Koofers

exam 1 - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:NUTR SCI 132 - Nutrition Today
Subject:NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES
University:University of Wisconsin - Madison
Term:Spring 2010
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
Polymer a molecule consisting of a repeating chain of one smaller molecule, i.e., starch is a polymer of starch
macronutrient needed in relatively large quantities-protein, carbohydrate, and fat (lipid)
enzyme protein that regulates body processes through its role in controlling chemical reactions
micronutrient nutrient needed in relatively small (microscopic) quantities-vitamins and minerals
Generated by Koofers.com
phytochemicals large group of chemical produced by plants, many of which have physiological effects on the human body and may be important in chronic disease prevention. despite their many benefits, they are not considered nutrients in the conventional sense, b/c no one of them is essential
cofounder factor associated w/some outcome that confuses or cofounds the determination of true cause and effect
generalizability degree to which one finding can be assumed to apply to some other group or situation
ethnography study of indigenous human cultural and ethnic groups
Generated by Koofers.com
indigenous having originated in a particular geographic area, as in indigenous, or native people
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) part of the federal government that provides most nutritional advice and education
adequacy intake of a particular nutrient that ensures the highest level of physiological functioning
deficiency intake of a particular nutrient that is insufficient to ensure physiological functioning. functioning declines.
Generated by Koofers.com
toxicity intake of a particular nutrient beyond what is needed to meet physiological needs, and high enough to actually impair physiological functioning
normal distribution frequency distribution in which most subjects are clustered around a central value, w/fewer subjects farther away from this central value. most biological traits are distributed in this pattern within a population. the classic bell-shaped curve.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) the mean of nutrient requirements in a population
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) level of recommended intake set at 2 standard deviations from the EAR. It's designated to meet the needs about 97% of the population
Generated by Koofers.com
standard deviation statistical term relating the spread of values from the mean in a distribution. describes how tightly grouped the distribution is.
Adequate Intake (AI) value similar to the RDA, but w/o as much scientific evidence behind it as the RDA
Upper Limit (UL) maximum intake of a particular nutrient that is safely tolerated
Pellagra disease caused by deficiency of niacin, a B vitamin
Generated by Koofers.com
Proportionality balance. the relative quantities of various food groups.
saturated fat type of fat w/particular chemical characteristics, generally found in animal products. high intakes have been linked to heart disease
cholesterol type of lipid linked to heart disease
nutrient density relationship of nutrient content to energy content of a food. a high nutrient density food provides a large quantity of nutrients for the number of calories
Generated by Koofers.com
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) part of the federal government that ensures safety of the food supply and regulates most food labeling
Daily Value (DV) value for daily intake usually based on the highest RDA and a 2000 or 2500 kcal diet. Used in food labeling to estimate the contribution of that food to the total diet.
motility process of moving food through the gut
peristalsis the rhythmic contraction of circular muscles surrounding the gut in such a way as to move food forward
Generated by Koofers.com
segmentation contraction of muscles surrounding the gut in such a way as to mix it with GI secretions
chyme the fluid mass of food in the intestinal lumen
bolus a mass of food in the gut
stomach digestive organ that acts as a reservoir and slowly releases food into the small intestine for digestion
Generated by Koofers.com
sphincters rings of muscles that act as valves, blocking or restricting flow
esophagus the passage connecting the mouth and the stomach
reflux flow of stomach acid back into the esophagus, resulting in heartburn
pyloric sphincter valve controlling flow of chyme from the stomach into the small intestine
Generated by Koofers.com
ileocecal valve valve separating the ileum from the colon
rectum final organ of the digestive tract, acting as a reservoir before elimination
secretion synthesis and release of substances by cells in response to stimuli
denature to act on protein in such a way as to change its chemical and physical properties, so that its configuration or shape is different
Generated by Koofers.com
protease enzyme responsible for protein digestion
bile secretion of the liver, stored in the gall bladder that emulsifies dietary lipid
emulsifier a substance that breaks fat droplets suspended in a water-based medium into smaller particles, and keeps them in suspension
digestion the chemical and mechanical breakdown of foods and of complex nutrient molecules into simpler components
Generated by Koofers.com
peptides short chains of amino acids; smaller than a protein
triglycerides primary form of lipid in the diet. formed of 3 fatty acids on a glycerol backbone.
monoglycerides digested form of triglycerides. these and free fatty acids are formed from lipid digestion. composed of one fatty acid on a glycerol base
churning muscular contractions of the gut, particularly the stomach, that grind food and mix it w/secretions
Generated by Koofers.com
absorption movement of nutrients from the intestinal lumen into the mucosal cells
lumen interior of the gut
mucosa cells of the gut lining
passive diffusion absorption of nutrients that doesn't require the input of energy. driven by a concentration gradient
Generated by Koofers.com
diffusion movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. contrast w/osmosis.
