Koofers

Exam 1: Chapters 1-5 - Flashcards

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Class:NRE 1000 - Environmental Science
Subject:Natural Resources and The Envi
University:University of Connecticut
Term:Spring 2013
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Environment the sum of all the conditions surrounding us that influence life.
Environmental Science the field of study that looks at interactions among human systems and those found in nature.
System any set of interacting components that influence one another by exchanging energy or materials.
Ecosystem a particular location on Eath distinguishined by its mix of interacting biotic and abiotic components.
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Biotic living.
Abiotic nonliving.
Environmentalist a person who participates in environmentalism, a social movement that seeks to protect the environment throuh lobbying, activism, and education.
Environmental Studies the field of study that included environmental science, environmental policy, economics, literature, and ethics, among others.
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Ecosystem Service the process by which natural environments provide lif-supporting resources.
Environmental Indicators

an idicator that describes the current state of an environmental system.

Used to describe the health and quality of natural systems.

They do not always tell what is causing a change, but they do tell when we might need to look more deeply into a particular issue.

Provide valuable information about natural systems on both small and large scales.

Examples: Human population, ecological footprint, total food production, sea level change, etc.

Sustainability living on Earth in a way that allows humans to use its resources ithout depriving future generations of those resources.
Biodiversity

the diversity of life forms in an environment.

Exsists in three scales: genetic, species, and ecosystem. Each of which are an important indicator of environmental health and quality.

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Genetic Diversity the variety of genes within a given species.
Species Diversity the variety of species within a given ecosytem.
Species a group of organisms that is distinct from other grous in its morphology, behavior, or biochemical properties.
Speciation the evolution of a new species.
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Background Extinction Rate the average rate at whih species become extinct over the long term.
Ecosytem Diversity the variety of ecosytems within a given region.
Greenhouse Gas a gas in Earth's atmosphere that traps heat near the surface.
Anthropogenic derived from human activites.
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Development improvement in human well-veing through conomic advancement.
Sustainable Development development that balances current human well-being and economic advancement with resource management for the benefit of future generations.
Biophilia an appreciation for life.
Ecological Footprint a measure of how much an individual consumes, expressed in area of land.
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Scientific Method an objective method to explore the atural world, draw inferences from it, and predict the outcome of certain events, proesses, or changes.
Hypothesis a testable theory or supposition about how something works.
Null Hypothesis

a statement or idea that cn be falsified, or proved wrong.

"Sometimes it is easier to prove something wrong that is it to prove it true."

Replication the data collection procedure of taking repeated measurements.
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Sample Size the number of times a measurement is replicated in the data collection process.
Accuracy how close a measure value is to the actual or "true" value.
Precision how close the repeated measurements of a sample are to one another.
Uncertainty an estimate of how much a measured or calculated value differs from a true value.
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Inductive Reasoning the process of making general statements from specific facts or examples.
Deductive Reasoning the process of applying a general statement to specific facts or situations.
Critical Thinking the process of questioning the source of information, considering the methoods used to obtain the information, and drawing conclusions; essential to all scientific endeavor.
Theory a hypothesis that has been reatedly tested and confirmed by multiple groups of researchers and has reached wide acceptance.
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Natural Law a theory for which there is no known exception and that has withstood rigorous testing.
Control Group in a scientific investigation, a grou that experiences exactly the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the single variable under study.
Natural Experiment a natural event that acts as an experimental treatment in an ecosystem.
Environmental Justice a social movement and field of study that focuses on equal enforcement of environmental laws and eliminating disparities in the expourse of environmental harms to different ethnic and socioeconomic groups withing a society.
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Matter anything that occupies spaces and has mass.
Mass a measurement of the amount of matter an object contains.
Weight different from mass; it is defined as the forced that results from the action of gravity on mass.
Element a substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into smaller, simpler, components.
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Periodic Table a chart of all chemical elements currently known, organized by their properties.
Molecules a particle contaning more than one atom.
Compounds a molecule containing more than one element.
Nucleus a core to every atom which contains protons and neutrons.
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Atomic Number the number of protons in the nucleus of a particular element.
Orbitals exist in the space around the nucleus of the atom. They are electron clouds that extend different distances from the nucleus.
Mass Number a measurement of the total number of protons and neutrons in an element.
Isotopes atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
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Radioactive Decay the spontaneous release of material from the nucleus of radioactive isotopes.
Half-Life the time it takes for one-half of an original radioactive parent atom to decay.
Covalent Bond the bond formed when elements share electrons.
Ionic Bond a chemical bond between two oppositely charged ions where there is unequal sharing of the electron from one ion to the other.
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Hydrogen Bond a weak chemical bond that forms when hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded to one atom are attracted to another atom on another molcule.
Polar Molecule a molecule in which one side is more positive and the other side is more negative.
Surface Tension a property of water that results from the cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water and creates a sort of skin on the water's surface.
Capillary Action a property of water that occurs when adhsion of water molcules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules.
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Acid a substance that contribute hydrogen ions to a solution. Dissolves in water.
Base a substance that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution. Dissolves in water.
pH

