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Class:PCB 4023 - Cell Biology
Subject:Process Biology
University:Florida International University
Term:Fall 2013
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yeast


Which of the following are considered to be eukaryotes?

a. halophiles

b. eubacteria

c. thermophiles

d. yeast

e. none of the above

differentiation


The process by which a relatively unspecialized cell becomes highly specialized is called ______________.

a. definition

b. determination

c. differentiation

d. degeneracy

e. none of the above

tumor cells; a cancer patient


In vitro cultured cells are an essential tool for cell biologists. First cultured cells, the HeLa cells, are __________ isolated from ________

a. endothelial cells; aborted embry

b. glial cells; healthy donor

c. neuronal cell; patient who died after brain injury.

d. tumor cells; a cancer patient

e. fibroblast; healthy donor

viroid

Potato spindle-tuber disease, which causes potatoes to become gnarled and cracked, is caused by an infectious agent consisting of a small circular RNA molecule that totally lacks a protein coat.  These infectious agents are thought to exert their effects by interfering with the cell's normal path of gene expression.  Such an infectious agent is known as a(n) __________.

a. viroid

b. virus

c. provirus

d. virion

e. prion


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stem cell

__________ are undifferentiated cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types (they are pluripotent).

a. core cells

b. stem cells

c. hematoma cells

d. unipotent cells

e. start cells

form benign tumor called a teratoma

The primary risk of using ES cells in cell replacement treatment in humans is the unnoticed presence of undifferentiated ES cells among the differentiated cell population. Undifferentiated ES cells are capable to ___________________.

a. arrest cell growth of the neighboring cells

b. trigger death of the surrounding cells

c. form benign tumor called a teratoma

d. form malignant tumors

e. activate invasive properties in the neighboring cells

True

Viral specificity for a certain host cell is determined by the viral surface proteins

a. True

b. False

induced pluripotent cells (iPS)

It was long thought that cell differentiation was irreversible. Surprisingly, this is not  the case. Shinya Yamanaka and his colleagues have succeeded in reprogramming a fully differentiated mouse cell, specifically a type of connective tissue fibroblast, into a pluripotent stem cells called_______________.

a. Yamanaka's cells

b. embryonic fibroblasts

c. fibroblastoid stem cells (fSC)

d. transdifferentiated pluripotent cells (tPS)

e. induced pluripotent cells (iPS)

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lymphoma and leukemia

For what disease(s) is bone marrow transplantation used most often?

a. melanoma and Kaposi sarcoma

b. teratoma

c. lymphoma and leukemia

d. Alzheimer disease

e. all of the above

mitochondria

An endosymbiotic hypothesis suggests that chloroplasts evolved from symbiotic cyanobacteria. Name another organelle that may have originated in a similar way.

a. Golgi apparatus

b. lysosomes

c. ribosome

d. Endoplasmic reticulum

e. mitochondria


polar covalent bonds What kind of bond results from an unequal sharing of electrons?
a. ionic bonds
b. polar covalent bonds
c. H bonds
d. nonpolar covalent bonds
e. hydrophobic bonds
full outer shell The most stable atoms and thus those that are typically nonreactive are the atoms that have_______________
a. equal number of protons and neutrons
b. equal number of protons and electrons
c. full inner shell
d. full outer shell
e, none of the above  
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deep in a protein's core where water is excluded In a living organism, where are ionic bonds most likely to be found?
a. deep in a protein's core where water is excluded
b. between DNA strands
c. in the cytoplasm
d. on the surface of a protein
e. on the surface of a lipid
lower pH A release of hydrogen ions to a solution would most likely_______
a. change salinity
b. raise pH
c. lower pH
d. keep pH steady
e. increase solution volume
True Change in pH affects the ion state and functions of proteins
a. True
b. False
Silicon is too large for its nucleus to attract the valence electrons of neighboring atoms enough to hold molecules together sufficiently. Why is silicon not suitable for making covalent bonds stable and strong enough to form the basis of living organisms, even though it is just below carbon on the periodic table?
a. Silicon is too unstable
b. Silicon is too small for its nucleus to attract the protons of neighboring atoms enough to hold molecules together
c. Silicon is too large for its nucleus to attract the ptotons of neighboring atoms enough to hold molecules together.
d. Silicon is too small for its nucleus to attract the valence electrons of neighboring atoms enough to hold molecules together sufficiently.
e. Silicon is too large for its nucleus to attract the valence electrons of neighboring atoms enough to hold molecules together sufficiently.

