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Final Exam - Flashcards

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Class:MUSI 3300 - MUSIC HISTORY I
Subject:Music
University:University of Texas - Arlington
Term:Fall 2012
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identify the factors in intalian secular culture in the 16th c. that contributed to the rise of madrigal demands for the music to be used
explain pietro Bembo's idiosyncratic approach to Petrarch's poetry, and what influence this had on madrigal composers? he not only helped establish a high literacy culture in the Tuscan vernacular of northern Italy but also explored the expressive potentials of styles 
Petrarch was a model for the aspirations of Italian literary 

a poet
Pietro Bembo created the sonnets of Petrarch and explored deep into poetry

translated 
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Jacques Arcadelt a Flemish composer who wrote madrigals. Madrigals were simple and restrained, syllabic text settings, and diatonic harmonies    


music listening: bianco dolce signo - vocal, poly, 16th c., 4 part, voice (female) goes up chromatically
Luca Marenzio brought the use of text for inspiration and shaping force for madrigals    
Carlo Gesualdo the Prince of Venosa. He was more interested in the emotional condition of the speaker rather than the words. He chose the most passionate words to build chromatic, harmonic, progressions. actual meanings of words became less important than the generally wrought-up emotion of the speaker; seized on the expressive potential of chromatic harmony- put the chromatic harmonies to their limits    

fan of chromatic harmonies
Giambattista Guarini his poetic texts were used in madrigals; 
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Claudio Monteverdi

seconda pratica, free use of dissonance, madrigal

Madrigal- originally fun with friends, sight-reading…in the second half of the 16th century the madrigal became a high-class art form, much more difficult and for trained singers

Madrigal

sophisticated vocal chamber music and a high end class art form. 

Humanism mvmt that began in the 14th century, increasing secularization of culture, people turned to science and thinking to answer questions, instead of looking toward religion    
Seconda pratica unprepared dissonance, new musical style    
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Artusi

a theorist who made strong attacks on recent madrigals composed by Claudio Monteverdi.

 

Florentine Camerata

a group of people that gathered together to discuss art and philosophy and their application to the contemporary culture (met at private places)

Vincenzo Galilei

(was a part of the Florentine Camerata) was a lutenist, singer, father of scientist Galileo Galilei. He argued that the polyphonic text settings created confusion rather than clarity in the interpreting the affections of the words. He said that music should imitate not the poetic images themselves but the manner in which an actor spoke in assuming a particular role and creating particular affection. This became a model of oratory rather than that of poetry

Girolamo Mei Roman scholar, said that the ancient Greek’s music was polyphony but monody    
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Giulio Caccini

- put the camerata’s ideas into practice in the solo song. He demonstrated the full potential of a monodic song. 

Jacopo Peri

composer and singer, opera, invented recitative, his recitative style achieved a type of seconda practica 

Alessandro Striggio

librettist of Orfeo

Claudio Monteverdi
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L’Orfeo

Monteverdi’s opera for the court

L’incoronazione di Poppea

Monteverdi’s opera for the public, for profit

Stile rappresentativo recitative…?    
Monody

one solo melody over accompaniment; became very popular at this time at the endorsement of the Florentine camerata

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Solo madrigal madrigal for one voice and accompaniment 
Le nuove musiche

(the new music)

Pastoral play precursor to opera, which included singing, dancing, and scenery 
Intermedio

half time entertainment and was similar to pastoral play 

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Opera

drama thatis sung throughout (began in Italy)

 

Toccata

keyboard piece, improvisatory, followed by a short ricercar or canzonas

Ricercar late Renaissance/early Baroque instrumental composition    
Sonata any work in contrasting movements, usually one or more instruments with basso continuo, and later for keyboard solo    
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Instrumental monody

one solo instrument with accompaniment 

Suite came from the practice of paring slow and fast dances that were gradually extended to more movements.    
Allemande

the opening dance movement (if there wasn’t a prelude to begin with) that was in duple rhythm at a moderate tempo and with a characteristic anacrusic beginning.

Courante
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Sarabande

featured the triple meter with a distinctive durational stress on the second beat of the measure and a very slow tempo

Gigue
Tragédie lyrique
Ballet de cour

it was the ballet that was performed in court from the late 16th c. to late 17th c.

