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final exam - Flashcards

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Class:MU 100 - Introduction to Music
Subject:Music
University:California State Polytechnic University - Pomona
Term:Winter 2013
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      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
major scale has what degrees as intervals? 3 and 4, 7 and 8`
minor scale has what degrees as intervals? 2 and 3, 5 and 6`
relative minor or major share same key signatures; same number of flats and sharps
triad 3 note chord
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melody horizontal structure; enhances music; adds chords
pitches, scales, majors minors, etc.
harmony 3 or more notes played at the same time; vertical structure
depth to melody (triads); the vertical structure resulting when two or more pitches or lines of music sound simultaneously
what key is a flat in D natural minor? Bb (6)
what keys are flats in C natural minor? Bb, Eb, Ab 
(7, 3, 6)
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what is the minor of D major? b minor
how many sharps are in b minor and what are they? 2; F#, C#
what is the minor of Bb major? g minor
what is the minor of F major? d minor

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what is the minor of Eb major? c minor
What is the minor of Ab major? f minor
what is the minor of C major? a minor
what is the minor of G major? e minor
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what is the minor of D major?  b minor

what is the minor of A major? f# minor
what is the minor of E major? C# minor
how many flats are in a minor and what are they? o none
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how many flats are in d minor and what are they? 1; Bb
how many flats are in g minor and what are they? 2; Bb, Eb
how many flats are in c minor and what are they? 3; Bb, Eb, Ab
how many flats are in f minor and what are they? 4; Bb, Eb, Ab, Db
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how many sharps are in e minor and what are they? 1; F#
how many sharps are in b minor and what are they? 2; F#, C#
how many sharps are in f# minor and what are they? 3; F#, C#, G#
how many sharps are in C# minor and what are they? 4; F#, C#, G#, D#
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which minor keys have flats? D,G,C,F
which minor keys have sharps? E,B,F#,C#
how do you know if a song is major or minor? by the last tonic tone
what keys are in group triad #1 (Majors and minors) G, C, F
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what keys are in group #2 (Majors and minors) E, A, D
which triad has the flat?: G or Gm? Gm
which triad has the flat?: C or Cm? Cm
which triad has the flat?: F or Fm? Fm
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which triad has the sharp?: E or Em? E

which triad has the sharp?: A or Am? A
which triad has the sharp?: D or Dm? D
On the triads, name from bottom to the top, the names of the beats on triad root->3rd->5th
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rhythm duration of sound, no sound; compound simple meter; quarter notes.; action in time
what are the 3 expressive qualities? 1. tempo
2. timbre
3. Dynamics
what is tempo? speed; metronome markings (m.m.); speed of the beat
what are some tempos? presto, vivace, allegro, andante, largo, lento
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presto and vivace fast 
allegro happy
andante walking
largo Rigo; like going to graduate (song)
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lento slow
molto very
meno less
adagio very slow or slower than lento; like funeral march
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define simple meter 2   4   3
4   4   4
define compound meter basic pulse divided into three; a meter whose basic pulse is regularly divided into three equal parts
quarter note: 2 beats
eighth note: 1 beat
whole note: 4 beats
half note: 4 beats 
diatonic scale white keys only
dissonance displeasing sounds; musical sound considered to be unstable and active. the term is commonly used to describe jarring or disagreeable effect of certain intervals (2nd, 7th, etc.)
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consenant pleasing sounds; musical sound considered to be stable and nonactive. the term is commonly used to describe the agreeable effect of certain intervals (octave, 3rd, etc).
perfect 8ths octaves
augmented and diminished 4ths and 5ths
augmented with the sharp
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diminished with the flat
qualities: minor has...? 2nd, 3rds, 6ths, 7ths; same key signature as its related major key and scale
crescendo indicates a gradual increase in volume
decrescendo (diminuendo) indicates a gradual decrease in volume
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grace note small note whose time value is not strictly counted; it is played very quickly just before the beat or on the beat of the note immediately following it
8va--- notes written beneath this symbol are played one octave higher than written
pedal a signal to the pianist to depress the damper pedal of the piano
pedal release * a signal to the pianist to depress the damper pedal of the piano
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trill (tr or ~~~) a musical ORNAMENT consisting of a rapid alternation between the written note and the note above it
fermata indicates that the note beneath (or above) it should be held longer than its normal decision
repeat signs [|: :|] the music enclosed within these signs is to be performed twice
fortissimo (ff) the music enclosed within these signs is to be performed twice
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forte (f) loud
alla breve (the cents sign) represents 2 meter
                     2
treble clef (looks like the & sign) G clef; defines the 2nd staff line from the bottom as G
bass clef ): but looks more like a flipped C; F clef; defines the 2nd staff line from the top as F
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common time c; represents 4 meter
                         4
slur a curved line written above or below two or more different notes to indicate that they are played smoothly, without seperation. Not to be confused with a tie
accent indicates the emphasis of a note
stress indicates the slight emphasis of sustaining of a note
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mezzoforte (mf) moderately loud
mezzopiano (mp) moderately soft
paino (p) soft
pianissimo (pp) very soft
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ritardando (rit.) gradually becoming slower
quality the measurement by which we distinguish:
1. intervals of the same number
2. chords with the same root