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because of their large numbers of hydroxyl groups Why do sugar tend to be highly water soluble?
a. because of their large numbers of sulfate groups
b. because of their large numbers of hydroxyl groups
c. because of their large numbers of methyl groups 
d.  because of their small molecular weights
e.  because they have only a few hydroxyl groups
domains Proteins are often composed of two or more distinct modules that fold up independently of one another.  They often represent parts of a protein that function in a semi-independent manner.  These modules are called ______.
a. functionalist
b. subunits
c. motifs
d. domains
e. none of the above
adenine + ribose + phosphate Which of the following is a nucleotide?
a. ribose + phosphate
b. adenine + ribose
c. adenine + ribose + phosphate
d. 2 sugars + nitrogenous base
e. All of the above
both, tertiary and quaternary You treat a partially purified preparation of protein with a reagent that breaks bonds between sulfur atoms.  Which level(s) of protein structure are likely to be affected the most?
a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. quaternary
e. both, tertiary and quaternary
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Secondary What level of structure in DNA would be disrupted by a reagent that breaks apart hydrogen bonds?
a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. quaternary
e. none of the above
superoxide dismutase What enzyme is responsible for the destruction of a type of free radical formed when molecular oxygen picks up an extra electron?
a. thymidine kinase
b. catalase
c. glutathione peroxidase
d. superoxide dismutase
e. super peroxidase
bacteria
An infectious agent is discovered that causes a particular disease.  It has a relatively low molecular weight.  Treatment with phenol or proteolytic enzymes, that destroy proteins, render the infectious agent harmless. However treatment with nucleases (RNase and DNase) has no effect.  What is the infectious agent?
a. prion
b. virus
c. viroid
d. bacteria
e. fungus
supercoiling Tertiary structure in DNA is also know as _____________
a. a-helix
b. double helix
c. supercoiling
d. b-helix
e. zeta-form
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Non-polar regions of the protein are repelled by water, driving them to the interior of the molecule. Water has an important role in defining protein structure. The basis for this is the so-called hydrophobic effect. Which of the following best describes the hydrophobic effect?
a. Water and the protein arrange themselves so that the nonpolar surface in contact with water  is maximized.
b. Polar regions of the protein are repelled by water, driving them to the interior of the protein.
c. Non-polar regions of the protein are repelled by water, driving them to the interior of the  molecule.
d. Both, a nad b are correct
e. All of the above is correct 
random; random Entropy is associated with the ___ movement of particles of matter, which because they are ___ cannot accomplish a directed work process.
a. directed; random
b. directed; directed
c. slow rapid
d. rapid; rapid
e. random; random
lowering the activation energy of a reaction and thus speeding up the reaction. Enzymes work by ________________
a. increasing the activation energy of a reaction and thus speeding up the reaction.
b. lowering the activation energy of a reaction and thus speeding up the reaction.
c. lowering the Dof a reaction and thus speeding up the reaction.
d. changing the free energy of the products and speeding up the reaction.
e. raising the DG of a reaction and thus speeding up the reaction.
competitive Increasing substrate concentration can reserve the effect of ______inhibitor.
a. irreversible
b. non-competitive
c. competitive
d. allosteric
e. both, b and d are correct
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catabolism Metabolic pathways that make available raw materials from which other molecules can be synthesized and that provide chemical energy required for many cell activities are known as ______.
a. catabolism
b. anabolism
c. allosteric
d. monadic
e. degenerated
Vmax stays the same, KM decreases

What is the effect of a non-competitive (allosteric) inhibitor on an enzyme-mediated reaction?

a. Vmax stays the same, KM decreases

b. Vmax decreases, KM is unchanged

c. Vmax increases, KM is unchanged

d.  Vmax stays the same, KM is unchanged

e.  Vmax stays the same, KM increases


velocity __________is the maximum number of molecules of substrate that can be converted to product by one specific enzyme molecule per unit time.
a. Michaelis constant
b. velocity
c. catalytic constant
d. tumover number
e. both c and d are corrected
competitive you are observing an enzyme driven reaction. You add to the reaction a chemical Y which inhibits the reaction. If you add more substrate, the reaction rate approaches the V max of the uninhibited reaction. The structure of Y is similar to the natural substrate. What kind of inhibitor is Y?
a. competitive
b. non-competitive
c. alloreactive
d. alternative
e. irreversible 
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the reaction rate will slow down If ATP is present in relatively high amounts, what is likely to happen to the rate of glycolytic activity in that cell?
a. the reaction rate will not be affected
b. the reaction will switch to the protein synthesis
c. the reaction rate will accelerate
d. the reaction rate will slow down
e. all of the above
tetracycline and streptomycin A number of antibiotics attack prokaryotic protein synthesis, but not eukaryotic protein synthesis. _________act by binding to prokaryotes ribosomes, but not to eukaryotic ribosomes. Thus, eukaryotic protein synthesis is unaffected.
a. penicillin and vancomycin
b. tetracycline and streptomycin
c. sulfa drugs
d. quinolones
e. both, b and c are correct 
Vmax stays the same, KM, increases You isolate the enzyme that synthesizes folic acid in bacteria and conduct some enzyme kinetics experiments.  You find, not surprisingly, that sulfa drugs inhibit the enzyme's activity.  What happens to the Vmax and KM of this enzyme when it is treated with sulfa drugs? 
a. Vmax stays the same, KM, decreases
b. Vmax decreases, KM, unchanged
c. Vmax stays the same, KM, increases
d. Vmax stays the same, KM, is unchanged
e. Vmax increases, KM, is unchanged


