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Class:ORPT 4030 - Interdisciplinary Outdoor Educ
Subject:Outdoor Rec, Parks & Tourism
University:Southern Utah University
Term:Spring Semester 2011
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What makes an effective learning environment? The Place, Presenter, Pupil and Interpersonal Process
Define Toponymic, Narrative, Experiential and Numinous Connections. . . Toponymic: Result in understanding real-life settings from learning about the names of places and topographical features. Narrative: Using stories and oral histories to connect students with real-life examples. Experiential: Furthering their understanding by living. Numinous: Furthering their understanding through a spiritual bond.
What are the array of values that surround the outdoors according to Roston and Ewert? Life-Support, Economic, recreational, scientific, aesthetical and spiritual
Explain Priest's model of outdoor education. . . Outdoor education is a method of teaching and learning that emphasizes direct, multi-sensory experiences; takes place in the outdoors; and uses an integrated approach to learning by involving the natural, community, and individual environments.
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How are non-formal, formal and informal educations similar? Different? Non-Formal: Is structured, but the physical setting is outside of a formal school building, nature based area (learning center or park) Formal: Occurs within an organized school system refers to the education that occurs in preschool through 12th grade. Informal: Entirely determined and controlled by the student, teach themselves and can result in higher retention. The way that they are similar is that they are all learning environments.
Contributors to outdoor Education John Amos: Children learn best through the use of their senses. Jean-Jacques, Johann Pestalozzi: Believed in the efficacy of divert experience. Frederick Gunn: Established the first organized camp, first teacher on record to provide outdoor camping experiences fro children. George L. Hinckley: Started the first church camp. Sumner Dudley: Established YMCA camp in 1885. Dr. Gulick: First organized camp for girls. Julian Smith: Complementing views of education on and for the outdoors.
Contributors Continued. . . L.B. Sharp: That which ought and can best be taught inside the school rooms should there be taught and that which can best be learned through the experience dealing directly with negative materials and life situations outside the school should there be learned. Paul Petzoldt: Founder of NOLS, Wilderness Education Assoc. and one of the first involved with Outward Bound in Colorado. Kurt Hahn: The founder of Outward Bound in Colorado.
What are the benefits of outdoor education? In formal settings? Informal settings? Formal Setting: A student must meet particular requirements prior to proceeding to the next level. This is the setting that that teachers can establish the strongest learning relationship with their students due to time involved. Informal Setting: Higher retention through trial and error.
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What does it take to be a professional outdoor educator? Good listener, being assertive, knowledgeable about the topic and lesson you are teaching, ability to effectively process and evaluate the lesson.
Are professionals different if they provide formal vs. informal instruction? A Professional would behave in more of a structurized manner in a formal setting whereas in an informal setting they may be more relaxed and veer away from typical protocol.
What are the components of a solid lesson plan? Knows the participants, knows the topic and has the skills to effectively deliver a solid lesson.
Professional responsibilities of an outdoor educator according to Gilbertson & Co-Authors Program organization, personal presentation and your role in the profession. Do you agree or disagree with this list?
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Give 3 examples of how you can build skills & knowledge in the field of outdoor education. . . Self-evaluating, practice and obtaining new skills
Explain what theory is and how it can help in teaching outdoors An explanation of a pattern of behavior, mostly predictable in that it will result from deliberate effort. Able to teach with purpose and meaning and is able to guide on what and how to teach.
Explain how John Dewey has influenced outdoor education. Advocates of modern education theory and philosophy -> instrumental in the development of constructivism. He also contributed the theories of Experiential education and Theory of personal meaning.
Summarize Dewey's theory of experience in your own words. . . Value of the experience is to be judged by the effect that experience has on the individual's present, their future, and the extent to which the individual is able to contribute to society.
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What is the central theme of Constructivism? The central theme is building on students prior knowledge and experience to help them to construct new learning.
Describe the 5 principles of Constructivism. . . 1. Preconceptions matter 2. Make it relevant 3. Teach concepts not facts 4. Create a challenge 5. Direct experience is important
What are the 4 stages of environmental literacy? 1. Survival 2. Physical Skill Acquisition 3. Relationships with the land and its inhabitants 4. Metaphysical
People move though the stages at different speeds depending upon 1. ____ and 2. ____. 1. Extent of skills 2. Experience in the outdoors
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According to the developmental stages of environmental learning, once you are literate are you always that literate? false
According to part 2: States in teaching environmental learning, 4 stages. 1. Sensory awareness 2. Skill development and training 3. Relationships (Ecological) 4. Environmental issues awareness and action
Explain the theory of personal meaning. . . Theory that learning must derive from the learner making meaning of what is being taught.
Define Experiential Education according to John Dewey. . . Education through direct experience. Ex: Learning about the outdoors by being directly outdoors and experiencing the topic at hand.
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What 4 principles guide experiential education as definded by the AEE? 1. The experience must be authentic 2. Common activity must be used among students 3. Activity guiding the experience must be planned 4. The teacher must guide the learning
