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NPB 101 Lecture 31 - Flashcards

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Class:NPB 101 - Systemic Physiology
Subject:Neurobiology,Physio & Behavior
University:University of California - Davis
Term:Fall 2010
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What if it were easier for blood to get into organ 1 than organ 2? Organ 1 would have more blood flow than organ 2
What if the degree of distribution of blood into organ 1 and 2 were equal? Equal distribution of blood flow through those organs
What determines how much blood flow will be distributed to a particular organ in the body? Vascular Resistance
Change in pressure divided by the flow = ? Vascular resistance
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___________ is the amount of difficulty there is in moving blood in an organ/tube resistance
Resistance depends on the amount of ___________ that is necessary to move fluid energy
___________ is the energy that moves fluid from upstream to downstream in the circulatory system Pressure energy [blood pressure energy]
The greater the ___________, the lower the flow would be resistance
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More ___________ to move viscous liquid pressure
___________ resistance- the thicker the fluid, the more pressure it takes to drive the certain amount of fluid through some component viscous
TF The thickness of blood is mainly determined by red blood cell content true
The diameter or radius of blood vessels determines the ___________ to blood flow resistance
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Most important physiological regulator of blod flow is the ___________ arteriole
___________ = small arteries, actual components of microcirculation arterioles
___________ are the "resistance vessels" in the systemic circulation arterioles
___________ offer the greatest amount of resistance to blood flow arterioles
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Larger arteries and veins have much ___________ resistance than arterioles lower
TF With respect to total amount of resistance in systemic circulation, arterioles offer about half of the total amount of vascular resistance true
Why are arterioles important? (2) They are physiologically regulated with respect to their diameter. They have mechanisms that dilate or constrict their diameter.
Normal average arterial blood pressure is ___________ 100 mmHg
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TF On the graph, arterioles cause the greatest grop in pressure true
Total amount of blood flow = cardiac output = constant yes
Largest drop in pressure--> site of greatest amount of ___________ --> level of the arterioles vascular resistances
Energy is loss when going through ___________ arterioles
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___________ OFFER THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF BLOOD FLOW RESISTANCE IN THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION ARTERIOLES
One of the primary determinants of arteriole resistance is the ___________ NS sympathetic
___________ are the nerves that innervate vascular smooth muscle-- systemic arterioles SNS
Sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerves means a blood vessel under physiologic control is constricting to a smaller diameter/radius yes
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When _________ NS nerves are stimulated to fire, they cause blood vessels which have vascular smooth muscle, mainly arterioles, to constrict SNS
When the SNS nerves are stimulated, they cause blood vessels which have vascular smooth muscle, mainly arterioles, to ___________ constrict
If arterioles constricts, the resistance to blood flow ___________ increases
Increase in vascular resistance causes ___________ in blood flow decrease
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Increase in metabolic rate causes many many waste byproducts true
The wast byproducts produced with increase in metabolic rate are called ___________ metabolites
When there is an increase in activity or metabolic rate, additional metabolites are produced yup
Metabolites are ___________ in nature vasodilator
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___________ cause vascular smooth muscle in blood vessels including arterioles to relax and that leads to decrease in resistance metabolites
Role of SNS in constricting blood vessels is an example of ___________ regulatory system extrinsic
During exercise, increase in concentration of metabolites overrides the ability of the ___________ to cause constriction SNS
Ability of locally produced metabolites to override the influence of SNS is called ___________ Sympatholysis
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Metabolites overriding SNS influence causes resistance to flow to ___________ decrease
Metabolites is an example of ___________ regulatory system intrinsic
TF Arterioles are primarily effected by both SNS and metabolites true
Sympatholysis causes resistance to flow to ___________ fall
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What is the effector organ that is effected by metabolites and SNS? vascular smooth muscle
___________ is the opening through which the blood flows in a blood vessel lumen
___________ is the cell type that lines the luminal wall endothelial cells
TF In arteries, there are elastic fibers that contribute "elastic recoil", particularly in larger arteries true
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___________ are thicker fibers found in vascular smooth muscle that are comprised of connective tissues collagen fibers
Vascular smooth muscle can contract or relax, which causes ___________ or ___________ vasoconstriction or vasodilation
Vascular smooth muscle is arranged radially around the ___________ lumen
If we stimulate vasoconstrictor fibers, it will cause ___________ of the vascular smooth muscle cells contraction
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If we stimulate the SNS, vascular smooth muscles will ___________, and their opposite ends get closer together and shorten contract
What happens to diameter/radius and resistance if vascular smooth muscle contracts via SNS? diameter/radius decrease and increase in resistance
