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NPB 101 Lec 10 - Flashcards

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Class:NPB 101 - Systemic Physiology
Subject:Neurobiology,Physio & Behavior
University:University of California - Davis
Term:Fall 2010
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REV: Sensory Integration (8) 1. modality or type of sensory information 2. receptor type 3. AP firing rate of afferent proportional to stimulus intensity 4. Rate of receptor adaptation 5. Number of afferents firing 6. Receptor density/receptor field size 7. Lateral inhibition 8. Labeled line coding
Lateral inhibition (1) forming interactions/ neural networks--> one cell turns on a interneuron with an inhibitory output and turned off surround cells through synapse [in neurobiology, lateral inhibition is the capacity of an excited neuron to reduce the activity of its neighbors]
Labeled line coding (1) which kind of information comes in through unique pathways
REV: Sound Wave Transmission (6 steps) 1. Tympanic membrane vibrates when struck by sound waves. 2. Middle ear transfers vibrations through ossicles to oval window. 3. Pressure waves in cochlear fluid set basilar membrane in motion. 4. Receptive hair cells are bent as basilar membrane is deflected up and down. 5. Mechanical deformation of specific hair cells is transduced into afferent neural signals. 6. APs are transmitted to auditory cortex in temporal lobe of brain for sound perception
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What is/ Why do we have a round window? Round window is at the other end of the helicotrema and this allows displacement and transmission of pressure waves through cochlea
REV: Transmission of Sound Waves-- Where is high/medium/low frequency perceived? 1. Wide, flexible end of basilar membrane near helicotrema. 2. Narrow stiff end of basilar membrane near oval window. 3. High frequency is in the narrow end near oval window. 4. Medium frequency is in the middle. 5. Low frequency is at the end of the basilar membrane near the helicotrema.
How is sound perceived? (1) Pressure waves must go through scala media and bend basilar membrane, which leads to stimulation of hair cells
Where is the helicotrema found? (1) top of the cochlea
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The way hair cells are stimulated depends on what? (1) The frequency of sound waves
Humans hear from what range? 20Hz - 20,000 Hz
Where are the working mechanisms (receptors) in the cochlea? (1) in the Scala Media (cochlear duct)
How many auditory receptors/hair cells are there? 3 outer hair cells, 1 inner hair cell
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Does the tectorial membrane move? No
What are some characteristics of tip links? (5) 1. tip-links link tips of stereocilium. 2. tip-link associated with mechanically gated channels. 3. permeability when tension occurs. 4. K+ ions has high extracellular concentration in this particular environment. 5. if no hair cells, then acoustically blind to that frequency
AP in auditory system? (5 steps) 1. Tip-links stretch and open channels when sterocilia bend towards the tallest member. 2. K+ enters, hair cell depolarizes. 3. Depolarization opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. 4. Ca2+ entry causes greater release of neurotransmitters. 5. More NT leads to high rate of action potentials
No AP in auditory system? (5 steps) 1. Tip-links slacken and close channels when stereocilia bend away from tallest member. 2. No K+ enters, hair cells hyperpolarize. 3. Ca2+ channels clos. 4. No neurotransmitters are released. 5. No AP occurs
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Sound Transduction (10 steps) Sound waves-> vibration of tympanic membrane-> vibration of middle ear bones -> vibration of oval window-> fluid movement within cochlea -> vibration of basilar membrane ->bending of hair of inner receptor hair cells of organ of Corti as basilar membrane movement displaces these hairs in relation to the overlying tectorial membrane which the hairs contact-> Graded potential changes (receptor potential) in receptor cells->Changes in rate of action potentials generated in auditory nerve-> Propagation of action potentials to auditory cortex in temporal lobe of brain for sound perception
Where is the vestibular apparatus and its receptors? In inner ear
What does the vestibular apparatus and receptors consist of? (2) 1. semicircular canals (3 orthogonally-oriented canals per side). 2. Otolith organs (2 macular receptors at right angles per side: utricle and saccule)
What do semicircular canals detect? (1) They detect rotational acceleration or deceleration in any direction
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What do otolith organs detect/provide? (1) They detect linear acceleration [1. detect changes in rate of linear movement in any direction; 2. provide information for determining head position in relation to gravity]
Vestibular equilibrium (2) 1. neural signals generated in response to mechanical deformation of hair cells by specific movement of fluid and related structures. 2. Vestibular input goes to vestibular nuclei in brain stem and to cerebellum for use in maintaining balance and posture, controlling eye movement, perceiving motion and orientation
Semicircular canals (2) 1. Hair cell bundles are aligned in mirror orientation. 2. Rotation depolarizes one set of hair cells and hyperpolarizes the hair cells in the opposite semicircular canal
What direction are the capula and its hairs/ fluid moving if head movement moved this way <-? Direction of head movement<----- Direction of bending of capula and its hairs ----->
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What does the capula contain? contains hairs that are connected to hair cells that are attached to supporting cells.