non-competitive In the figure below, If the y-intercept of the inhibited curve the uninhibited curve on a Lineweaver-Burk plot are different, what is the type of inhibitor?
a. competitive
b. non-competitive
c. alloreactive
d. alternative
e. composite

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entropy decreases and the reaction is endothermic Given the equation DG = DH - TDS, which set of conditions would result in a reaction that is unambiguously nonspontaneous?
a. entropy increases and the reaction is endothermic
b. entropy decreases and the reaction is exothermic
c. stays the same and there is no change in enthalpy
d. entropy increases and the reaction is exothermic
e. entropy decreases and the reaction is endothermic
irreversible A number of nerve gases and organophosphate pesticides act as ________ inhibitors of acetylcholincesterase, an enzyme that plays a crucial role is destroying acetylcholine.
a. competitive
b. non-competitive
c. alloreactive
d. alternative
e. irreversible
butter; does not have trans fats You are about to make a delicious batch of chocolate chip cockies. You debate between using butter versus margarine. Which one is the healthier choice and why?
a. butter; does not have trans fats
b. butter; has higher percentage of unsaturated fats than margarine
c. margarine; has only saturated fats
d. margarine; does not have trans fats
e. either one, butter and margarine are equally healthy
both a and c are correct You are observing a reaction and discover that the reaction vessel is warm to the touch. The reaction also results in an increase in entropy. What kind of reaction is it?
a. exothermic
b. endothermic
c. spontaneous
d. both a and c are correct
e. none os the above
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 yeast


Which of the following are considered to be eukaryotes?

a. halophiles

b. eubacteria

c. thermophiles

d. yeast

e. none of the above

 differentiation


The process by which a relatively unspecialized cell becomes highly specialized is called ______________.

a. definition

b. determination

c. differentiation

d. degeneracy

e. none of the above

 tumor cells; a cancer patient


In vitro cultured cells are an essential tool for cell biologists. First cultured cells, the HeLa cells, are __________ isolated from ________

a. endothelial cells; aborted embry

b. glial cells; healthy donor

c. neuronal cell; patient who died after brain injury.

d. tumor cells; a cancer patient

e. fibroblast; healthy donor

 viroid

Potato spindle-tuber disease, which causes potatoes to become gnarled and cracked, is caused by an infectious agent consisting of a small circular RNA molecule that totally lacks a protein coat.  These infectious agents are thought to exert their effects by interfering with the cell's normal path of gene expression.  Such an infectious agent is known as a(n) __________.

a. viroid

b. virus

c. provirus

d. virion

e. prion


 stem cell

__________ are undifferentiated cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types (they are pluripotent).

a. core cells

b. stem cells

c. hematoma cells

d. unipotent cells

e. start cells

 form benign tumor called a teratoma

The primary risk of using ES cells in cell replacement treatment in humans is the unnoticed presence of undifferentiated ES cells among the differentiated cell population. Undifferentiated ES cells are capable to ___________________.

a. arrest cell growth of the neighboring cells

b. trigger death of the surrounding cells

c. form benign tumor called a teratoma

d. form malignant tumors

e. activate invasive properties in the neighboring cells

 True

Viral specificity for a certain host cell is determined by the viral surface proteins

a. True

b. False

 induced pluripotent cells (iPS)

It was long thought that cell differentiation was irreversible. Surprisingly, this is not  the case. Shinya Yamanaka and his colleagues have succeeded in reprogramming a fully differentiated mouse cell, specifically a type of connective tissue fibroblast, into a pluripotent stem cells called_______________.

a. Yamanaka's cells

b. embryonic fibroblasts

c. fibroblastoid stem cells (fSC)

d. transdifferentiated pluripotent cells (tPS)

e. induced pluripotent cells (iPS)

 lymphoma and leukemia

For what disease(s) is bone marrow transplantation used most often?