relative minor the term used to identify the minor key and scale having the same key signature as its related major key and scale. the relative minor begins on the 6th scale degree of its relative major scale 
relative major the term used to identify the major key and scale having the same key signature as its related minor key and scale. the relative major beings on the 3rd scale degree of its relative minor scale.
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upbeat (anacrusis) the note or notes that occur at the beginning of a piece on a beat other than the first; partial opening measure
whole step (also called whole note or M2) an interval consisting of two half steps
what is C? C major
what is Cm? C minor
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value of a whole note in quarter notes 4 (o)
value of whole rest in quarter notes 4 (hole in the ground)
value of half note in quarter notes 2 (like quarter note but wit a white inside, not colored in)
value of half rest in quarter notes 2 (looks like a hat)
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value of dotted half note in quarter notes 3 (looks like quarter note but not filled in, and with a dot at the end)
value of dotted half rest in quarter notes 3 (hat wit a dot at the end)
value of quarter note in quarter notes 1 (a quarter note, filled in)
value of quarter rest in quarter notes 1 (squiggly z)
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value of eighth note in quarter notes 1/2 (looks lk the quarter has a flag)
value of eighth rest in quarter notes 1/2 (one lil dot connected to a line)
value of sixteenth note in quarter notes 1/4 (looks lk quarter note with two flags)
value of sixteenth rest in quarter notes 1/4 (two dots wit line)
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value of thirty second note in quarter notes 1/8 (quarter note with 3 flags)
value of thirty second rest in quarter notes 1/8 (three dots with a line)
value of sixty fourth in quarter notes 1/16 (quarter note with 4 flags)
value of sixty fourth rest in quarter notes 1/16 (4 dots with a line)
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D.C. al fine (da capo al fine) literally means "from the beginning to the end". If you find this abbreviation at the end of a piece, go back to the beginning and repeat, stopping at the place marked fine (end)
D.S. (dal segno) literally means "from the sign". If you find the letters D.S. at the end of a piece, go back to the sign (S combined with % and one dot one each side), which is not always at the beginning of the piece but sometimes in the middle, and repeat to the end.
1st and 2nd endings when you repeat, skip the measure or measures marked 1st ending and go directly to the measure or measures 2nd ending
accidentals symbols used to raise or lower the pitch of a given note
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bar line a vertical line that seperates music into measures
beam a heavy horizontal line used to join together a group of notes smaller than the quarter note
beat the basic rhythmic pulse of music
cadence a point of rest usually at the end of a phrase or a piece
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chord 3 or more different pitches sounding at the same time
chord tone one of the pitches of a particular chord in a harmonic progression 
chromatic scale a scale made up entirely of successive half steps
circle of 5ths the graphic representation of all keys with their sharps and flats; patterns of sharp and flat key signatures
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common time (c) four quarter time
da capo (D.C) Literally, "from the head". a term that directs the performer to go back to the beginning of the piece. the end is marked FINE but lower case and in a slanted way
dotted note a note with a dot after it; the dot extends the duration of the note by half it own value
double bar two vertical lines indicating the end of a section of piece.
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enharmonic characterizing pitches that sound the same but are notated differently
5th 1. distance in pitch between diatonic scale degrees 1 and 5 
2. the uppermost member of a root-position triad
grand staff (also called great staff or paino staff) the staffs of the treble clef and the bass clef joined with a bracket or brace. The grand staff is used for notating music in all registers.
half step (also called semitone or m2) the smallest written interval in traditional Western music
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harmonic minor scale the scale resulting from the alteration of the natural minor by raising the 7th scale degree a half step
interval the distance in pitch between two notes
key signature the group of sharps or flats written at the beginning of each staff line to indicate required alterations of the pitches that from the scale and key of the piece.
ledger lines lines written above or below the staff to extend its range. They are used for notating pitches that are to high or low to be written on the staff
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major scale the diatonic scale most frequently used in Western music
measure a group of beats enclosed within bar lines, with the first beat usually stressed or accented
meter a pattern of fixed beats; also the number and value of those beats in a measure.; group of beats.
minor scale related to the major scale, and widely used in Western music. It has three forms: natural, harmonic, and melodic
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natural sign ( a little square with one line on top and one line on bottom) a sign that cancels the effect of a previous sharp or flat
note the written symbol of a musical pitch
octave 1. the interval seperating two pitches of the same name
2. the 8th note of a diatonic scale
pitch the highness or lowness of a musical sound depending on its rate of vibration
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3rd 1. the interval composed of two notes on adjacent lines or space of the staff
2. the middle member of a root-position triad
tonic the 1st scale degree. the tonic chord (I) is built on this note; the most prodominant pitch
triad a three-note chord built in 3rds
triplet a grouping of three successive notes performed in the time usually allotted to two
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whole step (also called whole note or M2) an interval consisting of 2 half steps
time signature 4
4 etc, in the beginning of the piece
scale series of ascending or descending pitches
"in the key of" music based on a scale built on a particular note
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tie two notes of the same pitch connected with a curved line
enharmonic spelling two possible names for a key
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 major scale has what degrees as intervals?3 and 4, 7 and 8`
 minor scale has what degrees as intervals?2 and 3, 5 and 6`
 relative minor or majorshare same key signatures; same number of flats and sharps
 triad3 note chord
 melodyhorizontal structure; enhances music; adds chords
pitches, scales, majors minors, etc.
 harmony3 or more notes played at the same time; vertical structure
depth to melody (triads); the vertical structure resulting when two or more pitches or lines of music sound simultaneously
 what key is a flat in D natural minor?Bb (6)
 what keys are flats in C natural minor?Bb, Eb, Ab 
(7, 3, 6)
 what is the minor of D major?b minor
 how many sharps are in b minor and what are they?2; F#, C#
 what is the minor of Bb major?g minor
 what is the minor of F major?d minor

