Koofers

chapter 10 - Flashcards

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Class:PHED 35345 - Exercise Physiology (with lab)
Subject:Physical Education
University:Rowan University
Term:Fall 2014
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circulatory system service five important functions during PA
  1. Delivers oxygen to active tissue
  2. aerates blood returned to lungs
  3. transports heat, by-product of cellular metabolism from body core to skin
  4. delivers fuel nutrients to active tissues
  5. transports hormones the body's sophisticated chemical messengers
Cardiovascular system composed of four parts:
  1. heart
  2. arteries
  3. capillaries 
  4. veins
What are arteries? high-pressured tubing that conducts oxygen rich blood to tissues:
  • no gaseous exchange takes place between arterial blood and surrounding tissues
  • network of arteries and aterioles pumps blood from left ventricle into aorta and then throughout the body
  • arteriole walls contain circular layers of smooth muscle that constrict or relax to regulate peripheral blood flow
what are capillaries Network of microscopic blood vessels so thin they provide only enough room for blood cells to squeeze through in single file.
  • gases, nutrients and waste products rapidly transfer across thin, porous capillary walls
  • velocity progressively decreases as blood moves toward and into capillaries
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what are veins
  • venules empty into superior and inferior vena cavae
  • thin, membranous flap like valves spaced at short intervals within veins permit one-way blood flow back to heart
  • venous system acts as active blood reservoir to either retard or enhance blood flow to systemic circulation
what is blood pressure and the two measures
  • systolic blood pressure: highest arterial pressure measured after left ventricular contraction
  • diastolic blood pressure: lowest arterial pressure measured during left ventricular relaxation
blood pressure during physical activity
  • Rhythmic steady-rate activity; SBP increases in first few minutes then levels off
DBP remains unchanged
What does resistance training do to BP it increases BP dramatically
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Upper body activity PA at a given percentage of VO2 max increase BP more in upper body than lower body activity
Recovery SBP decreases below pre-activity levels for up to 12 hours in normal and hypertensive subjects following sustained light to moderate intensity PA
Myocardial blood supply
  • coronary circulation- right coronary artery- supplies right atruim and right ventricle
  • Left coronary artery- supplies left atruim and small portion of right ventricle
cardiac muscle possesses intrinsic rhythmicity
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extrinsic control of cardiac function causes... heart to speed up in anticipation even before PA begins
  • extrinsic regulation adjusts HR to 35 to 40 b*min -1 at rest in endurance athletes
  • during max physical effort HR can increase to 220 b*min -1
Sinoatrial (S-A) node:
The sinoatrial node is the normal natural pacemaker of the heart and is responsible for the initiation of the cardiac cycle (heartbeat).

spontaneously depolarizes and repolarizes to provide innate heart stimulus

intrinsic regulation
atrioventricular (A-V) node: Delays impulse about .1 sec to provide sufficient time for atria to contract and force blood into ventricles'


intrinsic regulation
A-V node or bundle of His


intrinsic regulation
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purkinje fibers: speed impulse rapidly through ventricles


intrinsic regulation
Heart impulse transmission
SA node to atria to AV node to AV bundle ( purkinje fibers) to ventricles
Electrocardiography (ECG) ECG can uncover four categories of heart function abnormatlites concerned with:
  1. cardiac rhythm
  2. electrical conduction
  3. myocardial oxygen supply
  4. myocardial tissue damage
Stress test: Traditional (basic)
  • ECG
  • BP
  • symptoms
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stress test: Echo
  • ECG
  • BP
  • symptoms
  • US
stress test: myoview
  • ECG
  • BP
  • symptoms
  • radioactive die (thallium)
Stress test: Pharmacological ( drug induced- epinephrine
  • ECG
  • BP
  • symptoms
  • US and or Die
extrinsic heart rate regulation
  • sympathetic influence
releases epinephrine, norepinephrine
results in tachycardia
  • Parasympathetic influences:  releases acetylcholine and results in bradycardia
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cortical influence
  • central command provides greatest control over HR: exerts its effect during PA at rest and immediate pre-PA period
produces anticipatory HR particularly apparent prior to all out physical effort
Peripheral input
  • Mechanoreceptor and chemoreceptors- stimuli from these receptors monitor state of active muscle to create an appropriate CV response. 
Blood distribution: physical activity effects
  • increase energy expentiture expenditure requires rapid readjustments in blood flow that effect the entire CV system
  • Vascular portion of active muscle increases through dilation of local arterioles: concurrently other vessels constrict to shut down blood flow to tissues that can temporarily compromise blood supply. 
Blood flow regulation
  • Flow= pressure / resistance
  • three factors determine resistance to blood flow: poiseulle's law
  1. viscosity (blood thickness)
  2. length of conducting tube
  3. radius of blood vessel
  • flow= (pressure gradient times vessel radius 4) / (vessel length times fluid viscosity
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blood flow Local
  • increases in temp. CO2, acidity, adenosine, nitric oxide, magnesium and potassium ions enhance regional blood flow
blood flow neural sympathetic and parasympathetic portions of ANS override vasoregulation afforded by local factors to provide central vascular control
blood flow Hormonal
  • upon sympathetic activation, adrenal glands release epinephrine and norepinephrine to cause general constrictor reponse except in heart and skeletal muscle blood vessels
Cardiovascular dynamics: physical activity effects: cardiac output
  • most important indicator of circulatory system functional capacity to meet PA demands
cardiac output =heart rate times stroke volume
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three physiologic mechanisms increase hearts stroke volume in PA
  1. enhanced cardiac filling in diastole followed by more forceful systolic contraction
  2. neurohormonal influence causes normal ventricular filling with forceful ejection and emptying during systole
  3. training adaptations expand blood volume and reduce resistance to blood flow in peripheral tissues
systolic emptying versus diastolic filling Preload: greater ventricular filling in diastole during the cardiac cycle from increased vernous return 
systolic emptying versus diastolic filling afterload: resistance to flow from increased systolic pressure
  • increase in end-diastolic volume stretches myocardial fibers, causing powerful ejection strokes as the heart contracts
  • expels normal SV plus additional blood that enters ventricles and stretches the myocardium
  • frank-starling law of the heart describes this phenomenon as applied to the myocardium
ejection function: measure of ventricular function ejection faction: faction of blood pumped fro left ventricle relative to its end-diastolic voluem
  • example: if ventricular end - diastolic volume =110 mL of blood hearts SV = 70 mL
  • ejection function computes as 70 mL /110 or .64
  • healthy individuals have ejection fractions ranging between 50 and 70%
  • depressed ejection fraction accompanies poor left ventricular function
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heart rate during physical A.
  • HR increases rapidly and levels off within several minutes during submax steady rate PA
  • HR for untrained individuals accelerates rapidly with increasing PA demands- Much smaller HR increase occurs for trained persons so they achieve a higher of exercise VO2 at a particular submax HR than sedentary person
cardiac output differences
  • Q and VO2 remain linearly related during graded PA for young and older men and women:
  • teenage and adult females perform at any level of submax VO2 with 5% to 10% larger Q than males
  • compared to adults children have similar Q at any given submax VO2 from smaller SV
extration of oxygen: the a-VO2 difference
  • two mechanisms for O2 supply increase VO2 capacity
  1. increased tissue blood flow
  2. use of relatively large quantity of O2 remaining unused by tissues at rest

