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ch 13 training - Flashcards

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Class:PHED 35345 - Exercise Physiology (with lab)
Subject:Physical Education
University:Rowan University
Term:Fall 2014
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Different activities require different energy from different systems
Knowing how to train each system becomes paramount.

Attention should focus on five components:
Appropriate competition
Workout frequency
Workout length
Type of training
Speed, intensity, duration, and repetition of activity

overload principle
Regular application of a specific overload enhances physiologic function to produce a training response.

Specificity Principle
Adaptations in metabolic and physiologic systems depend on type of overload imposed and muscle mass activated.
SAID Principle: Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands

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Individual Differences Principle Individuals do not respond similarly to a training stimulus
Enhancement in muscle fiber capacity to aerobically
generate ATP

Increase in mitochondrial size and number
Two-fold increase in level of aerobic system enzymes
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Enhancement in both fiber types’ existing aerobic capacity and lactate threshold level
Adaptations to Exercise Training: Anaerobic System Changes
  • Increased levels of anaerobic substrates
  • Increased quantity and activity of key enzymes that control anaerobic phase of glucose catabolism
  • Increased capacity to generate high levels of blood lactate during all-out PA

Improvement to oxidize fatty acids, particularly triacylglycerols stored within active muscle during steady-rate activity
Enhancement in capacity to oxidize carbohydrates
Provides considerably faster aerobic energy transfer than from fat breakdown
Liberates about 6% more energy than fat per amount of O2 consumed

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Aerobic training enhances fat catabolism in submax PA. During constant load prolonged activity,
total energy derived from fat oxidation increases following training.

The carbohydrate-sparing adaptation results from
facilitated release of fatty acids from adipose tissue depots (augmented by reduced blood lactate) and increased triacylglycerol within endurance-trained muscle fibers.

Cardiovascular Adaptations
Increase in heart’s mass and volume with greater LV end-diastolic. volume during rest and PA. Increase in plasma volume. Increase in SV at rest and PA. Reduction in HR during submax activity
  • Increase in max cardiac output
Increase in max O2 extracted from arterial blood during PA
  • Increase in muscle blood flow during max PA
Decrease in SBP and DBP during rest and submax PA in individuals with HTN

Pulmonary Adaptations
  • Improvements in VO2max with training increase VEmax 
  • Improvement to sustain high levels of submax VE: 
Enhanced ventilatory economy contributes to overall endurance performance in two ways:
  1. Reduces fatiguing effects of PA on ventilatory musculature
  2. Frees O2 from respiratory muscles by nonrespiratory active muscle
  • Reduction in ventilatory equivalent for oxygen in submax activity

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Body Composition Changes
For overfat or borderline overfat people, regular aerobic PA reduces body mass and body fat.
  • Increases in FFM accompany a regular program of resistance training.
Exercise only, or exercise combined with calorie restriction, reduces body fat more than fat lost with dieting only.

Temperature Regulation
Well-hydrated, aerobically trained individuals move more comfortably in hot environments because of larger plasma volume and more responsive thermoregulatory mechanisms.
  • Trained men and women dissipate heat faster and more effectively than untrained persons.
  • For trained individuals, metabolic heat generated by PA poses less of a detriment to performance and overall safety.

Enhanced endurance accompanies physiologic training adaptations true
Psychological Benefits
Regular PA, either aerobic or resistance training, produces psychological benefits independent of age.

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Factors Affecting the Aerobic Training Response
Initial Level of Cardiorespiratory Fitness:
Improvement occurs if initial fitness is low; high level of initial fitness leaves little room for improvement.Training Frequency:Training response occurs with PA performed at least 3 weekly for at least 6 wk.
Training Duration:Moderate-paced PA for ≥30 min each session is a realistic duration recommendation for the average person.Training Intensity:50% to 55% VO2max or 70% HRmax = minimal threshold stimulus for cardiovascular improvement.

Two important factors in formulating aerobic training regimens:
  1. Cardiovascular demands must reach an intensity to sufficiently increase or overload SV and Q.
  2. Cardiovascular overload must activate sport-specific muscle groups to enhance local circulation and muscle “metabolic machinery.”

