+0
Karma
Class:  MKTG 4154  Marketing Research 
Subject:  Marketing 
University:  Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University 
Term:  Fall 2010 
A research method in which conditions are controlled so that at least one independent variable can be manipulated to test its effects on at least one dependent variable  Experiment 
The manipulation of the independent variables (and nothing else) caused changes in the dependent variables  Internal Validity 
The experimental findings generalize to the population and setting of interest  External Validity 
Part of the procedure or setting allows the subject to guess what is being tested  Demand characteristics 
Randomization, statistical control, design control, constancy of conditions, experimental disguise  Ways to control Extraneous Variables that threaten Validity 
Natural setting, more realism, higher cost, better external validity  Characteristics for using testmarketing 
Something (other than the treatment) occurs at the same time as the experiment and affects the dependent variable  History effect 
The test units in the experiment change in some way during the experiment  Maturation effect 
Measuring the dependent variable changes subjects’ responses to a later measurement  Testing effect 
Changes in the measures before and after the treatment affect the results  Instrumentation effect 
Assigns a value to an object for identification or classification purposes  Nominal scale measurement 
Ranking scales allowing things to be arranged based on how much of some concept they possess  Ordinal scale measurement 
Capture information about differences in quantities of a concept. Has both nominal and ordinal properties  Interval scale measurement 
Highest form of measurement, represents absolute quantities, and absolute zero  Ratio scale measurement 
An enduring disposition to consistently respond in a given manner to various aspects of the world  Attitude 
Why is attitude important in business research?  Attitudes may be the most common construct used in consumer behavior studies 
Assign a value based on how much of the concept being measured is associated with an observation  Index measures 
Assign a value to an observation based on a mathematical derivation of multiple variables  Composite measure 
The degree to which measures are free from random error and therefore yield consistent results.  Reliability 
The accuracy of a measure or the extent to which a score truthfully represents a concept  Validity 
What should be asked? How should each question be phrased? In what sequence should the questions be arranged? What questionnaire layout will best serve the research objectives? How should the questionnaire be pretested?  Key decisions in questionnaire design 
Pose some problem and ask respondents to answer in their own words.  Openended Response Questions 
Questions in which respondents are given specific, limitedalternative responses and asked to choose the one closest to their own viewpoint.  Fixedalternative Questions 
Asking general questions before specific questions in order to obtain unbiased responses.  Funnel technique 
A question that screens out respondents who are not qualified to answer a second question.  Filter (Qualifying) question 
A filter question used to determine which version of a second question will be asked.  Pivot question 
What is the best questionnaire layout?  Questions should be asked in a logical order, organized around topic areas. When switching topics, brief transitional phrases or sentences should be used to help respondents switch their train of thought. 
Seeks to determine whether respondents have any difficulty understanding the questionnaire and whether there are any ambiguous or biased questions.  Pretesting process 
Taking a questionnaire that has previously been translated into another language and having a second, independent translator translate it back to the original language.  Back translation 
Budget and time constraints, limited access to total population, can be more accurate  Reasons to use a sample instead of a census 
What is the relevant population? Whom do we want to talk to?  Questions in identifying a target population 
A list of elements from which a sample may be drawn; also called working population.  sampling frame 
The difference between the sample result and the result of a census conducted using identical procedures. A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of chance variations in the elements selected for a sample.  Random sampling error 
Systematic (nonsampling) error results from nonsampling factors, primarily the nature of a study’s design and the correctness of execution.  Systematic sampling error 
A sampling technique in which units of the sample are selected on the basis of personal judgment or convenience.  Nonprobability sampling 
Obtaining those people or units that are most conveniently available.  Convenience sampling 
An experienced individual selects the sample based on personal judgment about some appropriate characteristic of the sample member.  Judgment sampling 
Ensures that various subgroups of a population will be represented on pertinent characteristics to the exact extent that the investigator desires.  Quota sampling 
Speed of data collection, lower costs, convenience  Advantages of Quota Sampling 
A sampling procedure in which initial respondents are selected by probability methods and additional respondents are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents.  Snowball sampling 
Assures each element in the population of an equal chance of being included in the sample.  Simple Random Sampling 
A starting point is selected by a random process and then every nth number on the list is selected.  Systematic sampling 
Simple random subsamples that are more or less equal on some characteristic are drawn from within each stratum of the population.The probability equivalent of quota sampling.  Stratified sampling 
A frequency distribution of the elements of a population.  Population Distribution 
A frequency distribution of a sample.  Sample distribution 
A theoretical probability distribution of sample means for all possible samples of a certain size drawn from a particular population.  Sampling distribution 
The theory that, as sample size increases, the distribution of sample means of size n, randomly selected, approaches a normal distribution.  Centrallimit theorem 
A specified range of numbers within which a population mean is expected to lie. An estimate of the population mean based on the knowledge that it will be equal to the sample mean plus or minus a small sampling error.  Confidence interval 
Only the riskiest of decisions require very large samples, and samples of 300500 can provide adequate results for many marketing decisions that do not involve extremely high risk.  Issues with sample size 
Front 
Back 


A research method in which conditions are controlled so that at least one independent variable can be manipulated to test its effects on at least one dependent variable  Experiment  
The manipulation of the independent variables (and nothing else) caused changes in the dependent variables  Internal Validity  