How does multiple intelligences inform experiential teaching? By being aware that different people make sense of learning in different ways, you can plan your lessons with a wider range of examples and experiences.
List the 7 key variable in pre-assessing in audience. Would Daphne agree or disagree? 1. Gender 2. Age 3. Medical Conditions 4. Experience 5. Familiarity of group members 6. Abilities 7. Culture and Ethnicity
Give 3 strategies you could use for teaching a diverse audience. 1. Alternate leaders by gender, age, or other significant differences 2. Create opportunities for less vocal students to speak up or participate. 3. Allow females to struggle w/ problems the same way as you allow male students struggle w/ problems.
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How would Piaget describe early childhood, elementary school, adolescence, and adults? Early Childhood: short attention span, need attention and egocentric/ Elementary School: improving physical abilities, better understanding of how to get along w/ others. Adolescence: undergoing dramatic physical changes, growing attention span. Adult: Bring knowledge and experience to the learning situation, relevant subject matter.
What are the differences between adult and child learners? Children can make connections quicker and adults have more experience to fall back on and more potential connections for learning.
Describe 3 medical conditions outdoor educators need to be aware of. . . Asthma, cardiac emergencies, and allergies
Give an example of a generational difference. . . Cultural changes from generation to generation such as music, clothing, language, attitude and work ethic.
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Describe 3 ways you can work with people who are physically impaired. . . 1. Speak to the deaf child not the interpreter 2. Adjust distance planned to travel 3. Do not touch or assist someone in a wheelchair without asking.
What advice would you give somebody teaching a student w/ attention disorders? Chose quiet non-distracting study sites, allow student to move frequently
List at least 4 things you can do to increase your odds of success w/ students w/ A.D.D. 1. Begin each day with a review 2. Short instructions 3. Develop a secret signal to alert of inappropriate behavior 4. Keep student exhibiting inappropriate behavior close by
What advice would you give for teaching students w/ diverse cultural backgrounds? Read books and watch movies depicting different cultures. Subscribe to publications the represent a variety of cultures. Attend local cultural events
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What are the 4 foundations of the learning environment? Give examples of providing them. 1. Physical Safety - Physical needs are met 2. Understanding Psychological Safety - Cared for and Encouraged 3. Challenge - Must be present for learning to occur. 4. Relevance - Connects to students lives and releveant to previous experience.
List and describe the 4 major components of a learning environment. . . 1. Presenter 2. Pupil 3. Interpersonal Process 4. Place
Describe how each of the 4 components contributes to the learning environment. . . 1. Presenter - Ability effectively teach 2. Pupil - Attention and desire to learn 3. Interpersonal Process - Needs to be relevant 4. Place - Safe and free of distractions
Outline an effective student-management strategy. . . The expectations to establish w/ students should be clear limits, expectations and guidelines for the experience. Explain obtainable goals to set expectations. Adult Troublemaker - Connect w/ them right away by addressing inappropriate behavior. Teen Troublemaker - Address bad behavior by letting them know that you like them and not their behavior. Elementary Troublemakers - Remain calm, use consequences related to behavior and speak in a soft voice.
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Describe the characteristics of an instructional setting that meets student needs. . . When selecting a teaching site seek minimal distractions and dangers. Overcoming physical barriers/weather - Have and alternate plan or location in mind. Overcoming social barriers - Encourage an environment that is non-judgmental and free from humiliation. Overcoming instructor barriers - Maintain eye contact, utilize a loud clear voice. Transitions matter when planning for instructions because it can allow for distractions and disruption.
Explain the strengths and limitations of an indoor setting vs. an outdoor setting. Indoor Setting Strength- Can be more controlled, use of technology, convenient, safe Indoor Setting Limitation- not as authentic Outdoor Setting Strength- authentic, experiential Outdoor Setting Limitation- Little or no control over surrounding distractions or intruders
Explain managing transitions and logistics between settings w/in a lesson or course. Plan and prepare ahead of time, make transitions relevant
Describe the value of a lesson plan. Helps instructor stay focused, scheduled, and professional
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What is the difference between the 3-D's and Whole-Part-Whole? 3 D's- Describe, Demonstrate, Do Whole-Part-Whole- A sequence of teaching complex skills by demonstrating entire skill, then use 3 D's to help teach the skill.
Cont. Give an example of when you would use the one of your choice. 3 D's- Starting a friction fire by describing elements, demonstrating methods, and finally making a fire by friction. Whole-Part-Whole: Demonstrate starting friction fire, then go back and teach the 3 D's.
What are the Five E's? 1. Engage 2. Explore 3. Explain 4. Elaborate 5. Evaluate
List and explain the components of solid lesson plans. Objectives and Goals Direct Instruction- Audience ID Guided Practice Content and Methods Management and Safety Equipment Evaluation
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What makes an effective introduction? Grabs the attention of the audience Enticing Be positive High energy Be organized
What makes an effective conclusion? Connects the experience and becomes relevant and personal to the students
Why do intros and conclusions matter? Way in and way out Intro gains attention Conclusion wraps everything up, brings it all together making the experience meaningful
What role does reflection play in learning? Name three ways you can incorporate reflection. Allows student to connect. Without effective reflection and conclusion much of the potential meaning and transformative powers can be lost. 1. Timing 2. Setting 3. Trust & Disclosure
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Define assessment and give three examples of assessment techniques. Evaluates understanding of students and gives feedback to instructors. 1. Cognitive 2. Affective 3. Physical