Optimal Training Intensity
Seven ways to express intensity:
  1. Energy expended per unit time
  2. Absolute power output
  3. Relative metabolic level (expressed as %VO2max (e.g., 85% VO2max)
  4. Activity below, at, above LT or OBLA
  5. Activity HR or %HRmax (80% HRmax)
  6. Multiples of RMR (e.g., 6 METs)
  7. Rating of perceived exertion (e.g., RPE = 14)

HR at 70% HRmax represents moderate PA can continue for long durations with little physiologic discomfort
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Trainability and Genes Genotype dependency
occurs for sensitivity in responding to max aerobic and anaerobic power training, including muscle enzyme adaptations.
  • Limits for developing fitness capacity link closely to natural endowment:
  • For two individuals in the same program, one might show 10× more improvement than the other
Maintaining Aerobic Fitness Gains
Aerobic capacity improvement involves different training requirements than its maintenance.
  • With intensity held constant, frequency and duration required to maintain aerobic fitness remain lower than required for its improvement.
Small decline in intensity reduces VO2max.
  • Intensity plays the principle role in maintaining increases in VO2max via training.

Tapering for Peak Performance
Little improvement in aerobic systems during competitive season.
Before major competition, athletes often reduce or taper training intensity and/or volume:
  • Four to seven days sufficient time to achieve max muscle and liver glycogen replenishment, optimal nutritional support and restoration, minimal residual muscle soreness, faster healing of minor injuries

Formulating an Aerobic Training Program
Start slowly
Allow a warm-up period
Allow a cool-down recovery period

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Guidelines for Children
Children are not small adults: require different guidelines:
  • Accumulate more than 60 min, and up to several hours daily, of age and developmentally appropriate PA for elementary school children.
  • PA each day last 15 min or longer and include large muscle, rhythmic moderate to vigorous aerobic PA.
  • Extended inactivity is not appropriate for normal, healthy children.
Elementary school children should participate in a variety of activities of different intensity levels.

Establishing Training Intensity
Intensity must be assessed relative to the stress it places on the aerobic system.
Four ways to assess intensity:
  1. Train at percentage of VO2max
  2. Train at percentage of HRmax 
  • HRmax = 220 – age (y)
  1. Train at perception of effort
  • Rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
  1. Train at lactate threshold

Training-Karvonen Method
1.  Determine Predicted Maximal HR
        = 220 BPM-Age
 2.  Determine Resting HR
 3.  Determine Maximal Heart Rate Reserve (MaxHRR) 
        = Maximal HR-Resting HR
 4.   Select % of MaxHHR (i.e. 60-90%)
 5.   Add % MaxHHR and Resting HR = Threshold of
                           Training

Borg scale (and accompanying estimates of relative intensity) for for obtaining RPE during PA
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Blood lactate concentration related to running speed. Lactate level of 4.0 mM corresponds to a 13 km·h−1 running speed which establishes a subject’s initial training intensity.
Anaerobic Training:
All-out exercise for up to 60 sec.

Continuous Training
Continuous (long slow distance) training that requires sustained, steady-rate aerobic activity.

Interval Training
Specific spacing of high-intensity activity and rest periods:
HIIT training: 1-min bouts at 90% HRmax followed by 1-min easy recovery:10 total activity and recovery intervals for total workout time = 20 min
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Fartlek Training Performer determines training schema based on “how it feels” at the time. This type of training alternates, i.e. running speeds and terrain
Overtraining Syndrome
Two clinical forms of overtraining:
  1. Sympathetic form
Characterized by increased sympathetic activity during rest and generally characterized by hyperexcitability, restlessness, impaired performance
2. Parasympathetic form
Characterized by predominance of vagal activity during rest and PA

Symptoms of Overtraining and Staleness
Unexplained and persistently poor performance and fatigue
Prolonged recovery from typical training sessions or competitive events. Disturbed mood states characterized by general fatigue, apathy, depression, irritability, loss of competitive drive
  • Persistent muscle soreness and muscle/joint stiffness 
  • Elevated resting HR and increased susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections and GI disturbances
  • Insomnia
Loss of appetite, weight loss, inability to maintain proper body weight for competition
Overuse injuries
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 Different activities require different energy from different systems
Knowing how to train each system becomes paramount.

