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Ch.4: Neuroplasticity - Flashcards

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Class:OTH 4418 - Impact of Neurological Dysfunction on Human Performance
Subject:Occupational Therapy
University:Florida International University
Term:Spring 2011
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collateral spouting

reinnervation of a denervated target by branches of intact axons

 

denervation hypersensitivity increased response to a neurotransmitter b/c new receptor sites have developed on the postsynaptic membrane
excitotoxicity overexcitation of a neuron, leading to cell death
glutamate

an excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter.

-excessive amts. can be toxic to neurons

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habituation

a form of short-term plasticity. repeated stimuli result in a decreased response, owing to a decrease in the amt. of neurotransmitter released from the presynaptic terminal of a sensory neuron

 

 

long-term potential (LTP) a cellular mechanism for memory that results from the syntesis & activation of new proteins and the growth of new synaptic connections
regenerative sprouting injured axon sends out side sprouts to a new target
synaptic effectiveness functional activation of postsynaptic receptors in response to the release of neurotransmitter from a presynaptic terminal
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synaptic hypereffectiveness increased response to a neurotransmitter because damage to some branchers of a synaptic axon results in larger than normal amts. of transmitter being released by the remaing axons onto postsynaptic recptors
unmasking of silent synapses the disinhibition or reactivation of functional synapses that are unused unless injury to other pathways necessitates their activation
wallerian degeneration degeneration and death of the distal segment of a severed axon
Habituation in a person w/ a vestibular disorder, a decreased neural response to movements that formerly induced dizziness & nausea
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Long-term potentiation learning a person's name
Wallerian degeneration after severance of the median nerve, the distal segments of severed axons degenerate
central chromatolysis after injury to axons of the ulnar nerve, the associated cell bodies undergo degenerative changes
sprouting after severance of the median nerve, the proximal segments of the severed axons regrow
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X partially severed the median nerve in his forearm. Approximately how many days should it take for the axons to reinnervate the thenar muscles whose motor pts are 18 mm from the site of injury?

Peripheral nerve regeneration occurs at a rate of approx 1 mm per day therefore it will require approximately 18 days.

Twenty days after the injury X returns to therapy, concerned that when he tries to move his thumb one direction the thumb actually moves in an unintended direction. What is the name of this disorder?

Synkinesis is a phenomenon that occurs following peripheral nerve injury caused by the axon sprouting to the inappropriate target muscle, resulting in unintended movements.

Will X need surgery to correct the movement disorder? Why or why not?

No, surgery will not be required to reverse the synkinesis. X will learn to produce the intended thumb movements by practicing the movements.

unmasking of silent synapses synapses that were inactive b4 a lesion become active after the lesion become active after the lesion
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functional reorganization changes in the cortical representation following ampulation or prolonged nonuse
excitotoxicity overexcitation of a neuron leading to death of the neuron
recovery of synaptic effectiveness resolution of local edema causes synapses that were inactive as a result of compression of presynaptic neuron
denervation hypersensitivity development of new receptor sites on the postsynaptic membrane after presynaptic terminals are destroyed
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synaptic hypereffectiveness following destruction of some axon branches of a presynaptic neuron, the remaining axon branches recieve all of the neurotransmitter that would fomerly have been shared by more endings
c.release glutamate, which can cause overexcitation of surrounding neurons

Neurons that are deprived of oxygen for a prolonged period?

a.release glycine, which inhibits the postsynaptic neurons & prevents neural funct. even in neurons not affected directly by the oxygen deprivation

b.become inactive & then slowly regenerate

c.release glutamate, which can cause overexcitation of surrounding neurons

d. a,b,c

e. none

d.persistent binding of glutamate to NMDA-type receptors in the postsynaptic cell membrane

Excitotoxicity begins with:

a.excessive production of lactic acid

b.destruction of cellular proteins

c.cellular edema

d.persistent binding of glutamate to NMDA-type receptors in the postsynaptic cell membrane

e.interference w/ the functions of mitochondria

b. memory of names & events

Which of the following types of memory would be affected by aninjury to the hippocampus?

a. motor memory for riding a bike

b. memory of names & events

c. memory of visual landmarks

d. a,b

e. a,b,c

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e. a,b,c

In the mature CNS, axonal regeneration is impeded by:

a. glial scar formation

b. absence of neural growth factor

c. release of growth inhibiting factor

d. a, b

e. a,b,c

d. repeitive, task-specific functional movements of only the affected UE

Constraint-induced movement after a stroke requires which of the following?

a. immobilization of the affected UE to control spasticity

b. repeitive closed-chain resistance training

c. aggressive range of motion & exercise within 12 hrs. after stroke

d. repeitive, task-specific functional movements of only the affected UE

e. weight bearing and prolonged stretching of the affected UE

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 collateral spouting

reinnervation of a denervated target by branches of intact axons

 

 denervation hypersensitivityincreased response to a neurotransmitter b/c new receptor sites have developed on the postsynaptic membrane
 excitotoxicityoverexcitation of a neuron, leading to cell death
 glutamate

an excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter.