a. melanoma and Kaposi sarcoma

b. teratoma

c. lymphoma and leukemia

d. Alzheimer disease

e. all of the above

 mitochondria

An endosymbiotic hypothesis suggests that chloroplasts evolved from symbiotic cyanobacteria. Name another organelle that may have originated in a similar way.

a. Golgi apparatus

b. lysosomes

c. ribosome

d. Endoplasmic reticulum

e. mitochondria


 polar covalent bondsWhat kind of bond results from an unequal sharing of electrons?
a. ionic bonds
b. polar covalent bonds
c. H bonds
d. nonpolar covalent bonds
e. hydrophobic bonds
 full outer shellThe most stable atoms and thus those that are typically nonreactive are the atoms that have_______________
a. equal number of protons and neutrons
b. equal number of protons and electrons
c. full inner shell
d. full outer shell
e, none of the above  
 deep in a protein's core where water is excludedIn a living organism, where are ionic bonds most likely to be found?
a. deep in a protein's core where water is excluded
b. between DNA strands
c. in the cytoplasm
d. on the surface of a protein
e. on the surface of a lipid
 lower pHA release of hydrogen ions to a solution would most likely_______
a. change salinity
b. raise pH
c. lower pH
d. keep pH steady
e. increase solution volume
 TrueChange in pH affects the ion state and functions of proteins
a. True
b. False
 Silicon is too large for its nucleus to attract the valence electrons of neighboring atoms enough to hold molecules together sufficiently.Why is silicon not suitable for making covalent bonds stable and strong enough to form the basis of living organisms, even though it is just below carbon on the periodic table?
a. Silicon is too unstable
b. Silicon is too small for its nucleus to attract the protons of neighboring atoms enough to hold molecules together
c. Silicon is too large for its nucleus to attract the ptotons of neighboring atoms enough to hold molecules together.
d. Silicon is too small for its nucleus to attract the valence electrons of neighboring atoms enough to hold molecules together sufficiently.
e. Silicon is too large for its nucleus to attract the valence electrons of neighboring atoms enough to hold molecules together sufficiently.

 because of their large numbers of hydroxyl groupsWhy do sugar tend to be highly water soluble?
a. because of their large numbers of sulfate groups
b. because of their large numbers of hydroxyl groups
c. because of their large numbers of methyl groups 
d.  because of their small molecular weights
e.  because they have only a few hydroxyl groups
 domainsProteins are often composed of two or more distinct modules that fold up independently of one another.  They often represent parts of a protein that function in a semi-independent manner.  These modules are called ______.
a. functionalist
b. subunits
c. motifs
d. domains
e. none of the above
 adenine + ribose + phosphateWhich of the following is a nucleotide?
a. ribose + phosphate
b. adenine + ribose
c. adenine + ribose + phosphate
d. 2 sugars + nitrogenous base
e. All of the above
 both, tertiary and quaternaryYou treat a partially purified preparation of protein with a reagent that breaks bonds between sulfur atoms.  Which level(s) of protein structure are likely to be affected the most?
a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. quaternary
e. both, tertiary and quaternary
 SecondaryWhat level of structure in DNA would be disrupted by a reagent that breaks apart hydrogen bonds?
a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. quaternary
e. none of the above
 superoxide dismutaseWhat enzyme is responsible for the destruction of a type of free radical formed when molecular oxygen picks up an extra electron?
a. thymidine kinase
b. catalase
c. glutathione peroxidase
d. superoxide dismutase
e. super peroxidase
 bacteria
An infectious agent is discovered that causes a particular disease.  It has a relatively low molecular weight.  Treatment with phenol or proteolytic enzymes, that destroy proteins, render the infectious agent harmless. However treatment with nucleases (RNase and DNase) has no effect.  What is the infectious agent?
a. prion
b. virus
c. viroid
d. bacteria
e. fungus
 supercoilingTertiary structure in DNA is also know as _____________
a. a-helix
b. double helix
c. supercoiling
d. b-helix
e. zeta-form
 Non-polar regions of the protein are repelled by water, driving them to the interior of the molecule.Water has an important role in defining protein structure. The basis for this is the so-called hydrophobic effect. Which of the following best describes the hydrophobic effect?
a. Water and the protein arrange themselves so that the nonpolar surface in contact with water  is maximized.
b. Polar regions of the protein are repelled by water, driving them to the interior of the protein.
c. Non-polar regions of the protein are repelled by water, driving them to the interior of the  molecule.
d. Both, a nad b are correct
e. All of the above is correct 
 random; randomEntropy is associated with the ___ movement of particles of matter, which because they are ___ cannot accomplish a directed work process.
a. directed; random
b. directed; directed
c. slow rapid
d. rapid; rapid
e. random; random
 lowering the activation energy of a reaction and thus speeding up the reaction.Enzymes work by ________________
a. increasing the activation energy of a reaction and thus speeding up the reaction.
b. lowering the activation energy of a reaction and thus speeding up the reaction.
c. lowering the Dof a reaction and thus speeding up the reaction.
d. changing the free energy of the products and speeding up the reaction.
e. raising the DG of a reaction and thus speeding up the reaction.
 competitiveIncreasing substrate concentration can reserve the effect of ______inhibitor.
a. irreversible
b. non-competitive
c. competitive
d. allosteric
e. both, b and d are correct
 catabolismMetabolic pathways that make available raw materials from which other molecules can be synthesized and that provide chemical energy required for many cell activities are known as ______.
a. catabolism
b. anabolism
c. allosteric
d. monadic
e. degenerated
 Vmax stays the same, KM decreases

