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NPBlec30 - Flashcards

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Class:NPB 101 - Systemic Physiology
Subject:Neurobiology,Physio & Behavior
University:University of California - Davis
Term:Fall 2010
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capillaries comprised of endothelial cells: very thin (also in chambers of heart and line lumen of blood vessel). important for exchange. one end touches another (hole formed is lumen), stack together to form tubes that are only one cell thick. NOT contractile. specialized for diffusive exchange
what are the two substances that are RESTRICTED from movement through the capillary wall? 1. cells (e.g. red blood cells and formed elements-e.g. platelets 2. proteins, carried in blood plasma - can only diffuse very very slowly
what substances are ALLOWED to pass through the capillary wall RAPIDLY? water, small water soluble substances : e.g. ions: Na+, Cl-, HC03-, glucose
what substances are ALLOWED to pass through the capillary wall nearly INSTANTANEOUSLY? blood gases (02, CO2, N2) : lipid soluble so straight through wall
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what determines the amount of capillaries open to blood flow? the concentration of metabolites and the level of SNS constriction
what is the significance of the precapillary sphincter? it is a patch of vascular smooth muscle, so it is dilated by locally produced metabolites, this means that there is an INTRINSIC regulation of nutritional blood flow through capillaries
what happens to capillaries when metabolic rate reaches resting level? the concentration of metabolites decreases, the precapillary sphincters close (which closes off the capillaries) according to SNS activity
can the resting levels of blood flow be altered by both extrinsic and intrinsic means of control? YES, it can be altered by SNS activity-constricts (extrinsic) and metabolites-dilates (intrinsic, metabolic rate). this is an example of DUAL CONTROL
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velocity of blood flow is slowest through the ______ capillaries (slow velocity regulates diffusive exchanges, slowest because greatest cross sectional area in the entire CVS
what determines velocity of blood flow? arterioles
what is capillary recruitment? when more CAPS open during metabolic influence (vasodilation)
what is the distribution of total blood volume? 20% in arteries, 5% in capillaries, 75% in veins
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what is venus compliance? veins have thin walls (compared to arteries) and can distend (hold more volume), which makes them compliant and allows them to hold the majority of the blood volume
what is transmural pressure? a pressure gradient through a wall, 10mmHg inside cell 5mmHg outside cell, holds it open.
compliance: _______ change in volume during ______ range of change in transmural pressure large, low range of transmural pressure (very compliant). compliance allows for lower blood pressure because change in pressure causes change in volume
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 capillaries comprised of endothelial cells: very thin (also in chambers of heart and line lumen of blood vessel). important for exchange. one end touches another (hole formed is lumen), stack together to form tubes that are only one cell thick. NOT contractile. specialized for diffusive exchange
 what are the two substances that are RESTRICTED from movement through the capillary wall?1. cells (e.g. red blood cells and formed elements-e.g. platelets
2. proteins, carried in blood plasma - can only diffuse very very slowly
 what substances are ALLOWED to pass through the capillary wall RAPIDLY?water, small water soluble substances : e.g. ions: Na+, Cl-, HC03-, glucose
 what substances are ALLOWED to pass through the capillary wall nearly INSTANTANEOUSLY?blood gases (02, CO2, N2) : lipid soluble so straight through wall
 what determines the amount of capillaries open to blood flow?the concentration of metabolites and the level of SNS constriction
 what is the significance of the precapillary sphincter?it is a patch of vascular smooth muscle, so it is dilated by locally produced metabolites, this means that there is an INTRINSIC regulation of nutritional blood flow through capillaries
 what happens to capillaries when metabolic rate reaches resting level?the concentration of metabolites decreases, the precapillary sphincters close (which closes off the capillaries) according to SNS activity
 can the resting levels of blood flow be altered by both extrinsic and intrinsic means of control?YES, it can be altered by SNS activity-constricts (extrinsic) and metabolites-dilates (intrinsic, metabolic rate). this is an example of DUAL CONTROL
 velocity of blood flow is slowest through the ______capillaries (slow velocity regulates diffusive exchanges, slowest because greatest cross sectional area in the entire CVS
 what determines velocity of blood flow?arterioles
 what is capillary recruitment?when more CAPS open during metabolic influence (vasodilation)
 what is the distribution of total blood volume?20% in arteries, 5% in capillaries, 75% in veins
 what is venus compliance?veins have thin walls (compared to arteries) and can distend (hold more volume), which makes them compliant and allows them to hold the majority of the blood volume
 what is transmural pressure?a pressure gradient through a wall, 10mmHg inside cell 5mmHg outside cell, holds it open.
 compliance: _______ change in volume during ______ range of change in transmural pressurelarge, low range of transmural pressure (very compliant). compliance allows for lower blood pressure because change in pressure causes change in volume
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