What is the difference between formative and summative assessment? Formative- During Summative- After
What is authentic assessment? Students apply and demonstrate what they have learned to determine if lesson was successfully taught.
Describe what physical methods are and how they pertain to outdoor education? Methods that have hands on kinesthetic elements.
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Identify 3 physical methods and how you could use them in a lesson. 1. Physical manipulation- move students body to begin forming muscle memory, such as rowing. 2. Activities- Adds elements of fun enhancing ability to learn. Example: Relay Race 3. Theatrics- Teaches our emotions as well as our brains. Become a character to reinact the past. Example- Buffalo Soldier
Distinguish between cognitive, physical and affective methods. Cognitive- teaching methods that focus on knowledge Physical- learning through physical actions Affective- learning through emotions
Using Bloom's taxonomy write a cognitive, affective, and a physical objective. Cognitive- Student will be able to recite a policy Affective- Students will be able to participate in class discussions Physical- Students will be able to perform skills taught in lessons.
Describe appropriate use of cognitive methods. Builds knowledge by presenting information to the student in a one direction manner which is often referred to as teacher-centered.
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Identify 3 cognitive methods and explain how you us each in a lesson. 1. Service Leaning- doing a meaningful project that has direct relation to the land or the community. 2. Inquiry- the use of exploration in questioning to arrive at a conclusion 3. Videography- use of video to develop skills or demonstrate simulations
Describe affective teaching methods and give an example how you use 3 of them. Learning through emotions 1. Guided Discovery- teachers establish guidelines for solving a problem or completing a task, then guides the students as they attempt them. 2. Visual Imagery- Mental rehearsal of an event, program or action 3. Case Study- uses a real life example and encourages learning to take place by analyzing the event.
What is a standard? An expectation, required minimum, provides quality control, consistency and organization.
Who defines Standards? Governments Accrediting Bodies Organizations Businesses Institutions Teachers and Leaders
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How can standards guide an outdoor educator? Gives them an outline and expections
Define Environmental Literacy in your own words Ability to move comfortably in the outdoors and understand natural as well as human interactions
What role does environmental literacy play in outdoor recreation? Provides metaphorical lessons, applicable to everyday life.
What are 3 steps you can take to manage risk in outdoor education? 1. Evaluate the environments 2. Inform participants of safety measures like where first aid kit is located. Be prepared in case of emergencies. 3. Educate participants in warning signs of hypothermia, etc....
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 What makes an effective learning environment?The Place, Presenter, Pupil and Interpersonal Process
 Define Toponymic, Narrative, Experiential and Numinous Connections. . .Toponymic: Result in understanding real-life settings from learning about the names of places and topographical features.
Narrative: Using stories and oral histories to connect students with real-life examples.
Experiential: Furthering their understanding by living.
Numinous: Furthering their understanding through a spiritual bond.
 What are the array of values that surround the outdoors according to Roston and Ewert?Life-Support, Economic, recreational, scientific, aesthetical and spiritual
 Explain Priest's model of outdoor education. . .Outdoor education is a method of teaching and learning that emphasizes direct, multi-sensory experiences; takes place in the outdoors; and uses an integrated approach to learning by involving the natural, community, and individual environments.
 How are non-formal, formal and informal educations similar? Different?Non-Formal: Is structured, but the physical setting is outside of a formal school building, nature based area (learning center or park)
Formal: Occurs within an organized school system refers to the education that occurs in preschool through 12th grade.
Informal: Entirely determined and controlled by the student, teach themselves and can result in higher retention.
The way that they are similar is that they are all learning environments.
 Contributors to outdoor EducationJohn Amos: Children learn best through the use of their senses.
Jean-Jacques, Johann Pestalozzi: Believed in the efficacy of divert experience.
Frederick Gunn: Established the first organized camp, first teacher on record to provide outdoor camping experiences fro children.
George L. Hinckley: Started the first church camp.
Sumner Dudley: Established YMCA camp in 1885.
Dr. Gulick: First organized camp for girls.
Julian Smith: Complementing views of education on and for the outdoors.
 Contributors Continued. . .L.B. Sharp: That which ought and can best be taught inside the school rooms should there be taught and that which can best be learned through the experience dealing directly with negative materials and life situations outside the school should there be learned.
Paul Petzoldt: Founder of NOLS, Wilderness Education Assoc. and one of the first involved with Outward Bound in Colorado.
Kurt Hahn: The founder of Outward Bound in Colorado.
 What are the benefits of outdoor education? In formal settings? Informal settings?Formal Setting: A student must meet particular requirements prior to proceeding to the next level. This is the setting that that teachers can establish the strongest learning relationship with their students due to time involved.
Informal Setting: Higher retention through trial and error.
 What does it take to be a professional outdoor educator?Good listener, being assertive, knowledgeable about the topic and lesson you are teaching, ability to effectively process and evaluate the lesson.
 Are professionals different if they provide formal vs. informal instruction?A Professional would behave in more of a structurized manner in a formal setting whereas in an informal setting they may be more relaxed and veer away from typical protocol.
 What are the components of a solid lesson plan?Knows the participants, knows the topic and has the skills to effectively deliver a solid lesson.
 Professional responsibilities of an outdoor educator according to Gilbertson & Co-AuthorsProgram organization, personal presentation and your role in the profession.