What is the effect of a non-competitive (allosteric) inhibitor on an enzyme-mediated reaction?

a. Vmax stays the same, KM decreases

b. Vmax decreases, KM is unchanged

c. Vmax increases, KM is unchanged

d.  Vmax stays the same, KM is unchanged

e.  Vmax stays the same, KM increases


 velocity__________is the maximum number of molecules of substrate that can be converted to product by one specific enzyme molecule per unit time.
a. Michaelis constant
b. velocity
c. catalytic constant
d. tumover number
e. both c and d are corrected
 competitiveyou are observing an enzyme driven reaction. You add to the reaction a chemical Y which inhibits the reaction. If you add more substrate, the reaction rate approaches the V max of the uninhibited reaction. The structure of Y is similar to the natural substrate. What kind of inhibitor is Y?
a. competitive
b. non-competitive
c. alloreactive
d. alternative
e. irreversible 
 the reaction rate will slow downIf ATP is present in relatively high amounts, what is likely to happen to the rate of glycolytic activity in that cell?
a. the reaction rate will not be affected
b. the reaction will switch to the protein synthesis
c. the reaction rate will accelerate
d. the reaction rate will slow down
e. all of the above
 tetracycline and streptomycinA number of antibiotics attack prokaryotic protein synthesis, but not eukaryotic protein synthesis. _________act by binding to prokaryotes ribosomes, but not to eukaryotic ribosomes. Thus, eukaryotic protein synthesis is unaffected.
a. penicillin and vancomycin
b. tetracycline and streptomycin
c. sulfa drugs
d. quinolones
e. both, b and c are correct 
 Vmax stays the same, KM, increasesYou isolate the enzyme that synthesizes folic acid in bacteria and conduct some enzyme kinetics experiments.  You find, not surprisingly, that sulfa drugs inhibit the enzyme's activity.  What happens to the Vmax and KM of this enzyme when it is treated with sulfa drugs? 
a. Vmax stays the same, KM, decreases
b. Vmax decreases, KM, unchanged
c. Vmax stays the same, KM, increases
d. Vmax stays the same, KM, is unchanged
e. Vmax increases, KM, is unchanged


 non-competitiveIn the figure below, If the y-intercept of the inhibited curve the uninhibited curve on a Lineweaver-Burk plot are different, what is the type of inhibitor?
a. competitive
b. non-competitive
c. alloreactive
d. alternative
e. composite

 entropy decreases and the reaction is endothermicGiven the equation DG = DH - TDS, which set of conditions would result in a reaction that is unambiguously nonspontaneous?
a. entropy increases and the reaction is endothermic
b. entropy decreases and the reaction is exothermic
c. stays the same and there is no change in enthalpy
d. entropy increases and the reaction is exothermic
e. entropy decreases and the reaction is endothermic
 irreversibleA number of nerve gases and organophosphate pesticides act as ________ inhibitors of acetylcholincesterase, an enzyme that plays a crucial role is destroying acetylcholine.
a. competitive
b. non-competitive
c. alloreactive
d. alternative
e. irreversible
 butter; does not have trans fatsYou are about to make a delicious batch of chocolate chip cockies. You debate between using butter versus margarine. Which one is the healthier choice and why?
a. butter; does not have trans fats
b. butter; has higher percentage of unsaturated fats than margarine
c. margarine; has only saturated fats
d. margarine; does not have trans fats
e. either one, butter and margarine are equally healthy
 both a and c are correctYou are observing a reaction and discover that the reaction vessel is warm to the touch. The reaction also results in an increase in entropy. What kind of reaction is it?
a. exothermic
b. endothermic
c. spontaneous
d. both a and c are correct
e. none os the above
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