The experimental findings generalize to the population and setting of interest  External Validity  
Part of the procedure or setting allows the subject to guess what is being tested  Demand characteristics  
Randomization, statistical control, design control, constancy of conditions, experimental disguise  Ways to control Extraneous Variables that threaten Validity  
Natural setting, more realism, higher cost, better external validity  Characteristics for using testmarketing  
Something (other than the treatment) occurs at the same time as the experiment and affects the dependent variable  History effect  
The test units in the experiment change in some way during the experiment  Maturation effect  
Measuring the dependent variable changes subjects’ responses to a later measurement  Testing effect  
Changes in the measures before and after the treatment affect the results  Instrumentation effect  
Assigns a value to an object for identification or classification purposes  Nominal scale measurement  
Ranking scales allowing things to be arranged based on how much of some concept they possess  Ordinal scale measurement  
Capture information about differences in quantities of a concept. Has both nominal and ordinal properties  Interval scale measurement  
Highest form of measurement, represents absolute quantities, and absolute zero  Ratio scale measurement  
An enduring disposition to consistently respond in a given manner to various aspects of the world  Attitude  
Why is attitude important in business research?  Attitudes may be the most common construct used in consumer behavior studies  
Assign a value based on how much of the concept being measured is associated with an observation  Index measures  
Assign a value to an observation based on a mathematical derivation of multiple variables  Composite measure  
The degree to which measures are free from random error and therefore yield consistent results.  Reliability  
The accuracy of a measure or the extent to which a score truthfully represents a concept  Validity  
What should be asked? How should each question be phrased? In what sequence should the questions be arranged? What questionnaire layout will best serve the research objectives? How should the questionnaire be pretested?  Key decisions in questionnaire design  
Pose some problem and ask respondents to answer in their own words.  Openended Response Questions  
Questions in which respondents are given specific, limitedalternative responses and asked to choose the one closest to their own viewpoint.  Fixedalternative Questions  
Asking general questions before specific questions in order to obtain unbiased responses.  Funnel technique  
A question that screens out respondents who are not qualified to answer a second question.  Filter (Qualifying) question  
A filter question used to determine which version of a second question will be asked.  Pivot question  
What is the best questionnaire layout?  Questions should be asked in a logical order, organized around topic areas. When switching topics, brief transitional phrases or sentences should be used to help respondents switch their train of thought.  
Seeks to determine whether respondents have any difficulty understanding the questionnaire and whether there are any ambiguous or biased questions.  Pretesting process  
Taking a questionnaire that has previously been translated into another language and having a second, independent translator translate it back to the original language.  Back translation  
Budget and time constraints, limited access to total population, can be more accurate  Reasons to use a sample instead of a census  
What is the relevant population? Whom do we want to talk to?  Questions in identifying a target population  
A list of elements from which a sample may be drawn; also called working population.  sampling frame  
The difference between the sample result and the result of a census conducted using identical procedures. A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of chance variations in the elements selected for a sample.  Random sampling error  
Systematic (nonsampling) error results from nonsampling factors, primarily the nature of a study’s design and the correctness of execution.  Systematic sampling error  
A sampling technique in which units of the sample are selected on the basis of personal judgment or convenience.  Nonprobability sampling  
Obtaining those people or units that are most conveniently available.  Convenience sampling  
An experienced individual selects the sample based on personal judgment about some appropriate characteristic of the sample member.  Judgment sampling  
Ensures that various subgroups of a population will be represented on pertinent characteristics to the exact extent that the investigator desires.  Quota sampling  
Speed of data collection, lower costs, convenience  Advantages of Quota Sampling  
A sampling procedure in which initial respondents are selected by probability methods and additional respondents are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents.  Snowball sampling  
Assures each element in the population of an equal chance of being included in the sample.  Simple Random Sampling  
A starting point is selected by a random process and then every nth number on the list is selected.  Systematic sampling  
Simple random subsamples that are more or less equal on some characteristic are drawn from within each stratum of the population.The probability equivalent of quota sampling.  Stratified sampling  
A frequency distribution of the elements of a population.  Population Distribution  
A frequency distribution of a sample.  Sample distribution  
A theoretical probability distribution of sample means for all possible samples of a certain size drawn from a particular population.  Sampling distribution  
The theory that, as sample size increases, the distribution of sample means of size n, randomly selected, approaches a normal distribution.  Centrallimit theorem  
A specified range of numbers within which a population mean is expected to lie. An estimate of the population mean based on the knowledge that it will be equal to the sample mean plus or minus a small sampling error.  Confidence interval  
Only the riskiest of decisions require very large samples, and samples of 300500 can provide adequate results for many marketing decisions that do not involve extremely high risk.  Issues with sample size 
© Copyright 2020 , Koofers, Inc. All rights reserved.
The information provided on this site is protected by U.S. and International copyright law, and other applicable intellectual property laws, including laws covering data access and data compilations. This information is provided exclusively for the personal and academic use of students, instructors and other university personnel. Use of this information for any commercial purpose, or by any commercial entity, is expressly prohibited. This information may not, under any circumstances, be copied, modified, reused, or incorporated into any derivative works or compilations, without the prior written approval of Koofers, Inc.