Do you agree or disagree with this list?
 Give 3 examples of how you can build skills & knowledge in the field of outdoor education. . .Self-evaluating, practice and obtaining new skills
 Explain what theory is and how it can help in teaching outdoorsAn explanation of a pattern of behavior, mostly predictable in that it will result from deliberate effort. Able to teach with purpose and meaning and is able to guide on what and how to teach.
 Explain how John Dewey has influenced outdoor education.Advocates of modern education theory and philosophy -> instrumental in the development of constructivism. He also contributed the theories of Experiential education and Theory of personal meaning.
 Summarize Dewey's theory of experience in your own words. . .Value of the experience is to be judged by the effect that experience has on the individual's present, their future, and the extent to which the individual is able to contribute to society.
 What is the central theme of Constructivism?The central theme is building on students prior knowledge and experience to help them to construct new learning.
 Describe the 5 principles of Constructivism. . .1. Preconceptions matter
2. Make it relevant
3. Teach concepts not facts
4. Create a challenge
5. Direct experience is important
 What are the 4 stages of environmental literacy?1. Survival
2. Physical Skill Acquisition
3. Relationships with the land and its inhabitants
4. Metaphysical
 People move though the stages at different speeds depending upon 1. ____ and 2. ____.1. Extent of skills
2. Experience in the outdoors
 According to the developmental stages of environmental learning, once you are literate are you always that literate?false
 According to part 2: States in teaching environmental learning, 4 stages.1. Sensory awareness
2. Skill development and training
3. Relationships (Ecological)
4. Environmental issues awareness and action
 Explain the theory of personal meaning. . .Theory that learning must derive from the learner making meaning of what is being taught.
 Define Experiential Education according to John Dewey. . .Education through direct experience.
Ex: Learning about the outdoors by being directly outdoors and experiencing the topic at hand.
 What 4 principles guide experiential education as definded by the AEE?1. The experience must be authentic
2. Common activity must be used among students
3. Activity guiding the experience must be planned
4. The teacher must guide the learning
 How does multiple intelligences inform experiential teaching?By being aware that different people make sense of learning in different ways, you can plan your lessons with a wider range of examples and experiences.
 List the 7 key variable in pre-assessing in audience. Would Daphne agree or disagree?1. Gender
2. Age
3. Medical Conditions
4. Experience
5. Familiarity of group members
6. Abilities
7. Culture and Ethnicity
 Give 3 strategies you could use for teaching a diverse audience.1. Alternate leaders by gender, age, or other significant differences
2. Create opportunities for less vocal students to speak up or participate.
3. Allow females to struggle w/ problems the same way as you allow male students struggle w/ problems.
 How would Piaget describe early childhood, elementary school, adolescence, and adults?Early Childhood: short attention span, need attention and egocentric/
Elementary School: improving physical abilities, better understanding of how to get along w/ others.
Adolescence: undergoing dramatic physical changes, growing attention span.
Adult: Bring knowledge and experience to the learning situation, relevant subject matter.
 What are the differences between adult and child learners?Children can make connections quicker and adults have more experience to fall back on and more potential connections for learning.
 Describe 3 medical conditions outdoor educators need to be aware of. . .Asthma, cardiac emergencies, and allergies
 Give an example of a generational difference. . .Cultural changes from generation to generation such as music, clothing, language, attitude and work ethic.
 Describe 3 ways you can work with people who are physically impaired. . .1. Speak to the deaf child not the interpreter
2. Adjust distance planned to travel
3. Do not touch or assist someone in a wheelchair without asking.
 What advice would you give somebody teaching a student w/ attention disorders?Chose quiet non-distracting study sites, allow student to move frequently
 List at least 4 things you can do to increase your odds of success w/ students w/ A.D.D.1. Begin each day with a review
2. Short instructions
3. Develop a secret signal to alert of inappropriate behavior
4. Keep student exhibiting inappropriate behavior close by
 What advice would you give for teaching students w/ diverse cultural backgrounds?Read books and watch movies depicting different cultures.
Subscribe to publications the represent a variety of cultures.
Attend local cultural events
 What are the 4 foundations of the learning environment? Give examples of providing them.1. Physical Safety - Physical needs are met
2. Understanding Psychological Safety - Cared for and Encouraged
3. Challenge - Must be present for learning to occur.
4. Relevance - Connects to students lives and releveant to previous experience.

