# exam 2 part II - Flashcards

## Flashcard Deck Information

 Class: MKTG 4154 - Marketing Research Subject: Marketing University: Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University Term: Spring 2013
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 Coding The process of assigning a numerical score or other character symbol to previously edited data Codes rules for interpreting, classifying and recording data Dummy coding numerical 1 or 0, each number represents male or female effects coding values -1 to 1
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 Class coding coding assigning numbers to categories to identify some characteristic Descriptive analysis transformation of raw data that describes basic characteristics such as central tendency and variation Histogram graphical way of showing a frequency distribution in which height of bar corresponds to frequency Tabulation orderly arrangement of data in a table showing the number of responses to each response category
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 Cross-tabulation comparing 2 groups of to compare how the respond to a questionone variable in rows and the other on columns Contingency table data matrix that displays frequency of some combination of responses to multiple variables Marginals the row and column totals in a contingency table Statistical base number of respondents or observations used as a basis for computing percentages
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 Elaboration analysis analysis of basic cross tabulation for each level of variable not previously considered (subgroups of the sample) Moderator variable 3rd variable that changes the nature of the relationship b/w the original independent and dependent variables Median split divide data by placing respondents below who were above median in one category and those above it in anotherbest if data exhibits bimodal characteristics Index numbers scores or observations re-calibrated to indicate how they relate to a base number
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 Univariate statistical analysis tests of hypothesis involving one variable Significance level a critical probability associated with a statistical hypothesis test indicating how likely an inference will occur P-value probability value or observed significance level Type I error concluding that a relationship exists when in reality it doesn't existRejecting a true null hypothesisprobability of alpha
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 Type II error concluding that there is no relationship when if face one does existfailing to reject the null hypothesisprobability of beta Legal System Null Hypothesis A person is innocent until proven guilty. Null hypothesis is saying there is no relationshipType I error: sending an innocent person to prisonType II error: setting a guilty person free T-distribution symmetrical bell shaped distribution with a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1when n>30 t and z distribution are almost identical, researchers usually apply T-test with larger samples
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## List View: Terms & Definitions

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CodingThe process of assigning a numerical score or other character symbol to previously edited data
Codesrules for interpreting, classifying and recording data

Dummy codingnumerical 1 or 0, each number represents male or female
effects codingvalues -1 to 1
Class codingcoding assigning numbers to categories to identify some characteristic
Descriptive analysistransformation of raw data that describes basic characteristics such as central tendency and variation
Histogramgraphical way of showing a frequency distribution in which height of bar corresponds to frequency
Tabulationorderly arrangement of data in a table showing the number of responses to each response category
Cross-tabulationcomparing 2 groups of to compare how the respond to a question
• one variable in rows and the other on columns
Contingency tabledata matrix that displays frequency of some combination of responses to multiple variables
Marginalsthe row and column totals in a contingency table
Statistical basenumber of respondents or observations used as a basis for computing percentages
Elaboration analysisanalysis of basic cross tabulation for each level of variable not previously considered (subgroups of the sample)
Moderator variable3rd variable that changes the nature of the relationship b/w the original independent and dependent variables
Median splitdivide data by placing respondents below who were above median in one category and those above it in another
• best if data exhibits bimodal characteristics
Index numbersscores or observations re-calibrated to indicate how they relate to a base number
Univariate statistical analysistests of hypothesis involving one variable
Significance levela critical probability associated with a statistical hypothesis test indicating how likely an inference will occur
P-valueprobability value or observed significance level
Type I errorconcluding that a relationship exists when in reality it doesn't exist
• Rejecting a true null hypothesis
• probability of alpha
Type II errorconcluding that there is no relationship when if face one does exist
• failing to reject the null hypothesis
• probability of beta
Legal System Null HypothesisA person is innocent until proven guilty. Null hypothesis is saying there is no relationship
• Type I error: sending an innocent person to prison
• Type II error: setting a guilty person free
T-distributionsymmetrical bell shaped distribution with a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1
• when n>30 t and z distribution are almost identical, researchers usually apply T-test with larger samples