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Ch. 5 Development of the Nervous System - Flashcards

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Class:OTH 4418 - Impact of Neurological Dysfunction on Human Performance
Subject:Occupational Therapy
University:Florida International University
Term:Spring 2011
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anencephaly

a developmental defect characterized by development of a rudimentary brainstem without cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres

Arnold-Chiari deformity

developmental malformation of the hindbrain, with

elongation of the inferior cerebellum and medulla. The inferior cerebellum and medulla protrude into the vertebral canal.

association plate dorsal section of the neural tube that becomes the dorsal horn in the

spinal cord

cerebral palsy

motor disorder that develops in utero or during infancy. Characterized by muscle hyperstiffness.

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critical period time that neuronal projections are competing for synaptic sites
dermatome the part of the somite that becomes dermis, or after the embryo stage. The dermis innervated by a single spinal nerve
growing into deficit signs and symptoms of nervous system damage that do not become evident until the systems damaged would have become functional
mantle layer during development, the inner wall of the neural tube
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marginal layer during development the outer wall of the neural tube
myelination the process of aquiring a myelin sheath
myotome during development, the part of a somite that becomes muscle, or after the embryo stage, a group of muscles innervated by a segmental spinal nerve
neural crest during development,the part of the ectoderm that will become the peripheral sensory neurons, myelin cells, autonomic neurons, and endocrine organs (adrenal medulla & pancreatic islets)
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neural groove during development, the depression formed by the infolding of the neural plate: become the neural tube
neural plate during development, the thickened ectoderm on the surface of an embryo:becomes the neural tube
sclerotome during development, the part of a somite that becomes the vertebrae and skull
somite during development, the part of the mesoderm that will become dermis, bone, and muscle
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spina bifida a developmental defect resulting from failure of the inferior part of the neural tube to close
c. fetal stage Myelination of axon begins?
a.Preembryonic stage
b.Embryonic stage    
c.Fetal stage
a. preembryonic stage

Development of endoderm, mesoderm, & ectoderm?
a.Preembryonic stage
b.Embryonic stage    
c.Fetal stage

b. embryonic stage Formation of organs?
a.Preembryonic stage
b.Embryonic stage    
c.Fetal stage
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During the embryonic stage, the longitudinal thickening of the ectoderm is called the___? neural plate
How is the neural tube formed?

by the closure of the edges of the neural plate over the

neural groove

What are the open ends of the neural tube called__? neuropores
b. mesoderm Somites are derived from which preembryonic cell layer?
a.endoderm
b.mesoderm
c.ectoderm
d.neural crest
e. none
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d. somites are added in a caudal to rostral direction

Which of the following is not a true statement about somites?

a. sclerotome develops into the vertebrae & skull

b. myotome develops into skeletal muscle

c. dermatome develops into skin

d. somites are added in a caudal to rostral direction

e. somites develop adjacent to the neural groove

b.proliferate to form motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscle & interneurons

What is the function of neurons that develop in the ventral region of the neural tube?

a.proliferate to form interneurons & projection neurons

b.proliferate to form motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscle & interneurons

c.proliferate to form interneurons of the autonomic nervous system

d. a & b

e. a, b, & c

d. spina bifida occulta

Which form of spina bifida is least severe  & usually does not result in neural symptoms?

a. spina bifida w/ myeloschisis

b.spina bifida w/ meningomyecele

c.  spina bifida w/ meningocele

d. spina bifida occulta

e. all forms of spina bifida result in neural symptoms

Hindbrain Medulla & pons
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Midbrain Midbrain
Forebrain Thalamus & Cerebral hemispheres
Why are the caudate nucleus and lateral ventricles C shaped?

Expansion of the hemispheres inferolaterally to form the temporal lobe

How does a growth cone alter the membrane of neurons in the enviornment?

When the growth cone of a presynaptic neuron contacts its target cell, repeatedrelease of neurotransmitter stimulates development of receptor sites on the postsynaptic membrane.

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Where is the main site of damage to the Nervous system in athetoid cerebral palsy?

The basal ganglia

Anencephaly formation of rudimentary brainstem w/o cerebral & cerebellar hemispheres
Arnold-Chiari deformity

 Elongation of the inferior cerebellum & medulla, which protrude into the vertebral canal. Malformation of both the pons & medulla

 

spina bifida

 failure of the distal neural tube to close

 

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Fetal alcohol syndrome

impaired CNS, growth deficiencies, & facial anomalies

 

Cerebral palsy primarily motor disorder caused by permanent, nonprogressive damage to a developing brain
Tethered cord syndrome  end of the spinal cord adheres to the one of the lower vertebrae
When do organs form during development? embryonic stage
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List the steps in formation of the neural tube.
  1. thickening of the ectoderm becomes the neural plate
  2. edges of the plate move toward each other, forming the neural groove
  3. fold touch in the dorsal midline, 1st in the future cervical region
  4. the folds fuse together, forming a tube that detaches from the neural crest cells & from the ectoderm that will become skin

What is a myotome?

in early development :part of the somite that will become muscle


After embryo stage: a group of muscles innervated by a segmental spinal nerve

Describe the changes in the neural tube that lead to formation of the brain.