 Attention should focus on five components:
Appropriate competition
Workout frequency
Workout length
Type of training
Speed, intensity, duration, and repetition of activity

 overload principle
Regular application of a specific overload enhances physiologic function to produce a training response.

 Specificity Principle
Adaptations in metabolic and physiologic systems depend on type of overload imposed and muscle mass activated.
SAID Principle: Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands

 Individual Differences PrincipleIndividuals do not respond similarly to a training stimulus
 Enhancement in muscle fiber capacity to aerobically
generate ATP

 Increase in mitochondrialsize and number
 Two-fold increase in levelof aerobic system enzymes
 Enhancement in both fiber types’existing aerobic capacity and lactate threshold level
 Adaptations to Exercise Training: Anaerobic System Changes
  • Increased levels of anaerobic substrates
  • Increased quantity and activity of key enzymes that control anaerobic phase of glucose catabolism
  • Increased capacity to generate high levels of blood lactate during all-out PA

 Improvement to oxidize fatty acids, particularlytriacylglycerols stored within active muscle during steady-rate activity
 Enhancement in capacity to oxidize carbohydrates
Provides considerably faster aerobic energy transfer than from fat breakdown
Liberates about 6% more energy than fat per amount of O2 consumed

 Aerobic training enhances fat catabolism in submax PA. During constant load prolonged activity,
total energy derived from fat oxidation increases following training.

 The carbohydrate-sparing adaptation results from
facilitated release of fatty acids from adipose tissue depots (augmented by reduced blood lactate) and increased triacylglycerol within endurance-trained muscle fibers.

 Cardiovascular Adaptations
Increase in heart’s mass and volume with greater LV end-diastolic. volume during rest and PA. Increase in plasma volume. Increase in SV at rest and PA. Reduction in HR during submax activity
  • Increase in max cardiac output
Increase in max O2 extracted from arterial blood during PA
  • Increase in muscle blood flow during max PA
Decrease in SBP and DBP during rest and submax PA in individuals with HTN

 Pulmonary Adaptations
  • Improvements in VO2max with training increase VEmax 
  • Improvement to sustain high levels of submax VE: 
Enhanced ventilatory economy contributes to overall endurance performance in two ways:
  1. Reduces fatiguing effects of PA on ventilatory musculature
  2. Frees O2 from respiratory muscles by nonrespiratory active muscle
  • Reduction in ventilatory equivalent for oxygen in submax activity

 Body Composition Changes
For overfat or borderline overfat people, regular aerobic PA reduces body mass and body fat.
  • Increases in FFM accompany a regular program of resistance training.
Exercise only, or exercise combined with calorie restriction, reduces body fat more than fat lost with dieting only.

 Temperature Regulation
Well-hydrated, aerobically trained individuals move more comfortably in hot environments because of larger plasma volume and more responsive thermoregulatory mechanisms.
  • Trained men and women dissipate heat faster and more effectively than untrained persons.
  • For trained individuals, metabolic heat generated by PA poses less of a detriment to performance and overall safety.

 Enhanced endurance accompanies physiologic training adaptationstrue
 Psychological Benefits
Regular PA, either aerobic or resistance training, produces psychological benefits independent of age.

 Factors Affecting the Aerobic Training Response
Initial Level of Cardiorespiratory Fitness:
Improvement occurs if initial fitness is low; high level of initial fitness leaves little room for improvement.Training Frequency:Training response occurs with PA performed at least 3 weekly for at least 6 wk.
Training Duration:Moderate-paced PA for ≥30 min each session is a realistic duration recommendation for the average person.Training Intensity:50% to 55% VO2max or 70% HRmax = minimal threshold stimulus for cardiovascular improvement.

 Two important factors in formulating aerobic training regimens:
  1. Cardiovascular demands must reach an intensity to sufficiently increase or overload SV and Q.
  2. Cardiovascular overload must activate sport-specific muscle groups to enhance local circulation and muscle “metabolic machinery.”

