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Ch.1 Intro. to Neuroscience - Flashcards

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Class:OTH 4418 - Impact of Neurological Dysfunction on Human Performance
Subject:Occupational Therapy
University:Florida International University
Term:Spring 2011
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Positron emission tomography (PET) scan creates an image of local blood flow, indirectly indicating neural activity
Electron microscopy allows visualization of microscopic cellular organelles
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides anatomic images and info about blood flow
Microelectrode recording records the activity of a single cell
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Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan produces an image of the density of areas within the NS
What level of analysis is used to investigate human postural control?

Behavioral level of analysis

What level of analysis is used to investigate how an individual neuron functions? cellular level of analysis
What are the motor functions of cranial nerves I and II?

Cranial nerves I (olfactory) and II (optic) do not have motor functions; they are purely sensory.

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Peripheral region median nerve
spinal region ventral roots
brainstem-cerebellar region medulla
cerebral region diencephalon
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What 2 systems provide essential nutritive support to the Nervous System?

cerebrospinal fluid and vascular systems

What is a midsagittal section of the brain?

A midsagittal section is a section of the brain produced by dividing the brain into left and right halves.

What is a lemniscus?

bundle of myelinated axons within the central nervous system

What is the difference in fuction b/t the white and gray matter?

White matter consists of myelinated axons that convey information among parts of the nervous system. Gray matter consists of neuronal cell bodies that function in signaling and information integration.

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Peripheral region conveys info. from sensory receptors into the CNS and from the CNS to skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, and glands
Spinal region conveys info. b/t the periphery and the brain, & houses portions of the autoimmune system
brainstem-cerebellar region conveys info. b/t the cerebrum & spinal cord. Region of sensory & motor integration & control of vital functions
Cerebral region involved in motor control, sensory processing, memory, reasoning, verbal & nonverbal communication
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vertebral artery

>anterior and poster spinal nerves

>posterior & inferior cerebellar artery

basilar artery

>anterior inferior cerebellar artery

>posterior cerebellar artery

>superior cerebellar artery

Internal carotid artery >anterior cerebral artery
c. chronic

"I've been having a little trouble w/ coordination in my right leg, gradually getting worse over the past several months"

a. acute

b. subacute

c. chronic

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b. subacute

" For 3 days now, I've had breif spells of dizziness and felt like I was about to fall"

a. acute

b. subacute

c. chronic

a. acute

"I woke up this morning with sharp pain running down the back of my left leg; yeterday I was fine.."

a. acute

b. subacute

c. chronic

anterior cerebral artery

vessel that provides blood to the medial surface of the frontal

and parietal lobes and the anterior head of the caudate. A branch of the internal carotid artery.

anterior choroidal artery

a branch of the internal carotid artery that provides blood to

the optic tract, choroid plexus in the lateral ventricles, and parts of the optic radiations, putamen, thalamus, internal capsule, and hippocampus

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basal ganglia

interconnected group of nuclei involved in comparing proprioceptive

information and movement commands, sequencing movements, and regulating muscle tone and muscle force. May select and inhibit muscle synergies. Consists of the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and pedunculopontine nucleus.

basilar artery

vessel that provides blood to the pons and most of the cerebellum.

Formed near the pontomedullary junction by the union of the vertebral arteries. Divides to become the posterior cerebral arteries.

circle of Willis

anastomotic ring of nine arteries, supplying all of the blood to the

cerebral hemispheres. Consists of two anterior cerebral arteries, two internal carotids, two posterior cerebral arteries, one anterior communicating artery, and two posterior communicating arteries.

diecephalon

centrally located part of the cerebrum, consisting of the thalamus,

hypothalamus, epithalamus, and subthalamus

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lesion

an area of damage or dysfunction; a pathologic change that may be structural or functional

glia

the support cells of the nervous system, including oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, astrocytes, and microglia

internal carotid artery

vessel that provides blood to the anterior, superior, and lateral

cerebral hemispheres via its branches, the anterior and middle cerebral and the anterior choroidal arteries

interneuron

neurons that either process information locally or convey information short distances from one site in the nervous system to another

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limbic system

group of structures involved in emotions, processing of declarative

memories, and autonomic control. Includes parts of the hypothalamus, thalamus, limbic cortex (cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus), hippocampus,

amygdala, and the basal forebrain (septal area, preoptic area, nucleus accumbens, and

the basal nucleus of Meynert

middle cerebral artery

vessel whose branches fan out to provide blood to most of the

lateral hemisphere. A branch of the internal carotid artery

posterior cerebral artery

vessel that provides blood to the midbrain, occipital lobe, and

parts of the medial and inferior temporal lobes. A branch of the basilar artery.

posterior chorodial artery

a branch of the posterior cerebral artery that provides blood

to the choroid plexus of the third ventricle and parts of the thalamus and hippocampus

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vertebral artery

vessel that provides blood to the brainstem, cerebellum, and the

posteroinferior cerebrum. Branch of the subclavian artery

watershed area

area of marginal blood flow on the surface of the lateral hemispheres, where small anastomoses link the ends of the cerebral arteries

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 Positron emission tomography (PET) scancreates an image of local blood flow, indirectly indicating neural activity
 Electron microscopyallows visualization of microscopic cellular organelles
 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)provides anatomic images and info about blood flow
 Microelectrode recordingrecords the activity of a single cell
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scanproduces an image of the density of areas within the NS
 What level of analysis is used to investigate human postural control?