 what is the minor of Eb major?c minor
 What is the minor of Ab major?f minor
 what is the minor of C major?a minor
 what is the minor of G major?e minor
 what is the minor of D major? b minor

 what is the minor of A major?f# minor
 what is the minor of E major?C# minor
 how many flats are in a minor and what are they?o none
 how many flats are in d minor and what are they?1; Bb
 how many flats are in g minor and what are they?2; Bb, Eb
 how many flats are in c minor and what are they?3; Bb, Eb, Ab
 how many flats are in f minor and what are they?4; Bb, Eb, Ab, Db
 how many sharps are in e minor and what are they?1; F#
 how many sharps are in b minor and what are they?2; F#, C#
 how many sharps are in f# minor and what are they?3; F#, C#, G#
 how many sharps are in C# minor and what are they?4; F#, C#, G#, D#
 which minor keys have flats?D,G,C,F
 which minor keys have sharps?E,B,F#,C#
 how do you know if a song is major or minor?by the last tonic tone
 what keys are in group triad #1 (Majors and minors)G, C, F
 what keys are in group #2 (Majors and minors)E, A, D
 which triad has the flat?: G or Gm?Gm
 which triad has the flat?: C or Cm?Cm
 which triad has the flat?: F or Fm?Fm
 which triad has the sharp?: E or Em?E