1. after the superior neuropore closes, region of neural tube that will become the brain expands to form 3 enlargements: hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain.

2. hindbrain divides into myelencephalon & metencephalon, while forebrain divides into diencephalon & telencephalon.

3. the myelencephalon & metencephalon further differentiate to become the medulla, pons, & cerebellum

4. telencephalon becomes the cerebral hemispheres

List progressive processes of cellular-level development. cellular proliferation, migration, & growth; extension of axons to target cells; formation of synapses; myelination of axons
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Describe the regressive processes of cellular-level development. neuronal death & axon retraction
Explain the concept of "growing into deficit"? the apperance of signs of NS damage during infancy & childhood due to NS damage that occured earlier. Signs not evident till age of normal function
Describe the anatomical deficit in each of the following: 1. anecephaly, 2.Arnold-Chiari malformation, 3. the 4 types of spinal bifida

1. development of only rudimentary brainstem, w/o cerebral  & cerebellar hemispheres

2. malformation of hindbrain, w/ elongated inferior cerebellum & medulla that protrude into the verebral canal

3. incomplete closure of the caudal neural tube

What are the differences b/t Arnold-Chiari type I & II?

- a developmental disformity in hinbrain

 

Type I: the cerebellar tonsils protrude through the foramen magnum in the vertebral canal, & medulla/pons are malformed; usually no symptoms, somtimes delayed until adolescence or adulthood; headaches, sensory & motor disorders, facial/tongue weakness, hearing loss, dizzy, weak lateral eye movements, impaired coordination & visual disturbances.

 

Type II: Signs are visable during infancy. Brainstem & cerebellum protrude into the vertebral canal. Signs: paralysis of sternocleidomastoid muscles, deafness, bilateral paresis of lateral eye movements, facial weakness

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About half of the cases of severe mental retardation are associated w/ what developmental defect? -defects in the structure of dendrites & dendritic spines
What is cerebral palsy? List the major types of cerebral palsy. What causes it?

-a disorder of movement & postural control of movement due to permanent, nonprogressive damage of a developing brain.

 

Types: spastic, athenoid, mixed

 

Causes: abnormal development in utero, metabolic abnormalities, disorders of the immune system, coagulation disorders, infections, trauma, & hypoxia

 

What are critical periods?

-The time when neuronal projections compete for synaptic sites.

-Normal funct. of neural systems is dependent on appropriate experience during the critical period

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 anencephaly

a developmental defect characterized by development of a rudimentary brainstem without cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres

 Arnold-Chiari deformity

developmental malformation of the hindbrain, with

elongation of the inferior cerebellum and medulla. The inferior cerebellum and medulla protrude into the vertebral canal.

 association platedorsal section of the neural tube that becomes the dorsal horn in the

spinal cord

 cerebral palsy

motor disorder that develops in utero or during infancy. Characterized by muscle hyperstiffness.

 critical periodtime that neuronal projections are competing for synaptic sites
 dermatomethe part of the somite that becomes dermis, or after the embryo stage. The dermis innervated by a single spinal nerve
 growing into deficitsigns and symptoms of nervous system damage that do not become evident until the systems damaged would have become functional
 mantle layerduring development, the inner wall of the neural tube
 marginal layerduring development the outer wall of the neural tube
 myelinationthe process of aquiring a myelin sheath
 myotomeduring development, the part of a somite that becomes muscle, or after the embryo stage, a group of muscles innervated by a segmental spinal nerve
 neural crestduring development,the part of the ectoderm that will become the peripheral sensory neurons, myelin cells, autonomic neurons, and endocrine organs (adrenal medulla & pancreatic islets)
 neural grooveduring development, the depression formed by the infolding of the neural plate: become the neural tube
 neural plateduring development, the thickened ectoderm on the surface of an embryo:becomes the neural tube
 sclerotomeduring development, the part of a somite that becomes the vertebrae and skull
 somiteduring development, the part of the mesoderm that will become dermis, bone, and muscle
 spina bifidaa developmental defect resulting from failure of the inferior part of the neural tube to close
 c. fetal stageMyelination of axon begins?
a.Preembryonic stage
b.Embryonic stage    
c.Fetal stage
 a. preembryonic stage

Development of endoderm, mesoderm, & ectoderm?
a.Preembryonic stage
b.Embryonic stage    
c.Fetal stage

 b. embryonic stageFormation of organs?
a.Preembryonic stage
b.Embryonic stage    
c.Fetal stage
 During the embryonic stage, the longitudinal thickening of the ectoderm is called the___?neural plate
 How is the neural tube formed?

by the closure of the edges of the neural plate over the

neural groove

 What are the open ends of the neural tube called__?neuropores
 b. mesodermSomites are derived from which preembryonic cell layer?
a.endoderm
b.mesoderm
c.ectoderm
d.neural crest
e. none
 d. somites are added in a caudal to rostral direction