French Overture- the overture began with a slow and stately passage in homorhythmic style (generally featuring dotted rhythms), followed by a faster, lighter, commonly more fugal section and perhaps a brief return of the opening style at the end. It was used in string orchestral writings.

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Masque
Lament Bass

Very common bass was the descending minor tetrachord (two whole steps downward followed by a half step), which might be disguised by octave transfer or by chromatic passing motion. This became a standard device for indicating the affect of sadness, and it is sometimes called the lamento bass. It was used in Heny Purcell’s Dido and Aneas, in Dido’s Lament. 

Sonata da chiesa
Concerto grosso
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Solo concerto
Ritornello form
Opera seria
Da capo aria
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Sonata da camera
secco recitative
accompanied recitative
Fugue
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Fugue exposition (or “Fugue statement”)
Fortspinnung
Chorale prelude
Episode (in a fugue)-
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Sacred concerto

composers applied the modern style to the creation of motets. In other words, it developed from the polyphonic motet in the same way that vocal chamber music with basso continuo arose from the sixteenth-century madrigal

Oratorio

it was developed from the motet and sacred concerto, as an outgrowth of the musical settings of biblical texts in dialogue. They were performed in a prayer hall adjoining the church sanctuary.

Chorale cantata

a sacred composition for voices and instruments in which the organizing principle is the words and music to a chorale.

 

Explain the difference in musical style between “early” and “late” 16th c. Italian madrigals, and for what reasons there seem to be these differences?
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Identify how durus and mollis harmonic shifts are used to “paint words” in a madrigal?
Explain the controversy surrounding Monteverdi’s Cruda Amarilli?
Analyze and explain “word painting” or “madrigalisms” within a given madrigal?
Explain the effect that the new prominence of basso continuo practice and the concerted style had on music around 1600?
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Describe the preoccupations of the Florentine Camerata?
Explain the main new genres of song and musical drama that emerged from the Camerata’s experiments?
Explain the synthesis of styles and genres in Monteverdi’s Orfeo and why these are dramatically effective?
Describe the ways in which early humanist court opera suited (specifically) court entertainment, and how early public (commercial) opera differed from court opera?
Generated by Koofers.com
Identify the main traits of the keyboard toccata, ricercar, and sonata as composed before 1650?

Keyboard toccata: (aka prelude) improvisatory movement followed by a fragment of a ricercar or canzona

            Ricercar- modeled after motet, subject was developed to help give the piece shape (precursor to the fugue)

            Sonata- grew from canzona, had multi-mvmt work (each mvmt had their own distinct affect) Uusually alternating fast slow tempos, had basso continuo 

Identify the individual dances of a prototypical dance suite, especially as composed after 1650?
Describe the difference between the instrumental aesthetic at Louis XIV’s court after 1650, compared to Italian instrumental music at that time? Apply this to examples?
Identify the main traits of early (especially Italian) Baroque style in instrumental music examples, including aspects that are vocally influenced?
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Describe the role of music, dance, and opera in the political world of Louis XIV? The government hired musicians and founded by royal sponsorship. The purpose of these academies was to establish and maintain high intellectual and artistic standards and a French national style. As a result, seventeenth-century French music tended to be more Apollonian than that of other nations at the same time. Much of the arts at that time was very reflective in glorifying Louis XIV    
Explain how the structure, plots, elements, and vocal style of tragédie lyrique fulfilled these goals?

Because they tragedie lyrique was adapted from classical mythological plots, and they made it so that the refrences were made to the King, it was accepted. Vocal style was more reserved, not as showy (and no castrati). Plotline was based on classical mythology, with abundant laudatory references to the King.

Explain the reasons why full-fledged Baroque opera did not take similar root in England?

The court was very satisfied by and in interested in the masque, and incidental music for plays. Thus, they did not seek to develop opera. They had different customs…for the masque the music was a collaborative effort, with many composers contributing, instead of just 1 composer and one librettist. Also, the royalty and noble patrons of the arts sometimes performed in the entertainment. Masques, like the French Ballet and tragedy lyrique, also were very laudatory of the patrons or nobility for whom they were created.

