Koofers

Test 1 Ch 1-4 - Flashcards

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Class:NURS 360 - Pharmacology
Subject:Nursing
University:Radford University
Term:Fall 2011
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pharmacokinetics where drugs travel in the body
pharmacodynamics responses drugs produce

therapeutics The branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disease and suffering
pharmacotherapy application of drugs for:
  • disease prevention
  • Tx of suffering
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traditional drugs chemical agents synthesized in a lab that produce biological responses in the body
  • therapeutic = desirable
  • adverse = undesirable
biologics naturally produced in animal cells by microorganisms or the body itself
Ex:
  • hormones
  • natural blood products
  • interferons
  • vaccines
alternative therapies natural plant extracts, herbs, vitamins, minerals & techniques like acupuncture, hypnosis, biofeedback, & massage
4 stages of FDA approval
  1. preclinical investigation
  2. clinical investigation
  3. review of new drug application (NDA)
  4. postmarketing surveillance

Generated by Koofers.com
preclinical investigation lab research
  • tests on cells/animals
  • determines drug dose range
  • examines adverse effects
  • results inconclusive

clinical investigation 3 clinical phase trials
  • longest part of approval process
  • evaluates human benefits
  • tests on healthy humans, then those w/ target ailment
review of new drug application (NDA) if results of clinical investigation are positive (even w/ precautions)
  • avg time: 17-24 mos
  • if approved, continue process
  • if rejected,  process suspended
postmarketing surveillance new drug placed on market
  • surveyed for harmful effects
  • FDA holds annual meetings (drug withdrawn if serious problem is found)
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investigational new drug application (IND) Application to the FDA that contains all the animal and cell testing data
  • may be submitted for phase 1 clinical trials if significant therapeutic benefits are found & it's reasonably safe for initial human use

therapeutic classification clinical effect of drug
pharmacologic classification drug's "mechanism of action" (produced effect in the body)
Levels:
  • molecular
  • tissue
  • body system
prototype drug model for a drug class used for comparison of other drugs in the same class
may be replaced by newer drugs in it's class b/c of
  • higher effectiveness
  • higher safety profile
  • less side effects
  • longer duration of action
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drug names
  • chemical
  • generic
  • trade

chemical name
  • describes physical & chemical properties of drugs
  • assigned by standard nomenclature established by Internat'l Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
  • only one per drug
  • complicated & difficult to remember/pronounce
generic name
  • written in lowercase
  • one per drug
  • use by many organizations: FDA, WHO, US Pharmacopoeia
trade/brand name AKA proprietary, product, or brand name
Assigned by company marketing the drug (exclusive rights to company for 17 yrs)
  • several per drug
  • short, easy to remember
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bioavailability physiologic ability of drug to reach its target cells & produce its effects
  • generally better in brand name drugs than generic (faster onset)
controlled substances drugs restricted by law due to dependency & addiction
  • determined by Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention & Control Act (regulated by DEA)
  • 5 schedules (classes)
schedule I drugs highest potential for:
  • abuse
  • physical dependence
  • psychological dependence
limited/no therapeutic use

schedule II drugs need special written order form to obtain that's signed by a health care provider
  • only dispersed when therapeutic value is determined
  • telephone orders not allowed
  • no refills permitted
  • pt must see provider 1st

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schedule III drugs Moderate potential for:
  • abuse
  • physical dependence
High potential for psychological dependence
therapeutic use w/ Rx
schedule IV drugs Low potential for:
  • abuse
  • physical dependence
  • psychological dependence
therapeutic use w/ Rx
schedule V drugs Lowest potetial for:
  • abuse
  • physical dependence
  • psychological dependence
therapeutic use w/o Rx (OTC)
5 rights of pt medication
  • pt
  • medication
  • dose
  • route
  • time

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allergic reaction Acquired hyperresponse of body defenses to a foreign substance (allergen)

anaphylaxis Acute allergic response to an antigen that results in severe hypotension and may lead to life-threatening shock if untreated
  • massive release of histamine & other inflammatory chemical mediators
single order Medication given only once, and at a specific time
standing order Order written in advance of a situation that is to be carried out under specific circumstances
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routine order Order not written as STAT, ASAP, NOW, or PRN
enteral route Administration of drugs orally, and through nasogastric or gastrostomy tubes
topical route applications by dermatologic preparations, instillations & irrigations, & inhalations. Absorbed by mucous membranes/skin
  • eye & ear
  • nose & respiratory
  • vaginal
  • urinary
  • rectal
parenteral route require aseptic technique
  • intradermal
  • sub-Q
  • IM
  • IV

Generated by Koofers.com
pharmacokinetics study of drug movement throughout the body
pharmacokines study of drug movement throughout the body

pharmacodynamics how a medicine changes the body
  • relationship b/w drug concentration & body response
Generated by Koofers.com