Behavioral level of analysis

 What level of analysis is used to investigate how an individual neuron functions?cellular level of analysis
 What are the motor functions of cranial nerves I and II?

Cranial nerves I (olfactory) and II (optic) do not have motor functions; they are purely sensory.

 Peripheral regionmedian nerve
 spinal regionventral roots
 brainstem-cerebellar regionmedulla
 cerebral regiondiencephalon
 What 2 systems provide essential nutritive support to the Nervous System?

cerebrospinal fluid and vascular systems

 What is a midsagittal section of the brain?

A midsagittal section is a section of the brain produced by dividing the brain into left and right halves.

 What is a lemniscus?

bundle of myelinated axons within the central nervous system

 What is the difference in fuction b/t the white and gray matter?

White matter consists of myelinated axons that convey information among parts of the nervous system. Gray matter consists of neuronal cell bodies that function in signaling and information integration.

 Peripheral regionconveys info. from sensory receptors into the CNS and from the CNS to skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, and glands
 Spinal regionconveys info. b/t the periphery and the brain, & houses portions of the autoimmune system
 brainstem-cerebellar regionconveys info. b/t the cerebrum & spinal cord. Region of sensory & motor integration & control of vital functions
 Cerebral regioninvolved in motor control, sensory processing, memory, reasoning, verbal & nonverbal communication
 vertebral artery

>anterior and poster spinal nerves

>posterior & inferior cerebellar artery

 basilar artery

>anterior inferior cerebellar artery

>posterior cerebellar artery

>superior cerebellar artery

 Internal carotid artery>anterior cerebral artery
 c. chronic

"I've been having a little trouble w/ coordination in my right leg, gradually getting worse over the past several months"

a. acute

b. subacute

c. chronic

 b. subacute

" For 3 days now, I've had breif spells of dizziness and felt like I was about to fall"

a. acute

b. subacute

c. chronic

 a. acute

"I woke up this morning with sharp pain running down the back of my left leg; yeterday I was fine.."

a. acute

b. subacute

c. chronic

 anterior cerebral artery

vessel that provides blood to the medial surface of the frontal

and parietal lobes and the anterior head of the caudate. A branch of the internal carotid artery.

 anterior choroidal artery

a branch of the internal carotid artery that provides blood to

the optic tract, choroid plexus in the lateral ventricles, and parts of the optic radiations, putamen, thalamus, internal capsule, and hippocampus

 basal ganglia

interconnected group of nuclei involved in comparing proprioceptive

information and movement commands, sequencing movements, and regulating muscle tone and muscle force. May select and inhibit muscle synergies. Consists of the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and pedunculopontine nucleus.

 basilar artery

vessel that provides blood to the pons and most of the cerebellum.

Formed near the pontomedullary junction by the union of the vertebral arteries. Divides to become the posterior cerebral arteries.

 circle of Willis

anastomotic ring of nine arteries, supplying all of the blood to the

cerebral hemispheres. Consists of two anterior cerebral arteries, two internal carotids, two posterior cerebral arteries, one anterior communicating artery, and two posterior communicating arteries.

 diecephalon

centrally located part of the cerebrum, consisting of the thalamus,

hypothalamus, epithalamus, and subthalamus

 lesion

an area of damage or dysfunction; a pathologic change that may be structural or functional

 glia

the support cells of the nervous system, including oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, astrocytes, and microglia

 internal carotid artery

vessel that provides blood to the anterior, superior, and lateral

cerebral hemispheres via its branches, the anterior and middle cerebral and the anterior choroidal arteries

 interneuron

neurons that either process information locally or convey information short distances from one site in the nervous system to another

 limbic system

group of structures involved in emotions, processing of declarative

memories, and autonomic control. Includes parts of the hypothalamus, thalamus, limbic cortex (cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus), hippocampus,

amygdala, and the basal forebrain (septal area, preoptic area, nucleus accumbens, and

the basal nucleus of Meynert

 middle cerebral artery

vessel whose branches fan out to provide blood to most of the

lateral hemisphere. A branch of the internal carotid artery

 posterior cerebral artery

vessel that provides blood to the midbrain, occipital lobe, and

parts of the medial and inferior temporal lobes. A branch of the basilar artery.

 posterior chorodial artery

a branch of the posterior cerebral artery that provides blood

to the choroid plexus of the third ventricle and parts of the thalamus and hippocampus

 vertebral artery

vessel that provides blood to the brainstem, cerebellum, and the

posteroinferior cerebrum. Branch of the subclavian artery

 watershed area

area of marginal blood flow on the surface of the lateral hemispheres, where small anastomoses link the ends of the cerebral arteries

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