Identify and explain Henry Purcell’s Use of Ground Bass Techniques in his music?
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Describe the traits in Buxtehude’s organ music that place it within a “Northern” European tradition of composition? How does his music differ from that of, say, Corelli written in the same decades?
Describe how Heinrich Schütz’s career and compositional style was impacted by the 30 yrs. War?
Demonstrate the ways in which Handel borrows techniques from opera seria and the masque to create effective oratorios?
Describe the main events that led to Handel’s decision to being writing oratorios in English?
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Describe the aesthetic shifts that set off Baroque musical style as difference from Renaissance musical style? How does this correlate with trends in the other arts? How does the Counter-Reformation, in Italy, play into this, especially?
Describe the typical components of a professional instrumental virtuoso’s career during the 17th c.?
Explain the change of aesthetic in the arts that crystallized around 1680? What were some of its cultural (especially philosophical) and political sources?
Explain how the Sonata and Concerto develop along “rationalist” lines starting in the 1680s in Italy?
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Analyze a ritornello form from Vivaldi?
Describe how Corelli foregrounds directed tonal motion in his music?
Explain how reforms to opera librettos also embody these rationalist ideas? Also describe what political ends these changes were meant to serve?
Describe how the other practical elements of putting on public opera in Italy and England complicated matters for opera seria?
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Analyze a da capo aria in the context of opera seria conventions?
Analyze a fugue of Buxtehude, and explain the working together of toccata and fugue styles in a Buxtehude prelude?
Describe Bach’s innovations in fugue-writing upon his encounter with Vivaldi’s concertos?
Analyze a Bach fugue?
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Explain what a chorale prelude (for organ) is and how it can serve to comment upon the meaning of a chorale?
Explain the compositional techniques that Schütz uses to great expressive effect in his sacred concerto “Saul, was verfolgst du mich?”
Describe the main elements to be found in a Lutheran church cantata by J. S. Bach, and the techniques that he uses to dramatize the texts used?
test blah blah blah
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 identify the factors in intalian secular culture in the 16th c. that contributed to the rise of madrigaldemands for the music to be used
 explain pietro Bembo's idiosyncratic approach to Petrarch's poetry, and what influence this had on madrigal composers?he not only helped establish a high literacy culture in the Tuscan vernacular of northern Italy but also explored the expressive potentials of styles 
 Petrarchwas a model for the aspirations of Italian literary 

a poet
 Pietro Bembocreated the sonnets of Petrarch and explored deep into poetry

translated 
 Jacques Arcadelta Flemish composer who wrote madrigals. Madrigals were simple and restrained, syllabic text settings, and diatonic harmonies    


music listening: bianco dolce signo - vocal, poly, 16th c., 4 part, voice (female) goes up chromatically
 Luca Marenziobrought the use of text for inspiration and shaping force for madrigals    
 Carlo Gesualdothe Prince of Venosa. He was more interested in the emotional condition of the speaker rather than the words. He chose the most passionate words to build chromatic, harmonic, progressions. actual meanings of words became less important than the generally wrought-up emotion of the speaker; seized on the expressive potential of chromatic harmony- put the chromatic harmonies to their limits    

fan of chromatic harmonies
 Giambattista Guarinihis poetic texts were used in madrigals; 
 Claudio Monteverdi

seconda pratica, free use of dissonance, madrigal

Madrigal- originally fun with friends, sight-reading…in the second half of the 16th century the madrigal became a high-class art form, much more difficult and for trained singers

 Madrigal

sophisticated vocal chamber music and a high end class art form. 

 Humanismmvmt that began in the 14th century, increasing secularization of culture, people turned to science and thinking to answer questions, instead of looking toward religion    
 Seconda praticaunprepared dissonance, new musical style    
 Artusi

a theorist who made strong attacks on recent madrigals composed by Claudio Monteverdi.