 List and describe the 4 major components of a learning environment. . .1. Presenter
2. Pupil
3. Interpersonal Process
4. Place
 Describe how each of the 4 components contributes to the learning environment. . .1. Presenter - Ability effectively teach
2. Pupil - Attention and desire to learn
3. Interpersonal Process - Needs to be relevant
4. Place - Safe and free of distractions
 Outline an effective student-management strategy. . .The expectations to establish w/ students should be clear limits, expectations and guidelines for the experience.
Explain obtainable goals to set expectations.
Adult Troublemaker - Connect w/ them right away by addressing inappropriate behavior.
Teen Troublemaker - Address bad behavior by letting them know that you like them and not their behavior.
Elementary Troublemakers - Remain calm, use consequences related to behavior and speak in a soft voice.
 Describe the characteristics of an instructional setting that meets student needs. . . When selecting a teaching site seek minimal distractions and dangers.
Overcoming physical barriers/weather - Have and alternate plan or location in mind.
Overcoming social barriers - Encourage an environment that is non-judgmental and free from humiliation.
Overcoming instructor barriers - Maintain eye contact, utilize a loud clear voice.
Transitions matter when planning for instructions because it can allow for distractions and disruption.
 Explain the strengths and limitations of an indoor setting vs. an outdoor setting.Indoor Setting Strength- Can be more controlled, use of technology, convenient, safe
Indoor Setting Limitation- not as authentic
Outdoor Setting Strength- authentic, experiential
Outdoor Setting Limitation- Little or no control over surrounding distractions or intruders
 Explain managing transitions and logistics between settings w/in a lesson or course.Plan and prepare ahead of time, make transitions relevant
 Describe the value of a lesson plan.Helps instructor stay focused, scheduled, and professional
 What is the difference between the 3-D's and Whole-Part-Whole? 3 D's- Describe, Demonstrate, Do