the number indicating the strength of acids and bases on a scale of 0 to 14, where 7 is neutral, a value below 7 is acidic, and a value about 7 is basic (alkaline).

 

A pH of 7 (water) means that the number of hydrogen ions is equal to the number of hydroxide ions.

Chemical Reaction a reaction that occurs when atoms separate from molecules or recombine with other molecules.
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Law of Conservation of Matter a law of nature stating that matter cannot be created or destroyed.
Inorganic Compounds a compound that does not contain the element carbon or contains carbon bound to elements other than hydrogen.
Organic Compounds a compound that contains carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds.
Carbohydrates a compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
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Proteins a long chain of nitrogen-containing organic molecules known as amino acids, critical to living organisms for structurl support, energy storage, internal transport, and defnce against foregin substances.
Nucleic Acids organic compounds found in all living cells, which form in long chains to make DNA and RNA.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) a nucleic acid, the genetic material that contains the code for reproducing the components of the next generation and which organisms pass on to their off spring.
RNA (ribonucleic acid) a nucleis acid that translates the code stored in DNA and allows for the synthesis of proteins.
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Lipids smaller organic biological molecules that do not mix with water.
Cell a highly organized living entity that consists of the four types of macromolecules and other substances in a water solution, surrounded by a membrane.
Energy the ability to do work or transfer heat.
Electromagnetic Radiation a form of energy emitted by the Sun that includes, but is not limited to, visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared energy.
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Photons a massless packet of energy that carries electromagnetic radiation at the speed of light.
joule (J) the basic unit of energy in the metric system.
calorie amount of energy it takes to heat 1 gram of water 1 degree Celcius.
Calorie food Calorie; always shown with a capital C.
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British Thermal Unit (Btu) amount of energy it takes to heat 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit.
Kilowatt-hour (kWh)

amount of energy expended by using 1 kilowatt of electricity for 1 hour.

Unit of energy -- different fro a kilowatt which is a unit of power.

Power

the rate at which work is done.

 

Energy = power x time

Power = energy / time

Potential Energy stored enrgy that has not been released.
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Kinetic Energy the energy of motion.
Chemical Energy potential energy stored in chemical bonds.
Temperature the measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance.
First Law of Thermodynamics

a law of nature stating that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.

You cannot get something from nothing.

Generated by Koofers.com
Second Law of Thermodynamics the law stating that when energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same, but its ability to do work diminishes.
Energy Efficiency

the ratio of the amount of work done to the total amount of energy introduced to the system.

Two machines that perform the same amount of work, but use different amounts of energy to do that work, have different energy efficiencies.

Energy Quality the ease with which an energy source can be used for work.
Entropy

randomness in a system.

The second law of thermodynamics tells us that all systems move towards randomness rather than toward order.

Energy always flows from hot to cold.

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Open System a system in which exhances of matter or energy occur across system boundaries. Most systems are open. Ex, oceans.
Closed System a system in which matter and energy exchanges do not occur across boundaries. Less common. Ex, some underground cave systems.
Inputs additions to a system
Outputs losses from a system.
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an analysis to determine inputs, outputs, and changes in a system under various conditions.
a state in which inputs equal outputs, so that the system is not changing over time.
Feedback an adjustment in input or putput rates caused by changes to a system.
Negative Feedback Loop

a feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring.