-excessive amts. can be toxic to neurons

 habituation

a form of short-term plasticity. repeated stimuli result in a decreased response, owing to a decrease in the amt. of neurotransmitter released from the presynaptic terminal of a sensory neuron

 

 

 long-term potential (LTP)a cellular mechanism for memory that results from the syntesis & activation of new proteins and the growth of new synaptic connections
 regenerative sproutinginjured axon sends out side sprouts to a new target
 synaptic effectivenessfunctional activation of postsynaptic receptors in response to the release of neurotransmitter from a presynaptic terminal
 synaptic hypereffectivenessincreased response to a neurotransmitter because damage to some branchers of a synaptic axon results in larger than normal amts. of transmitter being released by the remaing axons onto postsynaptic recptors
 unmasking of silent synapsesthe disinhibition or reactivation of functional synapses that are unused unless injury to other pathways necessitates their activation
 wallerian degenerationdegeneration and death of the distal segment of a severed axon
 Habituationin a person w/ a vestibular disorder, a decreased neural response to movements that formerly induced dizziness & nausea
 Long-term potentiationlearning a person's name
 Wallerian degenerationafter severance of the median nerve, the distal segments of severed axons degenerate
 central chromatolysisafter injury to axons of the ulnar nerve, the associated cell bodies undergo degenerative changes
 sproutingafter severance of the median nerve, the proximal segments of the severed axons regrow
 X partially severed the median nerve in his forearm. Approximately how many days should it take for the axons to reinnervate the thenar muscles whose motor pts are 18 mm from the site of injury?

Peripheral nerve regeneration occurs at a rate of approx 1 mm per day therefore it will require approximately 18 days.

 Twenty days after the injury X returns to therapy, concerned that when he tries to move his thumb one direction the thumb actually moves in an unintended direction. What is the name of this disorder?

Synkinesis is a phenomenon that occurs following peripheral nerve injury caused by the axon sprouting to the inappropriate target muscle, resulting in unintended movements.

 Will X need surgery to correct the movement disorder? Why or why not?

No, surgery will not be required to reverse the synkinesis. X will learn to produce the intended thumb movements by practicing the movements.

 unmasking of silent synapsessynapses that were inactive b4 a lesion become active after the lesion become active after the lesion
 functional reorganizationchanges in the cortical representation following ampulation or prolonged nonuse
 excitotoxicityoverexcitation of a neuron leading to death of the neuron
 recovery of synaptic effectivenessresolution of local edema causes synapses that were inactive as a result of compression of presynaptic neuron
 denervation hypersensitivitydevelopment of new receptor sites on the postsynaptic membrane after presynaptic terminals are destroyed
 synaptic hypereffectivenessfollowing destruction of some axon branches of a presynaptic neuron, the remaining axon branches recieve all of the neurotransmitter that would fomerly have been shared by more endings
 c.release glutamate, which can cause overexcitation of surrounding neurons

Neurons that are deprived of oxygen for a prolonged period?

a.release glycine, which inhibits the postsynaptic neurons & prevents neural funct. even in neurons not affected directly by the oxygen deprivation

b.become inactive & then slowly regenerate

c.release glutamate, which can cause overexcitation of surrounding neurons

d. a,b,c

e. none

 d.persistent binding of glutamate to NMDA-type receptors in the postsynaptic cell membrane

Excitotoxicity begins with:

a.excessive production of lactic acid

b.destruction of cellular proteins

c.cellular edema

d.persistent binding of glutamate to NMDA-type receptors in the postsynaptic cell membrane

e.interference w/ the functions of mitochondria

 b. memory of names & events

Which of the following types of memory would be affected by aninjury to the hippocampus?

a. motor memory for riding a bike

b. memory of names & events

c. memory of visual landmarks

d. a,b

e. a,b,c

 e. a,b,c

In the mature CNS, axonal regeneration is impeded by:

a. glial scar formation

b. absence of neural growth factor

c. release of growth inhibiting factor

d. a, b

e. a,b,c

 d. repeitive, task-specific functional movements of only the affected UE

Constraint-induced movement after a stroke requires which of the following?

a. immobilization of the affected UE to control spasticity

b. repeitive closed-chain resistance training

c. aggressive range of motion & exercise within 12 hrs. after stroke

d. repeitive, task-specific functional movements of only the affected UE

e. weight bearing and prolonged stretching of the affected UE

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