Whole-Part-Whole- A sequence of teaching complex skills by demonstrating entire skill, then use 3 D's to help teach the skill.
 Cont. Give an example of when you would use the one of your choice.3 D's- Starting a friction fire by describing elements, demonstrating methods, and finally making a fire by friction.

Whole-Part-Whole: Demonstrate starting friction fire, then go back and teach the 3 D's.
 What are the Five E's?1. Engage
2. Explore
3. Explain
4. Elaborate
5. Evaluate
 List and explain the components of solid lesson plans.Objectives and Goals
Direct Instruction- Audience ID
Guided Practice
Content and Methods
Management and Safety
Equipment
Evaluation
 What makes an effective introduction?Grabs the attention of the audience
Enticing
Be positive
High energy
Be organized
 What makes an effective conclusion?Connects the experience and becomes relevant and personal to the students
 Why do intros and conclusions matter?Way in and way out
Intro gains attention
Conclusion wraps everything up, brings it all together making the experience meaningful
 What role does reflection play in learning? Name three ways you can incorporate reflection.Allows student to connect.
Without effective reflection and conclusion much of the potential meaning and transformative powers can be lost.

1. Timing
2. Setting
3. Trust & Disclosure
 Define assessment and give three examples of assessment techniques.Evaluates understanding of students and gives feedback to instructors.

1. Cognitive
2. Affective
3. Physical
 What is the difference between formative and summative assessment?Formative- During

Summative- After
 What is authentic assessment?Students apply and demonstrate what they have learned to determine if lesson was successfully taught.
 Describe what physical methods are and how they pertain to outdoor education?Methods that have hands on kinesthetic elements.

 Identify 3 physical methods and how you could use them in a lesson.1. Physical manipulation- move students body to begin forming muscle memory, such as rowing.
2. Activities- Adds elements of fun enhancing ability to learn. Example: Relay Race
3. Theatrics- Teaches our emotions as well as our brains. Become a character to reinact the past. Example- Buffalo Soldier
 Distinguish between cognitive, physical and affective methods.Cognitive- teaching methods that focus on knowledge

Physical- learning through physical actions

Affective- learning through emotions
 Using Bloom's taxonomy write a cognitive, affective, and a physical objective.Cognitive- Student will be able to recite a policy

Affective- Students will be able to participate in class discussions

Physical- Students will be able to perform skills taught in lessons.
 Describe appropriate use of cognitive methods.Builds knowledge by presenting information to the student in a one direction manner which is often referred to as teacher-centered.
 Identify 3 cognitive methods and explain how you us each in a lesson.1. Service Leaning- doing a meaningful project that has direct relation to the land or the community.

2. Inquiry- the use of exploration in questioning to arrive at a conclusion

3. Videography- use of video to develop skills or demonstrate simulations
 Describe affective teaching methods and give an example how you use 3 of them.Learning through emotions

1. Guided Discovery- teachers establish guidelines for solving a problem or completing a task, then guides the students as they attempt them.
2. Visual Imagery- Mental rehearsal of an event, program or action
3. Case Study- uses a real life example and encourages learning to take place by analyzing the event.
 What is a standard?An expectation, required minimum, provides quality control, consistency and organization.
 Who defines Standards?Governments
Accrediting Bodies
Organizations
Businesses
Institutions
Teachers and Leaders
 How can standards guide an outdoor educator?Gives them an outline and expections
 Define Environmental Literacy in your own wordsAbility to move comfortably in the outdoors and understand natural as well as human interactions
 What role does environmental literacy play in outdoor recreation?Provides metaphorical lessons, applicable to everyday life.
 What are 3 steps you can take to manage risk in outdoor education?1. Evaluate the environments

2. Inform participants of safety measures like where first aid kit is located. Be prepared in case of emergencies.

3. Educate participants in warning signs of hypothermia, etc....
  Definition
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