Not "bad"; instead, it just "resists" change.

Generated by Koofers.com
Positive Feedback Loop

a feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified.

Not "good"; instead, it just "amplifies" change.

Ecosystem a particular location on Earth distinguished by its mix of interacting biotic and abiotic components.
Producers an organism that uses the energy of the Sun to produce usable forms of energy.
Autotrophs same as producers; organisms that use the energy of the Sun to produce usable forms of energy.
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Photosynthesis the process by which producers use solar energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose.
Cellular Respiration the process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
Consumers an organism that must obtain is energy by consuming other organisms.
Heterotroph the same as comsumers; an organism that must obtain its energy by consuming other organisms.
Generated by Koofers.com
Primary Consumers

an individual incapable of photosynthesis that must obtain energy by consuming other organisms.

Includes: zebras, grasshoppers, and tadpoles.

Secondary Consumers

a carnivore that eats primary consumers.

Includes: lions, hawks, and rattlesnakes.

Tertiary Consumers

carnivores that eat secondary consumers.

Includes: bald eagles (eagles eat fish which eat zooplankton which eat algae).

Trophic Levels levels in he feeding structure of organisms. Higher trophic levels consume organisms from lower levels.
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Food Chain the sequence of consumption from producers through tertiary consumers.
Food Web a complex model of how energy and matter move between trophic levels.
Scavenger

a carnivore that consumes dead animals.

Ex: Vultures

Detritivores an organism that specializes in breaking down dead tissues and waste products into smaller particles.
Generated by Koofers.com
Decomposers fungi or bacteria that recycle nutrients from dead tissues and wastes back into an ecosystem.
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) the total amount of solar energy that producers in an ecosystem capture via photosynthesis over a given amount of time.
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

the energy captured minus the energy respired by producers.

NPP = GPP - respiration by producers.

Standing Crop

the amount of biomass present in an ecosystem at a particular time.

the amount of energy present.

Generated by Koofers.com
Productivity measures the rate of energy production over a span of time. Different from standing crop.
Ecological Efficiency the proportion of consumed energy that can be passed from one trophic level to another.
Trophic Pyramid a representation of the distribution of bioass, numbers, or energy among trophic levels.
Biosphere the region of our planet where life resides, the combination of all ecosystems on Earth.
Generated by Koofers.com
Biogeochemical Cycles the movements of matter within and between ecosystems. (Involves biological, geological, and chemical processess.)
Hydrologic Cycle the movement of water through the biosphere.
Transpiration the release of water from leaves during photosynthesis.
Evapotranspiration the combind amount of evaporation and transpiration.
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Runoff water that moves across the land surface and into streams and rivers.
Macronutrients the six key elements that organisms need in relatively large amounts: nitrogen, phophrous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur.
Limiting Nutrient a nutrient required for the growth of an organism but available in a lower quantity than other nutrients.
Nitrogen Fixation a process by which some organisms can convert nitrogen gass molecules directly into ammonia.
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Leaching the transportation of dissolved molecules through the soil via groundwater.
Distubance an event caused by physcal, chemical, or biological agents, resulting in changes in population size or community commposition.
Resistance a  measure of how much a disturbance can affct flows of energy and matter in an ecosystem.
Resilience the rate at which an ecosystem returns to its original state after a disturbance.
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Watershed all land in a given landscape that drains into a particular stream, river, lake, or wetland.
Climate the average weather that ccurs in a given region over a long period of time.
Troposphere

a layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface of Earth, extending up to approximately 16 km (10 miles) and containing most of the atmosphere's nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor.

This is where the weather occurs.

Stratosphere the layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly 16 to 50 kn (10-31 miles) above the surface of Earth.
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Ozone

a pale blue gas composed of molecules made up of 3 oxygen atoms, forms a layer with the stratosphere.

The stratospherical ozone layer provides protection for Earth (sunblock!).

Albedo the percentage of incoming sunlight reflected from a surface.
Gyres

a large-scale pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the Northern Hempisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

Circular or spiral currents.