As a result of relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells, what happens to the diameter/radius of the lumen and resistance? diamter/radius increase and resistance decreases
RESTING SYMPATHETIC TONE 1. at rest, certain amount of AP being fired along the sympathetic vasoconstrictor fibers to determine resting sympathetic tone. 2. this means it is possible to decrease the rate of firing of SNS below the level that sets the sympathetic tone, allowing blood vessels to dilate in result of relaxation
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 What if it were easier for blood to get into organ 1 than organ 2?Organ 1 would have more blood flow than organ 2
 What if the degree of distribution of blood into organ 1 and 2 were equal?Equal distribution of blood flow through those organs
 What determines how much blood flow will be distributed to a particular organ in the body?Vascular Resistance
 Change in pressure divided by the flow = ?Vascular resistance
 ___________ is the amount of difficulty there is in moving blood in an organ/tuberesistance
 Resistance depends on the amount of ___________ that is necessary to move fluidenergy
 ___________ is the energy that moves fluid from upstream to downstream in the circulatory systemPressure energy [blood pressure energy]
 The greater the ___________, the lower the flow would beresistance
 More ___________ to move viscous liquidpressure
 ___________ resistance- the thicker the fluid, the more pressure it takes to drive the certain amount of fluid through some componentviscous
 TF The thickness of blood is mainly determined by red blood cell contenttrue
 The diameter or radius of blood vessels determines the ___________ to blood flowresistance
 Most important physiological regulator of blod flow is the ___________arteriole
 ___________ = small arteries, actual components of microcirculationarterioles
 ___________ are the "resistance vessels" in the systemic circulationarterioles
 ___________ offer the greatest amount of resistance to blood flowarterioles
 Larger arteries and veins have much ___________ resistance than arterioleslower
 TF With respect to total amount of resistance in systemic circulation, arterioles offer about half of the total amount of vascular resistancetrue
 Why are arterioles important? (2)They are physiologically regulated with respect to their diameter. They have mechanisms that dilate or constrict their diameter.
 Normal average arterial blood pressure is ___________100 mmHg
 TF On the graph, arterioles cause the greatest grop in pressuretrue
 Total amount of blood flow = cardiac output = constantyes
 Largest drop in pressure--> site of greatest amount of ___________ --> level of the arteriolesvascular resistances
 Energy is loss when going through ___________arterioles
 ___________ OFFER THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF BLOOD FLOW RESISTANCE IN THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATIONARTERIOLES
 One of the primary determinants of arteriole resistance is the ___________ NSsympathetic
 ___________ are the nerves that innervate vascular smooth muscle-- systemic arteriolesSNS
 Sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerves means a blood vessel under physiologic control is constricting to a smaller diameter/radiusyes
 When _________ NS nerves are stimulated to fire, they cause blood vessels which have vascular smooth muscle, mainly arterioles, to constrictSNS
 When the SNS nerves are stimulated, they cause blood vessels which have vascular smooth muscle, mainly arterioles, to ___________constrict
 If arterioles constricts, the resistance to blood flow ___________increases
 Increase in vascular resistance causes ___________ in blood flowdecrease
 Increase in metabolic rate causes many many waste byproductstrue
 The wast byproducts produced with increase in metabolic rate are called ___________metabolites
 When there is an increase in activity or metabolic rate, additional metabolites are producedyup
 Metabolites are ___________ in naturevasodilator
 ___________ cause vascular smooth muscle in blood vessels including arterioles to relax and that leads to decrease in resistancemetabolites
 Role of SNS in constricting blood vessels is an example of ___________ regulatory systemextrinsic
 During exercise, increase in concentration of metabolites overrides the ability of the ___________ to cause constrictionSNS
 Ability of locally produced metabolites to override the influence of SNS is called ___________Sympatholysis
 Metabolites overriding SNS influence causes resistance to flow to ___________decrease
 Metabolites is an example of ___________ regulatory systemintrinsic
 TF Arterioles are primarily effected by both SNS and metabolitestrue
 Sympatholysis causes resistance to flow to ___________fall
 What is the effector organ that is effected by metabolites and SNS?vascular smooth muscle
 ___________ is the opening through which the blood flows in a blood vessellumen
 ___________ is the cell type that lines the luminal wallendothelial cells
 TF In arteries, there are elastic fibers that contribute "elastic recoil", particularly in larger arteriestrue
 ___________ are thicker fibers found in vascular smooth muscle that are comprised of connective tissuescollagen fibers
 Vascular smooth muscle can contract or relax, which causes ___________ or ___________vasoconstriction or vasodilation
 Vascular smooth muscle is arranged radially around the ___________lumen
 If we stimulate vasoconstrictor fibers, it will cause ___________ of the vascular smooth muscle cellscontraction
 If we stimulate the SNS, vascular smooth muscles will ___________, and their opposite ends get closer together and shortencontract
 What happens to diameter/radius and resistance if vascular smooth muscle contracts via SNS?diameter/radius decrease and increase in resistance
 As a result of relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells, what happens to the diameter/radius of the lumen and resistance?diamter/radius increase and resistance decreases
 RESTING SYMPATHETIC TONE1. at rest, certain amount of AP being fired along the sympathetic vasoconstrictor fibers to determine resting sympathetic tone. 2. this means it is possible to decrease the rate of firing of SNS below the level that sets the sympathetic tone, allowing blood vessels to dilate in result of relaxation
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