Fall 2010
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
A research method in which conditions are controlled so that at least one independent variable can be manipulated to test its effects on at least one dependent variable Experiment
The manipulation of the independent variables (and nothing else) caused changes in the dependent variables Internal Validity
The experimental findings generalize to the population and setting of interest External Validity
Part of the procedure or setting allows the subject to guess what is being tested Demand characteristics
Generated by Koofers.com
Randomization, statistical control, design control, constancy of conditions, experimental disguise Ways to control Extraneous Variables that threaten Validity
Natural setting, more realism, higher cost, better external validity Characteristics for using test-marketing
Something (other than the treatment) occurs at the same time as the experiment and affects the dependent variable History effect
The test units in the experiment change in some way during the experiment Maturation effect
Generated by Koofers.com
Measuring the dependent variable changes subjects’ responses to a later measurement Testing effect
Changes in the measures before and after the treatment affect the results Instrumentation effect
Assigns a value to an object for identification or classification purposes Nominal scale measurement
Ranking scales allowing things to be arranged based on how much of some concept they possess Ordinal scale measurement
Generated by Koofers.com
Capture information about differences in quantities of a concept. Has both nominal and ordinal properties Interval scale measurement
Highest form of measurement, represents absolute quantities, and absolute zero Ratio scale measurement
An enduring disposition to consistently respond in a given manner to various aspects of the world Attitude
Why is attitude important in business research? Attitudes may be the most common construct used in consumer behavior studies
Generated by Koofers.com
Assign a value based on how much of the concept being measured is associated with an observation Index measures
Assign a value to an observation based on a mathematical derivation of multiple variables Composite measure
The degree to which measures are free from random error and therefore yield consistent results. Reliability
The accuracy of a measure or the extent to which a score truthfully represents a concept Validity
Generated by Koofers.com
What should be asked? How should each question be phrased? In what sequence should the questions be arranged? What questionnaire layout will best serve the research objectives? How should the questionnaire be pretested? Key decisions in questionnaire design
Pose some problem and ask respondents to answer in their own words. Open-ended Response Questions
Questions in which respondents are given specific, limited-alternative responses and asked to choose the one closest to their own viewpoint. Fixed-alternative Questions
Asking general questions before specific questions in order to obtain unbiased responses. Funnel technique
Generated by Koofers.com
A question that screens out respondents who are not qualified to answer a second question. Filter (Qualifying) question
A filter question used to determine which version of a second question will be asked. Pivot question
What is the best questionnaire layout? Questions should be asked in a logical order, organized around topic areas. When switching topics, brief transitional phrases or sentences should be used to help respondents switch their train of thought.
Seeks to determine whether respondents have any difficulty understanding the questionnaire and whether there are any ambiguous or biased questions. Pretesting process
Generated by Koofers.com
Taking a questionnaire that has previously been translated into another language and having a second, independent translator translate it back to the original language. Back translation
Budget and time constraints, limited access to total population, can be more accurate Reasons to use a sample instead of a census
What is the relevant population? Whom do we want to talk to? Questions in identifying a target population
A list of elements from which a sample may be drawn; also called working population. sampling frame
Generated by Koofers.com
The difference between the sample result and the result of a census conducted using identical procedures. A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of chance variations in the elements selected for a sample. Random sampling error
Systematic (nonsampling) error results from nonsampling factors, primarily the nature of a study’s design and the correctness of execution. Systematic sampling error
A sampling technique in which units of the sample are selected on the basis of personal judgment or convenience. Nonprobability sampling
Obtaining those people or units that are most conveniently available. Convenience sampling
Generated by Koofers.com
An experienced individual selects the sample based on personal judgment about some appropriate characteristic of the sample member. Judgment sampling
Ensures that various subgroups of a population will be represented on pertinent characteristics to the exact extent that the investigator desires. Quota sampling
Speed of data collection, lower costs, convenience Advantages of Quota Sampling
A sampling procedure in which initial respondents are selected by probability methods and additional respondents are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents. Snowball sampling
Generated by Koofers.com
Assures each element in the population of an equal chance of being included in the sample. Simple Random Sampling
A starting point is selected by a random process and then every nth number on the list is selected. Systematic sampling
Simple random subsamples that are more or less equal on some characteristic are drawn from within each stratum of the population.The probability equivalent of quota sampling. Stratified sampling
A frequency distribution of the elements of a population. Population Distribution
Generated by Koofers.com
A frequency distribution of a sample. Sample distribution
A theoretical probability distribution of sample means for all possible samples of a certain size drawn from a particular population. Sampling distribution
The theory that, as sample size increases, the distribution of sample means of size n, randomly selected, approaches a normal distribution. Central-limit theorem
A specified range of numbers within which a population mean is expected to lie. An estimate of the population mean based on the knowledge that it will be equal to the sample mean plus or minus a small sampling error. Confidence interval
Generated by Koofers.com
Only the riskiest of decisions require very large samples, and samples of 300-500 can provide adequate results for many marketing decisions that do not involve extremely high risk. Issues with sample size