 which triad has the sharp?: A or Am?A
 which triad has the sharp?: D or Dm?D
 On the triads, name from bottom to the top, the names of the beats on triadroot->3rd->5th
 rhythmduration of sound, no sound; compound simple meter; quarter notes.; action in time
 what are the 3 expressive qualities?1. tempo
2. timbre
3. Dynamics
 what is tempo?speed; metronome markings (m.m.); speed of the beat
 what are some tempos?presto, vivace, allegro, andante, largo, lento
 presto and vivacefast 
 allegrohappy
 andantewalking
 largoRigo; like going to graduate (song)
 lentoslow
 moltovery
 menoless
 adagiovery slow or slower than lento; like funeral march
 define simple meter2   4   3
4   4   4
 define compound meterbasic pulse divided into three; a meter whose basic pulse is regularly divided into three equal parts
quarter note: 2 beats
eighth note: 1 beat
whole note: 4 beats
half note: 4 beats 
 diatonic scalewhite keys only
 dissonancedispleasing sounds; musical sound considered to be unstable and active. the term is commonly used to describe jarring or disagreeable effect of certain intervals (2nd, 7th, etc.)
 consenantpleasing sounds; musical sound considered to be stable and nonactive. the term is commonly used to describe the agreeable effect of certain intervals (octave, 3rd, etc).
 perfect8ths octaves
 augmented and diminished4ths and 5ths
 augmentedwith the sharp
 diminishedwith the flat
 qualities: minor has...?2nd, 3rds, 6ths, 7ths; same key signature as its related major key and scale
 crescendoindicates a gradual increase in volume
 decrescendo(diminuendo) indicates a gradual decrease in volume
 grace notesmall note whose time value is not strictly counted; it is played very quickly just before the beat or on the beat of the note immediately following it
 8va---notes written beneath this symbol are played one octave higher than written
 pedala signal to the pianist to depress the damper pedal of the piano
 pedal release *a signal to the pianist to depress the damper pedal of the piano
 trill (tr or ~~~)a musical ORNAMENT consisting of a rapid alternation between the written note and the note above it
 fermataindicates that the note beneath (or above) it should be held longer than its normal decision
 repeat signs [|: :|]the music enclosed within these signs is to be performed twice
 fortissimo (ff)the music enclosed within these signs is to be performed twice
 forte (f)loud
 alla breve (the cents sign)represents 2 meter
                     2
 treble clef(looks like the & sign) G clef; defines the 2nd staff line from the bottom as G
 bass clef): but looks more like a flipped C; F clef; defines the 2nd staff line from the top as F
 common timec; represents 4 meter
                         4
 slura curved line written above or below two or more different notes to indicate that they are played smoothly, without seperation. Not to be confused with a tie
 accentindicates the emphasis of a note
 stressindicates the slight emphasis of sustaining of a note
 mezzoforte(mf) moderately loud
 mezzopiano(mp) moderately soft
 paino(p) soft
 pianissimo(pp) very soft
 ritardando(rit.) gradually becoming slower
 qualitythe measurement by which we distinguish:
1. intervals of the same number
2. chords with the same root