Upwelling the upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents.
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Thermohaline Circulation an oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water.
El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) the periodic changes in winds and ocean currents, causing cooler and wetter conditions in the southeastern United States and unusually dry weather in southern Africa and Southeast Asia.
Rain Shadow a region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humind winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side.
Biomes a geographic regoin categorized by a particular combination of average annual temperature, annual precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land, and a particular combination of salinity, depth, and water flow in water.
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Permafrost an impermeable, permanently frozen layer of soil.
Boreal Forests a forest made up primarily of coniferous evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons.
Temperate Rainforest a coastal biome typified by moderate temperatures and high precipitation.
Woodland/Shrubland a biome characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.
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Temperate Grassland/Cold Desert a biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, and hot, dry summers.
Tropical Rainforest a warm and wet biome found between 20 degrees N and 20 degrees S of the equator, with little seasonal teperature variation and high precipitation.
Tropical Seasonal Forest/Savannas a biome marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons.
Subtropical Desert a biome prevailing at approximately 30 degrees N and 30 degrees S, with hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and spare vegetation.
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Littoral Zone the shallow zone of soil and water in lakes and ponds where most algae and emergent plants grow.
Limnetic Zone a zone of open water in lakes and ponds.
Phytoplankton floating algae.
Profundal Zone a region of water where sunlight does not reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes.
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Benthic Zone the muddy bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean.
Freshwater Wetlands an aquatic biome that is submerged or saturdated by water for at least part of each year, but shallow enough to support emergent vegetation.
Salt Marshes a marsh containing nonwoody emergent vegetation, found along th coast in temperate climates.
Mangrove Swamps a swamp that occurs along tropical and subtropical coats and contains salt-trolerant trees with roots submerged in water.
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Intertidal Zone the narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide.
Coral Bleaching a phenomenon in which algae inside corals die, causing the corals to turn white.
Photic Zone the upper layer of water in the ocean that receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis.
Aphotic Zone the layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis.
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Tundra a cold and treeless biome with low growing vegetation.
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Environmentthe sum of all the conditions surrounding us that influence life.
 Environmental Sciencethe field of study that looks at interactions among human systems and those found in nature.
 Systemany set of interacting components that influence one another by exchanging energy or materials.
 Ecosystema particular location on Eath distinguishined by its mix of interacting biotic and abiotic components.
 Bioticliving.
 Abioticnonliving.
 Environmentalista person who participates in environmentalism, a social movement that seeks to protect the environment throuh lobbying, activism, and education.
 Environmental Studiesthe field of study that included environmental science, environmental policy, economics, literature, and ethics, among others.
 Ecosystem Servicethe process by which natural environments provide lif-supporting resources.
 Environmental Indicators

an idicator that describes the current state of an environmental system.

Used to describe the health and quality of natural systems.

They do not always tell what is causing a change, but they do tell when we might need to look more deeply into a particular issue.

Provide valuable information about natural systems on both small and large scales.

Examples: Human population, ecological footprint, total food production, sea level change, etc.

 Sustainabilityliving on Earth in a way that allows humans to use its resources ithout depriving future generations of those resources.
 Biodiversity

the diversity of life forms in an environment.

Exsists in three scales: genetic, species, and ecosystem. Each of which are an important indicator of environmental health and quality.

 Genetic Diversitythe variety of genes within a given species.
 Species Diversitythe variety of species within a given ecosytem.
 Speciesa group of organisms that is distinct from other grous in its morphology, behavior, or biochemical properties.
 Speciationthe evolution of a new species.
 Background Extinction Ratethe average rate at whih species become extinct over the long term.
 Ecosytem Diversitythe variety of ecosytems within a given region.
 Greenhouse Gasa gas in Earth's atmosphere that traps heat near the surface.
 Anthropogenicderived from human activites.
 Developmentimprovement in human well-veing through conomic advancement.
 Sustainable Developmentdevelopment that balances current human well-being and economic advancement with resource management for the benefit of future generations.
 Biophiliaan appreciation for life.
 Ecological Footprinta measure of how much an individual consumes, expressed in area of land.
 Scientific Methodan objective method to explore the atural world, draw inferences from it, and predict the outcome of certain events, proesses, or changes.
 Hypothesisa testable theory or supposition about how something works.
 Null Hypothesis

a statement or idea that cn be falsified, or proved wrong.