Vestibular (capula) hair cell receptors (1) The response is similar to that in auditory hair cells [1. sterocilia bending toward the kinocilium: depolarization; 2. stereocilia bending away from the kinocilium: hyperpolarization]
Otolith organs (macular receptors) Hair cells connected to supporting cells connected to sensory nerves
How does the fluid in the otolith organs move when walking (linear acceleration)? The fluid moves in the opposite direction of linear movement. [When you look down, the fluid and direction of the receptors goes down (the same direction as the pull of gravity)]
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What is the relation between vestibular input and output? Receptors in semicircular canals and otolith organs go to the vestibular input that leads to vestibular nuclei (in brain stem) and cerebellum [as coordinated processing between the two occurs], and then to output
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 REV: Sensory Integration (8)1. modality or type of sensory information 2. receptor type 3. AP firing rate of afferent proportional to stimulus intensity 4. Rate of receptor adaptation 5. Number of afferents firing 6. Receptor density/receptor field size 7. Lateral inhibition 8. Labeled line coding
 Lateral inhibition (1)forming interactions/ neural networks--> one cell turns on a interneuron with an inhibitory output and turned off surround cells through synapse [in neurobiology, lateral inhibition is the capacity of an excited neuron to reduce the activity of its neighbors]
 Labeled line coding (1)which kind of information comes in through unique pathways
 REV: Sound Wave Transmission (6 steps)1. Tympanic membrane vibrates when struck by sound waves. 2. Middle ear transfers vibrations through ossicles to oval window. 3. Pressure waves in cochlear fluid set basilar membrane in motion. 4. Receptive hair cells are bent as basilar membrane is deflected up and down. 5. Mechanical deformation of specific hair cells is transduced into afferent neural signals. 6. APs are transmitted to auditory cortex in temporal lobe of brain for sound perception
 What is/ Why do we have a round window?Round window is at the other end of the helicotrema and this allows displacement and transmission of pressure waves through cochlea
 REV: Transmission of Sound Waves-- Where is high/medium/low frequency perceived?1. Wide, flexible end of basilar membrane near helicotrema. 2. Narrow stiff end of basilar membrane near oval window. 3. High frequency is in the narrow end near oval window. 4. Medium frequency is in the middle. 5. Low frequency is at the end of the basilar membrane near the helicotrema.
 How is sound perceived? (1)Pressure waves must go through scala media and bend basilar membrane, which leads to stimulation of hair cells
 Where is the helicotrema found? (1)top of the cochlea
 The way hair cells are stimulated depends on what? (1)The frequency of sound waves
 Humans hear from what range?20Hz - 20,000 Hz
 Where are the working mechanisms (receptors) in the cochlea? (1)in the Scala Media (cochlear duct)
 How many auditory receptors/hair cells are there?3 outer hair cells, 1 inner hair cell
 Does the tectorial membrane move?No
 What are some characteristics of tip links? (5)1. tip-links link tips of stereocilium. 2. tip-link associated with mechanically gated channels. 3. permeability when tension occurs. 4. K+ ions has high extracellular concentration in this particular environment. 5. if no hair cells, then acoustically blind to that frequency
 AP in auditory system? (5 steps)1. Tip-links stretch and open channels when sterocilia bend towards the tallest member. 2. K+ enters, hair cell depolarizes. 3. Depolarization opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. 4. Ca2+ entry causes greater release of neurotransmitters. 5. More NT leads to high rate of action potentials
 No AP in auditory system? (5 steps)1. Tip-links slacken and close channels when stereocilia bend away from tallest member. 2. No K+ enters, hair cells hyperpolarize. 3. Ca2+ channels clos. 4. No neurotransmitters are released. 5. No AP occurs
 Sound Transduction (10 steps)Sound waves-> vibration of tympanic membrane-> vibration of middle ear bones -> vibration of oval window-> fluid movement within cochlea -> vibration of basilar membrane ->bending of hair of inner receptor hair cells of organ of Corti as basilar membrane movement displaces these hairs in relation to the overlying tectorial membrane which the hairs contact-> Graded potential changes (receptor potential) in receptor cells->Changes in rate of action potentials generated in auditory nerve-> Propagation of action potentials to auditory cortex in temporal lobe of brain for sound perception
 Where is the vestibular apparatus and its receptors?In inner ear
 What does the vestibular apparatus and receptors consist of? (2)1. semicircular canals (3 orthogonally-oriented canals per side). 2. Otolith organs (2 macular receptors at right angles per side: utricle and saccule)
 What do semicircular canals detect? (1)They detect rotational acceleration or deceleration in any direction
 What do otolith organs detect/provide? (1)They detect linear acceleration [1. detect changes in rate of linear movement in any direction; 2. provide information for determining head position in relation to gravity]
 Vestibular equilibrium (2)1. neural signals generated in response to mechanical deformation of hair cells by specific movement of fluid and related structures. 2. Vestibular input goes to vestibular nuclei in brain stem and to cerebellum for use in maintaining balance and posture, controlling eye movement, perceiving motion and orientation
 Semicircular canals (2)1. Hair cell bundles are aligned in mirror orientation. 2. Rotation depolarizes one set of hair cells and hyperpolarizes the hair cells in the opposite semicircular canal
 What direction are the capula and its hairs/ fluid moving if head movement moved this way <-?Direction of head movement<----- Direction of bending of capula and its hairs ----->
 What does the capula contain?contains hairs that are connected to hair cells that are attached to supporting cells.
 Vestibular (capula) hair cell receptors (1)The response is similar to that in auditory hair cells [1. sterocilia bending toward the kinocilium: depolarization; 2. stereocilia bending away from the kinocilium: hyperpolarization]
 Otolith organs (macular receptors)Hair cells connected to supporting cells connected to sensory nerves
 How does the fluid in the otolith organs move when walking (linear acceleration)?The fluid moves in the opposite direction of linear movement. [When you look down, the fluid and direction of the receptors goes down (the same direction as the pull of gravity)]
 What is the relation between vestibular input and output?Receptors in semicircular canals and otolith organs go to the vestibular input that leads to vestibular nuclei (in brain stem) and cerebellum [as coordinated processing between the two occurs], and then to output
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