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Class:NRM 4314 - Watershed Planning
Subject:Natural Resource Management
University:Texas Tech University
Term:Spring 2010
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Hydrology the science dealing with the occurence of water on the earth; it's physical and chemical properties, transformations, combinations and movements especially with the course of water movement from the time of precipitation on land a movement to sea or atmosphere.
Cryology the science dealing with ice and all of its forms and behaviors
Hydrogeology groundwater geology; the study of subsurface waters
Hydraulics the branch of natural science dealing with the mechanics of fluids, especially water
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Hydrography science of measuring and studying oceans, seas, rivers, and other waters and their marginal lands, including the fundamental elements needed for safe navigation in such areas.
Hydrometeorology study of problems of meteorology related to hydrology (river forecasting, etc.)
Limnology hydrology of lakes; study of the biologic productivity of inland waters and all casual influences
Oceanography study of all oceans and marine bodies of water, their currents, properties and behaviors
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Potomology the hydrology of surface streams and rivers
Watershed An area of land drained by (or which delivers its water into) a stream or riversystem
Watershed Management The management of land for the "optimum" production of high quality water, the regulation of water yields and for maximum soil stability, along with other products of the land.
Water Balance Concept Runoff = Precipitation - evapotranspiration - interception +/- storage RO=P-ET-I+/-S
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Energy Balance Concept Solar radiation + thermal radiation + latent heat + conduction + convection + storage = 0 So + T + L + G + C + St = 0
In Energy Balance concept, incoming values are ___ and outgoing values are ___. positive, negative
Solar constant for surface outside Earth's atmosphere 2.0 calories per square centimeter minute
Stefan-Boltzman Radiation Law Thermal radiation = (1.32 x 10^-12)(absolute temperature)^4 (cal/cm2/sec)=(cal/cm2/sec/degK^4)(degK)
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latent heat of vaporization for water at 100 degC 539.55 calories/gram
When a plant is introduced into the system, we add the further complications of...(5) 1) transmissivity, 2) emissivity, 3) reflectivity, 4) photosynthesis, 5) and metabolism.
Precipitation discharges of water, in liquid or solid state, out of the atmosphere, upon a land or water surface.
Interception process and amount of rain or snow stored on leaves and branches and eventually evaporated back to air.
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Evaportation from the soil the process by which water is changed from the liquid or solid state into the vapor state and escapes from the soil
External factors of Precipitation 1) radiation 2) temperature 3) humidity 4) wind 5) pressure
Internal factors of Precipitation 1) Supply of water 2) rates of movement
Transpiration Transpiration is a process similar to evaporation.
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Infiltration Downward entry of water into the soil
Percolation downward movement of water through soil
Darcy's Law Volume of water per unit of time = permeability coefficient x hydraulic gradient x cross-sectional area
Porosity in unconsolidated materials: Uniform sand 30-40% Gravel 30-40% Mixed sand and gravel 10-20%
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flow velocities in feet/day with 1% hydraulic gradient: silt, fine sand, loess 0.06 course sand, sandy gravel 6.33 gravel 30-100
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 Hydrologythe science dealing with the occurence of water on the earth; it's physical and chemical properties, transformations, combinations and movements especially with the course of water movement from the time of precipitation on land a movement to sea or atmosphere.
 Cryologythe science dealing with ice and all of its forms and behaviors
 Hydrogeologygroundwater geology; the study of subsurface waters
 Hydraulicsthe branch of natural science dealing with the mechanics of fluids, especially water
 Hydrography science of measuring and studying oceans, seas, rivers, and other waters and their marginal lands, including the fundamental elements needed for safe navigation in such areas.
 Hydrometeorology study of problems of meteorology related to hydrology (river forecasting, etc.)
 Limnology hydrology of lakes; study of the biologic productivity of inland waters and all casual influences
 Oceanography study of all oceans and marine bodies of water, their currents, properties and behaviors
 Potomology the hydrology of surface streams and rivers
 WatershedAn area of land drained by (or which delivers its water into) a stream or riversystem
 Watershed Management The management of land for the "optimum" production of high quality water, the regulation of water yields and for maximum soil stability, along with other products of the land.
 Water Balance Concept Runoff = Precipitation - evapotranspiration - interception +/- storage RO=P-ET-I+/-S
 Energy Balance ConceptSolar radiation + thermal radiation + latent heat + conduction + convection + storage = 0 So + T + L + G + C + St = 0
 In Energy Balance concept, incoming values are ___ and outgoing values are ___. positive, negative
 Solar constant for surface outside Earth's atmosphere 2.0 calories per square centimeter minute
 Stefan-Boltzman Radiation Law Thermal radiation = (1.32 x 10^-12)(absolute temperature)^4 (cal/cm2/sec)=(cal/cm2/sec/degK^4)(degK)
 latent heat of vaporization for water at 100 degC 539.55 calories/gram
 When a plant is introduced into the system, we add the further complications of...(5) 1) transmissivity,
2) emissivity,
3) reflectivity,
4) photosynthesis,
5) and metabolism.
 Precipitationdischarges of water, in liquid or solid state, out of the atmosphere, upon a land or water surface.
 Interceptionprocess and amount of rain or snow stored on leaves and branches and eventually evaporated back to air.
 Evaportation from the soil the process by which water is changed from the liquid or solid state into the vapor state and escapes from the soil
 External factors of Precipitation 1) radiation 2) temperature 3) humidity 4) wind 5) pressure
 Internal factors of Precipitation 1) Supply of water 2) rates of movement
 TranspirationTranspiration is a process similar to evaporation.
 InfiltrationDownward entry of water into the soil
 Percolationdownward movement of water through soil
 Darcy's Law Volume of water per unit of time = permeability coefficient x hydraulic gradient x cross-sectional area
 Porosity in unconsolidated materials: Uniform sand 30-40% Gravel 30-40% Mixed sand and gravel 10-20%
 flow velocities in feet/day with 1% hydraulic gradient: silt, fine sand, loess 0.06 course sand, sandy gravel 6.33 gravel 30-100
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