 Optimal Training Intensity
Seven ways to express intensity:
  1. Energy expended per unit time
  2. Absolute power output
  3. Relative metabolic level (expressed as %VO2max (e.g., 85% VO2max)
  4. Activity below, at, above LT or OBLA
  5. Activity HR or %HRmax (80% HRmax)
  6. Multiples of RMR (e.g., 6 METs)
  7. Rating of perceived exertion (e.g., RPE = 14)

 HR at 70% HRmax represents moderate PAcan continue for long durations with little physiologic discomfort
 Trainability and Genes Genotype dependency
occurs for sensitivity in responding to max aerobic and anaerobic power training, including muscle enzyme adaptations.
  • Limits for developing fitness capacity link closely to natural endowment:
  • For two individuals in the same program, one might show 10× more improvement than the other
 Maintaining Aerobic Fitness Gains
Aerobic capacity improvement involves different training requirements than its maintenance.
  • With intensity held constant, frequency and duration required to maintain aerobic fitness remain lower than required for its improvement.
Small decline in intensity reduces VO2max.
  • Intensity plays the principle role in maintaining increases in VO2max via training.

 Tapering for Peak Performance
Little improvement in aerobic systems during competitive season.
Before major competition, athletes often reduce or taper training intensity and/or volume:
  • Four to seven days sufficient time to achieve max muscle and liver glycogen replenishment, optimal nutritional support and restoration, minimal residual muscle soreness, faster healing of minor injuries

 Formulating an Aerobic Training Program
Start slowly
Allow a warm-up period
Allow a cool-down recovery period

 Guidelines for Children
Children are not small adults: require different guidelines:
  • Accumulate more than 60 min, and up to several hours daily, of age and developmentally appropriate PA for elementary school children.
  • PA each day last 15 min or longer and include large muscle, rhythmic moderate to vigorous aerobic PA.
  • Extended inactivity is not appropriate for normal, healthy children.
Elementary school children should participate in a variety of activities of different intensity levels.

 Establishing Training Intensity
Intensity must be assessed relative to the stress it places on the aerobic system.
Four ways to assess intensity:
  1. Train at percentage of VO2max
  2. Train at percentage of HRmax 
  • HRmax = 220 – age (y)
  1. Train at perception of effort
  • Rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
  1. Train at lactate threshold

 Training-Karvonen Method
1.  Determine Predicted Maximal HR
        = 220 BPM-Age
 2.  Determine Resting HR
 3.  Determine Maximal Heart Rate Reserve (MaxHRR) 
        = Maximal HR-Resting HR
 4.   Select % of MaxHHR (i.e. 60-90%)
 5.   Add % MaxHHR and Resting HR = Threshold of
                           Training

 Borg scale (and accompanying estimates of relative intensity) forfor obtaining RPE during PA
 Blood lactate concentration related to running speed. Lactate level of 4.0 mM corresponds to a 13 km·h−1 running speedwhich establishes a subject’s initial training intensity.
 Anaerobic Training:
All-out exercise for up to 60 sec.

 Continuous Training
Continuous (long slow distance) training that requires sustained, steady-rate aerobic activity.

 Interval Training
Specific spacing of high-intensity activity and rest periods:
HIIT training: 1-min bouts at 90% HRmax followed by 1-min easy recovery:10 total activity and recovery intervals for total workout time = 20 min
 Fartlek TrainingPerformer determines training schema based on “how it feels” at the time. This type of training alternates, i.e. running speeds and terrain
 Overtraining Syndrome
Two clinical forms of overtraining:
  1. Sympathetic form
Characterized by increased sympathetic activity during rest and generally characterized by hyperexcitability, restlessness, impaired performance
2. Parasympathetic form
Characterized by predominance of vagal activity during rest and PA

 Symptoms of Overtraining and Staleness
Unexplained and persistently poor performance and fatigue
Prolonged recovery from typical training sessions or competitive events. Disturbed mood states characterized by general fatigue, apathy, depression, irritability, loss of competitive drive
  • Persistent muscle soreness and muscle/joint stiffness 
  • Elevated resting HR and increased susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections and GI disturbances
  • Insomnia
Loss of appetite, weight loss, inability to maintain proper body weight for competition
Overuse injuries
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