Which of the following is not a true statement about somites?

a. sclerotome develops into the vertebrae & skull

b. myotome develops into skeletal muscle

c. dermatome develops into skin

d. somites are added in a caudal to rostral direction

e. somites develop adjacent to the neural groove

 b.proliferate to form motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscle & interneurons

What is the function of neurons that develop in the ventral region of the neural tube?

a.proliferate to form interneurons & projection neurons

b.proliferate to form motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscle & interneurons

c.proliferate to form interneurons of the autonomic nervous system

d. a & b

e. a, b, & c

 d. spina bifida occulta

Which form of spina bifida is least severe  & usually does not result in neural symptoms?

a. spina bifida w/ myeloschisis

b.spina bifida w/ meningomyecele

c.  spina bifida w/ meningocele

d. spina bifida occulta

e. all forms of spina bifida result in neural symptoms

 HindbrainMedulla & pons
 MidbrainMidbrain
 ForebrainThalamus & Cerebral hemispheres
 Why are the caudate nucleus and lateral ventricles C shaped?

Expansion of the hemispheres inferolaterally to form the temporal lobe

 How does a growth cone alter the membrane of neurons in the enviornment?

When the growth cone of a presynaptic neuron contacts its target cell, repeatedrelease of neurotransmitter stimulates development of receptor sites on the postsynaptic membrane.

 Where is the main site of damage to the Nervous system in athetoid cerebral palsy?

The basal ganglia

 Anencephalyformation of rudimentary brainstem w/o cerebral & cerebellar hemispheres
 Arnold-Chiari deformity

 Elongation of the inferior cerebellum & medulla, which protrude into the vertebral canal. Malformation of both the pons & medulla

 

 spina bifida

 failure of the distal neural tube to close

 

 Fetal alcohol syndrome

impaired CNS, growth deficiencies, & facial anomalies

 

 Cerebral palsyprimarily motor disorder caused by permanent, nonprogressive damage to a developing brain
 Tethered cord syndrome end of the spinal cord adheres to the one of the lower vertebrae
 When do organs form during development?embryonic stage
 List the steps in formation of the neural tube.
  1. thickening of the ectoderm becomes the neural plate
  2. edges of the plate move toward each other, forming the neural groove
  3. fold touch in the dorsal midline, 1st in the future cervical region
  4. the folds fuse together, forming a tube that detaches from the neural crest cells & from the ectoderm that will become skin

 What is a myotome?

in early development :part of the somite that will become muscle


After embryo stage: a group of muscles innervated by a segmental spinal nerve

 Describe the changes in the neural tube that lead to formation of the brain.

1. after the superior neuropore closes, region of neural tube that will become the brain expands to form 3 enlargements: hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain.

2. hindbrain divides into myelencephalon & metencephalon, while forebrain divides into diencephalon & telencephalon.

3. the myelencephalon & metencephalon further differentiate to become the medulla, pons, & cerebellum

4. telencephalon becomes the cerebral hemispheres

 List progressive processes of cellular-level development.cellular proliferation, migration, & growth; extension of axons to target cells; formation of synapses; myelination of axons
 Describe the regressive processes of cellular-level development.neuronal death & axon retraction
 Explain the concept of "growing into deficit"?the apperance of signs of NS damage during infancy & childhood due to NS damage that occured earlier. Signs not evident till age of normal function
 Describe the anatomical deficit in each of the following: 1. anecephaly, 2.Arnold-Chiari malformation, 3. the 4 types of spinal bifida

1. development of only rudimentary brainstem, w/o cerebral  & cerebellar hemispheres

2. malformation of hindbrain, w/ elongated inferior cerebellum & medulla that protrude into the verebral canal

3. incomplete closure of the caudal neural tube

 What are the differences b/t Arnold-Chiari type I & II?

- a developmental disformity in hinbrain

 

Type I: the cerebellar tonsils protrude through the foramen magnum in the vertebral canal, & medulla/pons are malformed; usually no symptoms, somtimes delayed until adolescence or adulthood; headaches, sensory & motor disorders, facial/tongue weakness, hearing loss, dizzy, weak lateral eye movements, impaired coordination & visual disturbances.

 

Type II: Signs are visable during infancy. Brainstem & cerebellum protrude into the vertebral canal. Signs: paralysis of sternocleidomastoid muscles, deafness, bilateral paresis of lateral eye movements, facial weakness

 About half of the cases of severe mental retardation are associated w/ what developmental defect?-defects in the structure of dendrites & dendritic spines
 What is cerebral palsy? List the major types of cerebral palsy. What causes it?

-a disorder of movement & postural control of movement due to permanent, nonprogressive damage of a developing brain.

 

Types: spastic, athenoid, mixed

 

Causes: abnormal development in utero, metabolic abnormalities, disorders of the immune system, coagulation disorders, infections, trauma, & hypoxia

 

 What are critical periods?

-The time when neuronal projections compete for synaptic sites.

-Normal funct. of neural systems is dependent on appropriate experience during the critical period

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