concentration gradient a change in concentration of a substance over a distance
facilitated diffusion movement of molecules across a membrane in the direction of a concentration gradient, aided by proteins embedded in the membrane
active transport absorption of nutrients against a concentration gradient, requiring the input of energy
Generated by Koofers.com
endocytosis absorption of large nutrient molecules involved the engulfing of the molecule by a portion of the cell membrane
antibodies a component of the immune system made from protein
amylase enzyme responsible for starch (amylose) digestion
lipase enzyme responsible for lipid digestion
Generated by Koofers.com
small intestine digestive organ responsible for most chemical breakdown of foods and most absorption
duodenum initial segment of the small intestine
jejunum middle section of the small intestine
ileum terminal segment of the small intestine
Generated by Koofers.com
villi microscopic fibers lining the surface of the intestinal lumen, responsible for nutrient absorption. they greatly increase surface area of the intestine
brush border intestinal villi
microvilli hair like projections on the surface of the villi that increase surface area
large intestine digestive organ mostly responsible for water reabsorption from chyme
Generated by Koofers.com
colon the large intestine
transit time amount of time food spends in passage through the gut
distillation physical method used to separate liquids based on their boiling points
alcohol dehydrogenase an enzyme used in alcohol metabolism
Generated by Koofers.com
cirrhosis loss of functioning liver cells, which are replaced by nonfunctioning connective tissue. any substance that poisons liver cells can lead to cirrhosis. the most common cause is a chronic, excessive alcohol intake. exposure to certain industrial chemicals can also lead to cirrhosis
ischemic stroke stroke caused by the absence of blood flow to a part of the brain
free radicals short-lived forms of compounds that exist w/an unpaired electron, causing it to seek an electron from another compound. free radicals can be very destructive to electron-dense cell components, such as DNA and cell membranes
acute alcohol intoxication temporary deterioration in mental function, accompanied by lack of coordination and partial paralysis, arising from drinking alcoholic beverages too rapidly
Generated by Koofers.com
serotonin neurotransmitter synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan than affects mood, behavior and appetite, and induces sleep
dopamine neurotransmitter in the CNS that leads to feelings of euphoria, among other functions; it's also used to form norepinephrine
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 78 Print
 
Front
Back
 Polymera molecule consisting of a repeating chain of one smaller molecule, i.e., starch is a polymer of starch
 macronutrientneeded in relatively large quantities-protein, carbohydrate, and fat (lipid)
 enzymeprotein that regulates body processes through its role in controlling chemical reactions
 micronutrientnutrient needed in relatively small (microscopic) quantities-vitamins and minerals
 phytochemicalslarge group of chemical produced by plants, many of which have physiological effects on the human body and may be important in chronic disease prevention. despite their many benefits, they are not considered nutrients in the conventional sense, b/c no one of them is essential
 cofounderfactor associated w/some outcome that confuses or cofounds the determination of true cause and effect
 generalizabilitydegree to which one finding can be assumed to apply to some other group or situation
 ethnographystudy of indigenous human cultural and ethnic groups
 indigenoushaving originated in a particular geographic area, as in indigenous, or native people
 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)part of the federal government that provides most nutritional advice and education
 adequacyintake of a particular nutrient that ensures the highest level of physiological functioning
 deficiencyintake of a particular nutrient that is insufficient to ensure physiological functioning. functioning declines.
 toxicityintake of a particular nutrient beyond what is needed to meet physiological needs, and high enough to actually impair physiological functioning
 normal distributionfrequency distribution in which most subjects are clustered around a central value, w/fewer subjects farther away from this central value. most biological traits are distributed in this pattern within a population. the classic bell-shaped curve.
 Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)the mean of nutrient requirements in a population
 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)level of recommended intake set at 2 standard deviations from the EAR. It's designated to meet the needs about 97% of the population
 standard deviationstatistical term relating the spread of values from the mean in a distribution. describes how tightly grouped the distribution is.
