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Coding
The process of assigning a numerical score or other character symbol to previously edited data
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Codes
rules for interpreting, classifying and recording data
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Dummy coding
numerical 1 or 0, each number represents male or female
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effects coding
values 1 to 1
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Class coding
coding assigning numbers to categories to identify some characteristic
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Descriptive analysis
transformation of raw data that describes basic characteristics such as central tendency and variation
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Histogram
graphical way of showing a frequency distribution in which height of bar corresponds to frequency
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Tabulation
orderly arrangement of data in a table showing the number of responses to each response category
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Crosstabulation
comparing 2 groups of to compare how the respond to a questionone variable in rows and the other on columns
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Contingency table
data matrix that displays frequency of some combination of responses to multiple variables
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Marginals
the row and column totals in a contingency table
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Statistical base
number of respondents or observations used as a basis for computing percentages
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Elaboration analysis
analysis of basic cross tabulation for each level of variable not previously considered (subgroups of the sample)
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Moderator variable
3rd variable that changes the nature of the relationship b/w the original independent and dependent variables
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Median split
divide data by placing respondents below who were above median in one category and those above it in anotherbest if data exhibits bimodal characteristics
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Index numbers
scores or observations recalibrated to indicate how they relate to a base number
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Univariate statistical analysis
tests of hypothesis involving one variable
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Significance level
a critical probability associated with a statistical hypothesis test indicating how likely an inference will occur
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Pvalue
probability value or observed significance level
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Type I error
concluding that a relationship exists when in reality it doesn't existRejecting a true null hypothesis probability of alpha
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Type II error
concluding that there is no relationship when if face one does existfailing to reject the null hypothesis probability of beta
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Legal System Null Hypothesis
A person is innocent until proven guilty. Null hypothesis is saying there is no relationshipType I error: sending an innocent person to prison Type II error: setting a guilty person free
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Tdistribution
symmetrical bell shaped distribution with a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1when n>30 t and z distribution are almost identical, researchers usually apply Ttest with larger samples

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