 relative minorthe term used to identify the minor key and scale having the same key signature as its related major key and scale. the relative minor begins on the 6th scale degree of its relative major scale 
 relative majorthe term used to identify the major key and scale having the same key signature as its related minor key and scale. the relative major beings on the 3rd scale degree of its relative minor scale.
 upbeat (anacrusis)the note or notes that occur at the beginning of a piece on a beat other than the first; partial opening measure
 whole step(also called whole note or M2) an interval consisting of two half steps
 what is C?C major
 what is Cm?C minor
 value of a whole note in quarter notes4 (o)
 value of whole rest in quarter notes4 (hole in the ground)
 value of half note in quarter notes2 (like quarter note but wit a white inside, not colored in)
 value of half rest in quarter notes2 (looks like a hat)
 value of dotted half note in quarter notes3 (looks like quarter note but not filled in, and with a dot at the end)
 value of dotted half rest in quarter notes3 (hat wit a dot at the end)
 value of quarter note in quarter notes1 (a quarter note, filled in)
 value of quarter rest in quarter notes1 (squiggly z)
 value of eighth note in quarter notes1/2 (looks lk the quarter has a flag)
 value of eighth rest in quarter notes1/2 (one lil dot connected to a line)
 value of sixteenth note in quarter notes1/4 (looks lk quarter note with two flags)
 value of sixteenth rest in quarter notes1/4 (two dots wit line)
 value of thirty second note in quarter notes1/8 (quarter note with 3 flags)
 value of thirty second rest in quarter notes1/8 (three dots with a line)
 value of sixty fourth in quarter notes1/16 (quarter note with 4 flags)
 value of sixty fourth rest in quarter notes1/16 (4 dots with a line)
 D.C. al fine(da capo al fine) literally means "from the beginning to the end". If you find this abbreviation at the end of a piece, go back to the beginning and repeat, stopping at the place marked fine (end)
 D.S.(dal segno) literally means "from the sign". If you find the letters D.S. at the end of a piece, go back to the sign (S combined with % and one dot one each side), which is not always at the beginning of the piece but sometimes in the middle, and repeat to the end.
 1st and 2nd endingswhen you repeat, skip the measure or measures marked 1st ending and go directly to the measure or measures 2nd ending
 accidentalssymbols used to raise or lower the pitch of a given note
 bar linea vertical line that seperates music into measures
 beama heavy horizontal line used to join together a group of notes smaller than the quarter note
 beatthe basic rhythmic pulse of music
 cadencea point of rest usually at the end of a phrase or a piece
 chord3 or more different pitches sounding at the same time
 chord toneone of the pitches of a particular chord in a harmonic progression 
 chromatic scalea scale made up entirely of successive half steps
 circle of 5thsthe graphic representation of all keys with their sharps and flats; patterns of sharp and flat key signatures
 common time(c) four quarter time
 da capo (D.C)Literally, "from the head". a term that directs the performer to go back to the beginning of the piece. the end is marked FINE but lower case and in a slanted way
 dotted notea note with a dot after it; the dot extends the duration of the note by half it own value
 double bartwo vertical lines indicating the end of a section of piece.
 enharmoniccharacterizing pitches that sound the same but are notated differently
 5th1. distance in pitch between diatonic scale degrees 1 and 5 
2. the uppermost member of a root-position triad
 grand staff(also called great staff or paino staff) the staffs of the treble clef and the bass clef joined with a bracket or brace. The grand staff is used for notating music in all registers.
 half step(also called semitone or m2) the smallest written interval in traditional Western music
 harmonic minor scalethe scale resulting from the alteration of the natural minor by raising the 7th scale degree a half step
 intervalthe distance in pitch between two notes
 key signaturethe group of sharps or flats written at the beginning of each staff line to indicate required alterations of the pitches that from the scale and key of the piece.
 ledger lineslines written above or below the staff to extend its range. They are used for notating pitches that are to high or low to be written on the staff
 major scalethe diatonic scale most frequently used in Western music
 measurea group of beats enclosed within bar lines, with the first beat usually stressed or accented
 metera pattern of fixed beats; also the number and value of those beats in a measure.; group of beats.
 minor scalerelated to the major scale, and widely used in Western music. It has three forms: natural, harmonic, and melodic
 natural sign( a little square with one line on top and one line on bottom) a sign that cancels the effect of a previous sharp or flat
 notethe written symbol of a musical pitch
 octave1. the interval seperating two pitches of the same name
2. the 8th note of a diatonic scale
 pitchthe highness or lowness of a musical sound depending on its rate of vibration
 3rd1. the interval composed of two notes on adjacent lines or space of the staff
2. the middle member of a root-position triad
 tonicthe 1st scale degree. the tonic chord (I) is built on this note; the most prodominant pitch
 triada three-note chord built in 3rds
 tripleta grouping of three successive notes performed in the time usually allotted to two
 whole step(also called whole note or M2) an interval consisting of 2 half steps
 time signature4
4 etc, in the beginning of the piece
 scaleseries of ascending or descending pitches
 "in the key of"music based on a scale built on a particular note
 tietwo notes of the same pitch connected with a curved line
 enharmonic spellingtwo possible names for a key
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