"Sometimes it is easier to prove something wrong that is it to prove it true."

 Replicationthe data collection procedure of taking repeated measurements.
 Sample Sizethe number of times a measurement is replicated in the data collection process.
 Accuracyhow close a measure value is to the actual or "true" value.
 Precisionhow close the repeated measurements of a sample are to one another.
 Uncertaintyan estimate of how much a measured or calculated value differs from a true value.
 Inductive Reasoningthe process of making general statements from specific facts or examples.
 Deductive Reasoningthe process of applying a general statement to specific facts or situations.
 Critical Thinkingthe process of questioning the source of information, considering the methoods used to obtain the information, and drawing conclusions; essential to all scientific endeavor.
 Theorya hypothesis that has been reatedly tested and confirmed by multiple groups of researchers and has reached wide acceptance.
 Natural Lawa theory for which there is no known exception and that has withstood rigorous testing.
 Control Groupin a scientific investigation, a grou that experiences exactly the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the single variable under study.
 Natural Experimenta natural event that acts as an experimental treatment in an ecosystem.
 Environmental Justicea social movement and field of study that focuses on equal enforcement of environmental laws and eliminating disparities in the expourse of environmental harms to different ethnic and socioeconomic groups withing a society.
 Matteranything that occupies spaces and has mass.
 Massa measurement of the amount of matter an object contains.
 Weightdifferent from mass; it is defined as the forced that results from the action of gravity on mass.
 Elementa substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into smaller, simpler, components.
 Periodic Tablea chart of all chemical elements currently known, organized by their properties.
 Moleculesa particle contaning more than one atom.
 Compoundsa molecule containing more than one element.
 Nucleusa core to every atom which contains protons and neutrons.
 Atomic Numberthe number of protons in the nucleus of a particular element.
 Orbitalsexist in the space around the nucleus of the atom. They are electron clouds that extend different distances from the nucleus.
 Mass Numbera measurement of the total number of protons and neutrons in an element.
 Isotopesatoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
 Radioactive Decaythe spontaneous release of material from the nucleus of radioactive isotopes.
 Half-Lifethe time it takes for one-half of an original radioactive parent atom to decay.
 Covalent Bondthe bond formed when elements share electrons.
 Ionic Bonda chemical bond between two oppositely charged ions where there is unequal sharing of the electron from one ion to the other.
 Hydrogen Bonda weak chemical bond that forms when hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded to one atom are attracted to another atom on another molcule.
 Polar Moleculea molecule in which one side is more positive and the other side is more negative.
 Surface Tensiona property of water that results from the cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water and creates a sort of skin on the water's surface.
 Capillary Actiona property of water that occurs when adhsion of water molcules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules.
 Acida substance that contribute hydrogen ions to a solution. Dissolves in water.
 Basea substance that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution. Dissolves in water.
 pH

the number indicating the strength of acids and bases on a scale of 0 to 14, where 7 is neutral, a value below 7 is acidic, and a value about 7 is basic (alkaline).

 

A pH of 7 (water) means that the number of hydrogen ions is equal to the number of hydroxide ions.

 Chemical Reactiona reaction that occurs when atoms separate from molecules or recombine with other molecules.
 Law of Conservation of Mattera law of nature stating that matter cannot be created or destroyed.
 Inorganic Compoundsa compound that does not contain the element carbon or contains carbon bound to elements other than hydrogen.
 Organic Compoundsa compound that contains carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds.
 Carbohydratesa compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
 Proteinsa long chain of nitrogen-containing organic molecules known as amino acids, critical to living organisms for structurl support, energy storage, internal transport, and defnce against foregin substances.
 Nucleic Acidsorganic compounds found in all living cells, which form in long chains to make DNA and RNA.
 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)a nucleic acid, the genetic material that contains the code for reproducing the components of the next generation and which organisms pass on to their off spring.
 RNA (ribonucleic acid)a nucleis acid that translates the code stored in DNA and allows for the synthesis of proteins.
 Lipidssmaller organic biological molecules that do not mix with water.
 Cella highly organized living entity that consists of the four types of macromolecules and other substances in a water solution, surrounded by a membrane.
 Energythe ability to do work or transfer heat.
 Electromagnetic Radiationa form of energy emitted by the Sun that includes, but is not limited to, visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared energy.
 Photonsa massless packet of energy that carries electromagnetic radiation at the speed of light.
 joule (J)the basic unit of energy in the metric system.
 calorieamount of energy it takes to heat 1 gram of water 1 degree Celcius.
 Caloriefood Calorie; always shown with a capital C.
 British Thermal Unit (Btu)amount of energy it takes to heat 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit.
 Kilowatt-hour (kWh)