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 pharmacokineticswhere drugs travel in the body
 pharmacodynamicsresponses drugs produce

 therapeuticsThe branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disease and suffering
 pharmacotherapyapplication of drugs for:
  • disease prevention
  • Tx of suffering
 traditional drugschemical agents synthesized in a lab that produce biological responses in the body
  • therapeutic = desirable
  • adverse = undesirable
 biologicsnaturally produced in animal cells by microorganisms or the body itself
Ex:
  • hormones
  • natural blood products
  • interferons
  • vaccines
 alternative therapiesnatural plant extracts, herbs, vitamins, minerals & techniques like acupuncture, hypnosis, biofeedback, & massage
 4 stages of FDA approval
  1. preclinical investigation
  2. clinical investigation
  3. review of new drug application (NDA)
  4. postmarketing surveillance

 preclinical investigationlab research
  • tests on cells/animals
  • determines drug dose range
  • examines adverse effects
  • results inconclusive

 clinical investigation3 clinical phase trials
  • longest part of approval process
  • evaluates human benefits
  • tests on healthy humans, then those w/ target ailment
 review of new drug application (NDA)if results of clinical investigation are positive (even w/ precautions)
  • avg time: 17-24 mos
  • if approved, continue process
  • if rejected,  process suspended
 postmarketing surveillancenew drug placed on market
  • surveyed for harmful effects
  • FDA holds annual meetings (drug withdrawn if serious problem is found)
 investigational new drug application (IND)Application to the FDA that contains all the animal and cell testing data
  • may be submitted for phase 1 clinical trials if significant therapeutic benefits are found & it's reasonably safe for initial human use

 therapeutic classificationclinical effect of drug
 pharmacologic classificationdrug's "mechanism of action" (produced effect in the body)
Levels:
  • molecular
  • tissue
  • body system
 prototype drugmodel for a drug class used for comparison of other drugs in the same class
may be replaced by newer drugs in it's class b/c of
  • higher effectiveness
  • higher safety profile
  • less side effects
  • longer duration of action
 drug names
  • chemical
  • generic
  • trade

 chemical name
  • describes physical & chemical properties of drugs
  • assigned by standard nomenclature established by Internat'l Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
  • only one per drug
  • complicated & difficult to remember/pronounce
 generic name
  • written in lowercase
  • one per drug
  • use by many organizations: FDA, WHO, US Pharmacopoeia
 trade/brand nameAKA proprietary, product, or brand name
Assigned by company marketing the drug (exclusive rights to company for 17 yrs)
  • several per drug
  • short, easy to remember
 bioavailabilityphysiologic ability of drug to reach its target cells & produce its effects
  • generally better in brand name drugs than generic (faster onset)
 controlled substancesdrugs restricted by law due to dependency & addiction
  • determined by Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention & Control Act (regulated by DEA)
  • 5 schedules (classes)
 schedule I drugshighest potential for:
  • abuse
  • physical dependence
  • psychological dependence
limited/no therapeutic use

 schedule II drugsneed special written order form to obtain that's signed by a health care provider
  • only dispersed when therapeutic value is determined
  • telephone orders not allowed
  • no refills permitted
  • pt must see provider 1st

 schedule III drugsModerate potential for:
  • abuse
  • physical dependence
High potential for psychological dependence
therapeutic use w/ Rx
 schedule IV drugsLow potential for:
  • abuse
  • physical dependence
  • psychological dependence
therapeutic use w/ Rx
 schedule V drugsLowest potetial for:
  • abuse
  • physical dependence
  • psychological dependence
therapeutic use w/o Rx (OTC)
 5 rights of pt medication
  • pt
  • medication
  • dose
  • route
  • time

 allergic reactionAcquired hyperresponse of body defenses to a foreign substance (allergen)

 anaphylaxisAcute allergic response to an antigen that results in severe hypotension and may lead to life-threatening shock if untreated
  • massive release of histamine & other inflammatory chemical mediators
 single orderMedication given only once, and at a specific time
 standing orderOrder written in advance of a situation that is to be carried out under specific circumstances
 routine orderOrder not written as STAT, ASAP, NOW, or PRN
 enteral routeAdministration of drugs orally, and through nasogastric or gastrostomy tubes
 topical routeapplications by dermatologic preparations, instillations & irrigations, & inhalations. Absorbed by mucous membranes/skin
  • eye & ear
  • nose & respiratory
  • vaginal
  • urinary
  • rectal
 parenteral routerequire aseptic technique
  • intradermal
  • sub-Q
  • IM
  • IV

 pharmacokineticsstudy of drug movement throughout the body
 pharmacokinesstudy of drug movement throughout the body

 pharmacodynamicshow a medicine changes the body
  • relationship b/w drug concentration & body response
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