 

 Florentine Camerata

a group of people that gathered together to discuss art and philosophy and their application to the contemporary culture (met at private places)

 Vincenzo Galilei

(was a part of the Florentine Camerata) was a lutenist, singer, father of scientist Galileo Galilei. He argued that the polyphonic text settings created confusion rather than clarity in the interpreting the affections of the words. He said that music should imitate not the poetic images themselves but the manner in which an actor spoke in assuming a particular role and creating particular affection. This became a model of oratory rather than that of poetry

 Girolamo MeiRoman scholar, said that the ancient Greek’s music was polyphony but monody    
 Giulio Caccini

- put the camerata’s ideas into practice in the solo song. He demonstrated the full potential of a monodic song. 

 Jacopo Peri

composer and singer, opera, invented recitative, his recitative style achieved a type of seconda practica 

 Alessandro Striggio

librettist of Orfeo

 Claudio Monteverdi 
 L’Orfeo

Monteverdi’s opera for the court

 L’incoronazione di Poppea

Monteverdi’s opera for the public, for profit

 Stile rappresentativorecitative…?    
 Monody

one solo melody over accompaniment; became very popular at this time at the endorsement of the Florentine camerata

 Solo madrigalmadrigal for one voice and accompaniment 
 Le nuove musiche

(the new music)

 Pastoral playprecursor to opera, which included singing, dancing, and scenery 
 Intermedio

half time entertainment and was similar to pastoral play 

 Opera

drama thatis sung throughout (began in Italy)

 

 Toccata

keyboard piece, improvisatory, followed by a short ricercar or canzonas

 Ricercarlate Renaissance/early Baroque instrumental composition    
 Sonataany work in contrasting movements, usually one or more instruments with basso continuo, and later for keyboard solo    
 Instrumental monody

one solo instrument with accompaniment 

 Suitecame from the practice of paring slow and fast dances that were gradually extended to more movements.    
 Allemande

the opening dance movement (if there wasn’t a prelude to begin with) that was in duple rhythm at a moderate tempo and with a characteristic anacrusic beginning.

 Courante 
 Sarabande

featured the triple meter with a distinctive durational stress on the second beat of the measure and a very slow tempo

 Gigue 
 Tragédie lyrique 
 Ballet de cour

it was the ballet that was performed in court from the late 16th c. to late 17th c.

French Overture- the overture began with a slow and stately passage in homorhythmic style (generally featuring dotted rhythms), followed by a faster, lighter, commonly more fugal section and perhaps a brief return of the opening style at the end. It was used in string orchestral writings.

 Masque 
 Lament Bass

Very common bass was the descending minor tetrachord (two whole steps downward followed by a half step), which might be disguised by octave transfer or by chromatic passing motion. This became a standard device for indicating the affect of sadness, and it is sometimes called the lamento bass. It was used in Heny Purcell’s Dido and Aneas, in Dido’s Lament. 

 Sonata da chiesa 
 Concerto grosso 
 Solo concerto 
 Ritornello form 
 Opera seria 
 Da capo aria 
 Sonata da camera 
 secco recitative 
 accompanied recitative 
 Fugue 
 Fugue exposition (or “Fugue statement”) 
 Fortspinnung 
 Chorale prelude 
 Episode (in a fugue)- 
 Sacred concerto

composers applied the modern style to the creation of motets. In other words, it developed from the polyphonic motet in the same way that vocal chamber music with basso continuo arose from the sixteenth-century madrigal

 Oratorio

it was developed from the motet and sacred concerto, as an outgrowth of the musical settings of biblical texts in dialogue. They were performed in a prayer hall adjoining the church sanctuary.

 Chorale cantata

a sacred composition for voices and instruments in which the organizing principle is the words and music to a chorale.

 

 Explain the difference in musical style between “early” and “late” 16th c. Italian madrigals, and for what reasons there seem to be these differences? 
 Identify how durus and mollis harmonic shifts are used to “paint words” in a madrigal? 
 Explain the controversy surrounding Monteverdi’s Cruda Amarilli? 
 Analyze and explain “word painting” or “madrigalisms” within a given madrigal? 
 Explain the effect that the new prominence of basso continuo practice and the concerted style had on music around 1600? 
 Describe the preoccupations of the Florentine Camerata? 
 Explain the main new genres of song and musical drama that emerged from the Camerata’s experiments? 
 Explain the synthesis of styles and genres in Monteverdi’s Orfeo and why these are dramatically effective? 
 Describe the ways in which early humanist court opera suited (specifically) court entertainment, and how early public (commercial) opera differed from court opera? 
 Identify the main traits of the keyboard toccata, ricercar, and sonata as composed before 1650?