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 49 Print
 
Front
Back
 A research method in which conditions are controlled so that at least one independent variable can be manipulated to test its effects on at least one dependent variableExperiment
 The manipulation of the independent variables (and nothing else) caused changes in the dependent variablesInternal Validity
 The experimental findings generalize to the population and setting of interestExternal Validity
 Part of the procedure or setting allows the subject to guess what is being testedDemand characteristics
 Randomization, statistical control, design control, constancy of conditions, experimental disguiseWays to control Extraneous Variables that threaten Validity
 Natural setting, more realism, higher cost, better external validityCharacteristics for using test-marketing
 Something (other than the treatment) occurs at the same time as the experiment and affects the dependent variableHistory effect
 The test units in the experiment change in some way during the experimentMaturation effect
  Measuring the dependent variable changes subjects’ responses to a later measurement Testing effect
 Changes in the measures before and after the treatment affect the resultsInstrumentation effect
 Assigns a value to an object for identification or classification purposesNominal scale measurement
 Ranking scales allowing things to be arranged based on how much of some concept they possessOrdinal scale measurement
 Capture information about differences in quantities of a concept. Has both nominal and ordinal propertiesInterval scale measurement
 Highest form of measurement, represents absolute quantities, and absolute zeroRatio scale measurement
 An enduring disposition to consistently respond in a given manner to various aspects of the worldAttitude
 Why is attitude important in business research?Attitudes may be the most common construct used in consumer behavior studies
 Assign a value based on how much of the concept being measured is associated with an observationIndex measures
 Assign a value to an observation based on a mathematical derivation of multiple variablesComposite measure
 The degree to which measures are free from random error and therefore yield consistent results. Reliability
 The accuracy of a measure or the extent to which a score truthfully represents a conceptValidity
 What should be asked? How should each question be phrased? In what sequence should the questions be arranged? What questionnaire layout will best serve the research objectives? How should the questionnaire be pretested? Key decisions in questionnaire design
 Pose some problem and ask respondents to answer in their own words. Open-ended Response Questions
 Questions in which respondents are given specific, limited-alternative responses and asked to choose the one closest to their own viewpoint. Fixed-alternative Questions
 Asking general questions before specific questions in order to obtain unbiased responses. Funnel technique
 A question that screens out respondents who are not qualified to answer a second question. Filter (Qualifying) question
 A filter question used to determine which version of a second question will be asked. Pivot question
 What is the best questionnaire layout?Questions should be asked in a logical order, organized around topic areas.

When switching topics, brief transitional phrases or sentences should be used to help respondents switch their train of thought.
 Seeks to determine whether respondents have any difficulty understanding the questionnaire and whether there are any ambiguous or biased questions. Pretesting process
 Taking a questionnaire that has previously been translated into another language and having a second, independent translator translate it back to the original language. Back translation
 Budget and time constraints, limited access to total population, can be more accurateReasons to use a sample instead of a census
 What is the relevant population? Whom do we want to talk to? Questions in identifying a target population
 A list of elements from which a sample may be drawn; also called working population. sampling frame
 The difference between the sample result and the result of a census conducted using identical procedures. A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of chance variations in the elements selected for a sample. Random sampling error
 Systematic (nonsampling) error results from nonsampling factors, primarily the nature of a study’s design and the correctness of execution. Systematic sampling error
 A sampling technique in which units of the sample are selected on the basis of personal judgment or convenience. Nonprobability sampling
 Obtaining those people or units that are most conveniently available. Convenience sampling
 An experienced individual selects the sample based on personal judgment about some appropriate characteristic of the sample member. Judgment sampling
 Ensures that various subgroups of a population will be represented on pertinent characteristics to the exact extent that the investigator desires. Quota sampling
 Speed of data collection, lower costs, convenienceAdvantages of Quota Sampling
 A sampling procedure in which initial respondents are selected by probability methods and additional respondents are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents. Snowball sampling
 Assures each element in the population of an equal chance of being included in the sample. Simple Random Sampling
 A starting point is selected by a random process and then every nth number on the list is selected. Systematic sampling
 Simple random subsamples that are more or less equal on some characteristic are drawn from within each stratum of the population.The probability equivalent of quota sampling. Stratified sampling
 A frequency distribution of the elements of a population. Population Distribution
 A frequency distribution of a sample. Sample distribution
 A theoretical probability distribution of sample means for all possible samples of a certain size drawn from a particular population. Sampling distribution
 The theory that, as sample size increases, the distribution of sample means of size n, randomly selected, approaches a normal distribution. Central-limit theorem
 A specified range of numbers within which a population mean is expected to lie. An estimate of the population mean based on the knowledge that it will be equal to the sample mean plus or minus a small sampling error. Confidence interval
 Only the riskiest of decisions require very large samples, and samples of 300-500 can provide adequate results for many marketing decisions that do not involve extremely high risk. Issues with sample size
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"