amount of energy expended by using 1 kilowatt of electricity for 1 hour.

Unit of energy -- different fro a kilowatt which is a unit of power.

 Power

the rate at which work is done.

 

Energy = power x time

Power = energy / time

 Potential Energystored enrgy that has not been released.
 Kinetic Energythe energy of motion.
 Chemical Energypotential energy stored in chemical bonds.
 Temperaturethe measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance.
 First Law of Thermodynamics

a law of nature stating that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.

You cannot get something from nothing.

 Second Law of Thermodynamicsthe law stating that when energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same, but its ability to do work diminishes.
 Energy Efficiency

the ratio of the amount of work done to the total amount of energy introduced to the system.

Two machines that perform the same amount of work, but use different amounts of energy to do that work, have different energy efficiencies.

 Energy Qualitythe ease with which an energy source can be used for work.
 Entropy

randomness in a system.

The second law of thermodynamics tells us that all systems move towards randomness rather than toward order.

Energy always flows from hot to cold.

 Open Systema system in which exhances of matter or energy occur across system boundaries. Most systems are open. Ex, oceans.
 Closed Systema system in which matter and energy exchanges do not occur across boundaries. Less common. Ex, some underground cave systems.
 Inputsadditions to a system
 Outputslosses from a system.
  an analysis to determine inputs, outputs, and changes in a system under various conditions.
  a state in which inputs equal outputs, so that the system is not changing over time.
 Feedbackan adjustment in input or putput rates caused by changes to a system.
 Negative Feedback Loop

a feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring.

Not "bad"; instead, it just "resists" change.

 Positive Feedback Loop

a feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified.

Not "good"; instead, it just "amplifies" change.

 Ecosystema particular location on Earth distinguished by its mix of interacting biotic and abiotic components.
 Producersan organism that uses the energy of the Sun to produce usable forms of energy.
 Autotrophssame as producers; organisms that use the energy of the Sun to produce usable forms of energy.
 Photosynthesisthe process by which producers use solar energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose.
 Cellular Respirationthe process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
 Consumersan organism that must obtain is energy by consuming other organisms.
 Heterotrophthe same as comsumers; an organism that must obtain its energy by consuming other organisms.
 Primary Consumers

an individual incapable of photosynthesis that must obtain energy by consuming other organisms.

Includes: zebras, grasshoppers, and tadpoles.

 Secondary Consumers

a carnivore that eats primary consumers.

Includes: lions, hawks, and rattlesnakes.

 Tertiary Consumers

carnivores that eat secondary consumers.

Includes: bald eagles (eagles eat fish which eat zooplankton which eat algae).

 Trophic Levelslevels in he feeding structure of organisms. Higher trophic levels consume organisms from lower levels.
 Food Chainthe sequence of consumption from producers through tertiary consumers.
 Food Weba complex model of how energy and matter move between trophic levels.
 Scavenger

a carnivore that consumes dead animals.

Ex: Vultures

 Detritivoresan organism that specializes in breaking down dead tissues and waste products into smaller particles.
 Decomposersfungi or bacteria that recycle nutrients from dead tissues and wastes back into an ecosystem.
 Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)the total amount of solar energy that producers in an ecosystem capture via photosynthesis over a given amount of time.
 Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

the energy captured minus the energy respired by producers.

NPP = GPP - respiration by producers.

 Standing Crop

the amount of biomass present in an ecosystem at a particular time.

the amount of energy present.