Keyboard toccata: (aka prelude) improvisatory movement followed by a fragment of a ricercar or canzona

            Ricercar- modeled after motet, subject was developed to help give the piece shape (precursor to the fugue)

            Sonata- grew from canzona, had multi-mvmt work (each mvmt had their own distinct affect) Uusually alternating fast slow tempos, had basso continuo 

 Identify the individual dances of a prototypical dance suite, especially as composed after 1650? 
 Describe the difference between the instrumental aesthetic at Louis XIV’s court after 1650, compared to Italian instrumental music at that time? Apply this to examples? 
 Identify the main traits of early (especially Italian) Baroque style in instrumental music examples, including aspects that are vocally influenced? 
 Describe the role of music, dance, and opera in the political world of Louis XIV?The government hired musicians and founded by royal sponsorship. The purpose of these academies was to establish and maintain high intellectual and artistic standards and a French national style. As a result, seventeenth-century French music tended to be more Apollonian than that of other nations at the same time. Much of the arts at that time was very reflective in glorifying Louis XIV    
 Explain how the structure, plots, elements, and vocal style of tragédie lyrique fulfilled these goals?

Because they tragedie lyrique was adapted from classical mythological plots, and they made it so that the refrences were made to the King, it was accepted. Vocal style was more reserved, not as showy (and no castrati). Plotline was based on classical mythology, with abundant laudatory references to the King.

 Explain the reasons why full-fledged Baroque opera did not take similar root in England?

The court was very satisfied by and in interested in the masque, and incidental music for plays. Thus, they did not seek to develop opera. They had different customs…for the masque the music was a collaborative effort, with many composers contributing, instead of just 1 composer and one librettist. Also, the royalty and noble patrons of the arts sometimes performed in the entertainment. Masques, like the French Ballet and tragedy lyrique, also were very laudatory of the patrons or nobility for whom they were created.

 Identify and explain Henry Purcell’s Use of Ground Bass Techniques in his music? 
 Describe the traits in Buxtehude’s organ music that place it within a “Northern” European tradition of composition? How does his music differ from that of, say, Corelli written in the same decades? 
 Describe how Heinrich Schütz’s career and compositional style was impacted by the 30 yrs. War? 
 Demonstrate the ways in which Handel borrows techniques from opera seria and the masque to create effective oratorios? 
 Describe the main events that led to Handel’s decision to being writing oratorios in English? 
 Describe the aesthetic shifts that set off Baroque musical style as difference from Renaissance musical style? How does this correlate with trends in the other arts? How does the Counter-Reformation, in Italy, play into this, especially? 
 Describe the typical components of a professional instrumental virtuoso’s career during the 17th c.? 
 Explain the change of aesthetic in the arts that crystallized around 1680? What were some of its cultural (especially philosophical) and political sources? 
 Explain how the Sonata and Concerto develop along “rationalist” lines starting in the 1680s in Italy? 
 Analyze a ritornello form from Vivaldi? 
 Describe how Corelli foregrounds directed tonal motion in his music? 
 Explain how reforms to opera librettos also embody these rationalist ideas? Also describe what political ends these changes were meant to serve? 
 Describe how the other practical elements of putting on public opera in Italy and England complicated matters for opera seria? 
 Analyze a da capo aria in the context of opera seria conventions? 
 Analyze a fugue of Buxtehude, and explain the working together of toccata and fugue styles in a Buxtehude prelude? 
 Describe Bach’s innovations in fugue-writing upon his encounter with Vivaldi’s concertos? 
 Analyze a Bach fugue? 
 Explain what a chorale prelude (for organ) is and how it can serve to comment upon the meaning of a chorale? 
 Explain the compositional techniques that Schütz uses to great expressive effect in his sacred concerto “Saul, was verfolgst du mich?” 
 Describe the main elements to be found in a Lutheran church cantata by J. S. Bach, and the techniques that he uses to dramatize the texts used? 
 test blah blah blah 
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