 Adequate Intake (AI)value similar to the RDA, but w/o as much scientific evidence behind it as the RDA
 Upper Limit (UL)maximum intake of a particular nutrient that is safely tolerated
 Pellagradisease caused by deficiency of niacin, a B vitamin
 Proportionalitybalance. the relative quantities of various food groups.
 saturated fattype of fat w/particular chemical characteristics, generally found in animal products. high intakes have been linked to heart disease
 cholesteroltype of lipid linked to heart disease
 nutrient densityrelationship of nutrient content to energy content of a food. a high nutrient density food provides a large quantity of nutrients for the number of calories
 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)part of the federal government that ensures safety of the food supply and regulates most food labeling
 Daily Value (DV)value for daily intake usually based on the highest RDA and a 2000 or 2500 kcal diet. Used in food labeling to estimate the contribution of that food to the total diet.
 motilityprocess of moving food through the gut
 peristalsisthe rhythmic contraction of circular muscles surrounding the gut in such a way as to move food forward
 segmentationcontraction of muscles surrounding the gut in such a way as to mix it with GI secretions
 chymethe fluid mass of food in the intestinal lumen
 bolusa mass of food in the gut
 stomachdigestive organ that acts as a reservoir and slowly releases food into the small intestine for digestion
 sphinctersrings of muscles that act as valves, blocking or restricting flow
 esophagusthe passage connecting the mouth and the stomach
 refluxflow of stomach acid back into the esophagus, resulting in heartburn
 pyloric sphinctervalve controlling flow of chyme from the stomach into the small intestine
 ileocecal valvevalve separating the ileum from the colon
 rectumfinal organ of the digestive tract, acting as a reservoir before elimination
 secretionsynthesis and release of substances by cells in response to stimuli
 denatureto act on protein in such a way as to change its chemical and physical properties, so that its configuration or shape is different
 proteaseenzyme responsible for protein digestion
 bilesecretion of the liver, stored in the gall bladder that emulsifies dietary lipid
 emulsifiera substance that breaks fat droplets suspended in a water-based medium into smaller particles, and keeps them in suspension
 digestionthe chemical and mechanical breakdown of foods and of complex nutrient molecules into simpler components
 peptidesshort chains of amino acids; smaller than a protein
 triglycerides primary form of lipid in the diet. formed of 3 fatty acids on a glycerol backbone.
 monoglyceridesdigested form of triglycerides. these and free fatty acids are formed from lipid digestion. composed of one fatty acid on a glycerol base
 churningmuscular contractions of the gut, particularly the stomach, that grind food and mix it w/secretions
 absorptionmovement of nutrients from the intestinal lumen into the mucosal cells
 lumeninterior of the gut
 mucosacells of the gut lining
 passive diffusionabsorption of nutrients that doesn't require the input of energy. driven by a concentration gradient
 diffusion movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. contrast w/osmosis.
 concentration gradienta change in concentration of a substance over a distance
 facilitated diffusionmovement of molecules across a membrane in the direction of a concentration gradient, aided by proteins embedded in the membrane
 active transportabsorption of nutrients against a concentration gradient, requiring the input of energy
 endocytosisabsorption of large nutrient molecules involved the engulfing of the molecule by a portion of the cell membrane
 antibodiesa component of the immune system made from protein
 amylaseenzyme responsible for starch (amylose) digestion
 lipaseenzyme responsible for lipid digestion
 small intestinedigestive organ responsible for most chemical breakdown of foods and most absorption
 duodenuminitial segment of the small intestine
 jejunummiddle section of the small intestine
 ileumterminal segment of the small intestine
 villimicroscopic fibers lining the surface of the intestinal lumen, responsible for nutrient absorption. they greatly increase surface area of the intestine
 brush borderintestinal villi
 microvillihair like projections on the surface of the villi that increase surface area
 large intestinedigestive organ mostly responsible for water reabsorption from chyme
 colonthe large intestine
 transit timeamount of time food spends in passage through the gut
 distillationphysical method used to separate liquids based on their boiling points
 alcohol dehydrogenasean enzyme used in alcohol metabolism
 cirrhosisloss of functioning liver cells, which are replaced by nonfunctioning connective tissue. any substance that poisons liver cells can lead to cirrhosis. the most common cause is a chronic, excessive alcohol intake. exposure to certain industrial chemicals can also lead to cirrhosis
 ischemic strokestroke caused by the absence of blood flow to a part of the brain
 free radicalsshort-lived forms of compounds that exist w/an unpaired electron, causing it to seek an electron from another compound. free radicals can be very destructive to electron-dense cell components, such as DNA and cell membranes
 acute alcohol intoxicationtemporary deterioration in mental function, accompanied by lack of coordination and partial paralysis, arising from drinking alcoholic beverages too rapidly
 serotoninneurotransmitter synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan than affects mood, behavior and appetite, and induces sleep
 dopamineneurotransmitter in the CNS that leads to feelings of euphoria, among other functions; it's also used to form norepinephrine
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"