 Productivitymeasures the rate of energy production over a span of time. Different from standing crop.
 Ecological Efficiencythe proportion of consumed energy that can be passed from one trophic level to another.
 Trophic Pyramida representation of the distribution of bioass, numbers, or energy among trophic levels.
 Biospherethe region of our planet where life resides, the combination of all ecosystems on Earth.
 Biogeochemical Cyclesthe movements of matter within and between ecosystems. (Involves biological, geological, and chemical processess.)
 Hydrologic Cyclethe movement of water through the biosphere.
 Transpirationthe release of water from leaves during photosynthesis.
 Evapotranspirationthe combind amount of evaporation and transpiration.
 Runoffwater that moves across the land surface and into streams and rivers.
 Macronutrientsthe six key elements that organisms need in relatively large amounts: nitrogen, phophrous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur.
 Limiting Nutrienta nutrient required for the growth of an organism but available in a lower quantity than other nutrients.
 Nitrogen Fixationa process by which some organisms can convert nitrogen gass molecules directly into ammonia.
 Leachingthe transportation of dissolved molecules through the soil via groundwater.
 Distubancean event caused by physcal, chemical, or biological agents, resulting in changes in population size or community commposition.
 Resistancea  measure of how much a disturbance can affct flows of energy and matter in an ecosystem.
 Resiliencethe rate at which an ecosystem returns to its original state after a disturbance.
 Watershedall land in a given landscape that drains into a particular stream, river, lake, or wetland.
 Climatethe average weather that ccurs in a given region over a long period of time.
 Troposphere

a layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface of Earth, extending up to approximately 16 km (10 miles) and containing most of the atmosphere's nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor.

This is where the weather occurs.

 Stratospherethe layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly 16 to 50 kn (10-31 miles) above the surface of Earth.
 Ozone

a pale blue gas composed of molecules made up of 3 oxygen atoms, forms a layer with the stratosphere.

The stratospherical ozone layer provides protection for Earth (sunblock!).

 Albedothe percentage of incoming sunlight reflected from a surface.
 Gyres

a large-scale pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the Northern Hempisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

Circular or spiral currents.

 Upwellingthe upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents.
 Thermohaline Circulationan oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water.
 El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)the periodic changes in winds and ocean currents, causing cooler and wetter conditions in the southeastern United States and unusually dry weather in southern Africa and Southeast Asia.
 Rain Shadowa region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humind winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side.
 Biomesa geographic regoin categorized by a particular combination of average annual temperature, annual precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land, and a particular combination of salinity, depth, and water flow in water.
 Permafrostan impermeable, permanently frozen layer of soil.
 Boreal Forestsa forest made up primarily of coniferous evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons.
 Temperate Rainforesta coastal biome typified by moderate temperatures and high precipitation.
 Woodland/Shrublanda biome characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.
 Temperate Grassland/Cold Deserta biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, and hot, dry summers.
 Tropical Rainforesta warm and wet biome found between 20 degrees N and 20 degrees S of the equator, with little seasonal teperature variation and high precipitation.
 Tropical Seasonal Forest/Savannasa biome marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons.
 Subtropical Deserta biome prevailing at approximately 30 degrees N and 30 degrees S, with hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and spare vegetation.
 Littoral Zonethe shallow zone of soil and water in lakes and ponds where most algae and emergent plants grow.
 Limnetic Zonea zone of open water in lakes and ponds.
 Phytoplanktonfloating algae.
 Profundal Zonea region of water where sunlight does not reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes.
 Benthic Zonethe muddy bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean.
 Freshwater Wetlandsan aquatic biome that is submerged or saturdated by water for at least part of each year, but shallow enough to support emergent vegetation.
 Salt Marshesa marsh containing nonwoody emergent vegetation, found along th coast in temperate climates.
 Mangrove Swampsa swamp that occurs along tropical and subtropical coats and contains salt-trolerant trees with roots submerged in water.
 Intertidal Zonethe narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide.
 Coral Bleachinga phenomenon in which algae inside corals die, causing the corals to turn white.
 Photic Zonethe upper layer of water in the ocean that receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis.
 Aphotic Zonethe layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis.
 Tundraa cold and treeless biome with low growing vegetation.
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