VO2 max= Max Q times Max a-VO2 max
VO2 max during PA
  • capacity of each dL or arterial blood to carry O2 increases during PA from increased hemoconcentration (progressive fluid movement from plasma to interstitial spaces)
  • diverting large portion of Q to active muscles influences magnitude of a-VO2 diff during max PA
  • increase in capillary to fiber ratio reflects positive training adaptation that enlarges interface for nutrient and gas exchange during PA
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factors that affect a-VO2 diff during PA
  • central and peripheral factors interact to increase O2 extraction in active tissue during PA
  • diverting Q to active muscles
  • increase in size and number of mitochondria and augmented aerobic enzyme activity
  • increase in skeletal tissue microcirculation
cardiovascular adjustents: upper body PA
  • highest VO2 in upper body activity averages 70% to 80% VO2 max in bicycle and treadmill activity
  • HRmax and pulmonary ventilation remain lower in PA with arms from relatively smaller muscle mass activation
  • any level of submax power output produces higher VO2 with arm compared to leg movement
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 circulatory system service five important functions during PA
  1. Delivers oxygen to active tissue
  2. aerates blood returned to lungs
  3. transports heat, by-product of cellular metabolism from body core to skin
  4. delivers fuel nutrients to active tissues
  5. transports hormones the body's sophisticated chemical messengers
 Cardiovascular system composed of four parts:
  1. heart
  2. arteries
  3. capillaries 
  4. veins
 What are arteries?high-pressured tubing that conducts oxygen rich blood to tissues:
  • no gaseous exchange takes place between arterial blood and surrounding tissues
  • network of arteries and aterioles pumps blood from left ventricle into aorta and then throughout the body
  • arteriole walls contain circular layers of smooth muscle that constrict or relax to regulate peripheral blood flow
 what are capillariesNetwork of microscopic blood vessels so thin they provide only enough room for blood cells to squeeze through in single file.
  • gases, nutrients and waste products rapidly transfer across thin, porous capillary walls
  • velocity progressively decreases as blood moves toward and into capillaries
 what are veins
  • venules empty into superior and inferior vena cavae
  • thin, membranous flap like valves spaced at short intervals within veins permit one-way blood flow back to heart
  • venous system acts as active blood reservoir to either retard or enhance blood flow to systemic circulation
 what is blood pressure and the two measures
  • systolic blood pressure: highest arterial pressure measured after left ventricular contraction
  • diastolic blood pressure: lowest arterial pressure measured during left ventricular relaxation
 blood pressure during physical activity
  • Rhythmic steady-rate activity; SBP increases in first few minutes then levels off
DBP remains unchanged
 What does resistance training do to BPit increases BP dramatically
 Upper body activityPA at a given percentage of VO2 max increase BP more in upper body than lower body activity
 RecoverySBP decreases below pre-activity levels for up to 12 hours in normal and hypertensive subjects following sustained light to moderate intensity PA
 Myocardial blood supply
  • coronary circulation- right coronary artery- supplies right atruim and right ventricle
  • Left coronary artery- supplies left atruim and small portion of right ventricle
 cardiac muscle possessesintrinsic rhythmicity
 extrinsic control of cardiac function causes...heart to speed up in anticipation even before PA begins
  • extrinsic regulation adjusts HR to 35 to 40 b*min -1 at rest in endurance athletes
  • during max physical effort HR can increase to 220 b*min -1
 Sinoatrial (S-A) node:
The sinoatrial node is the normal natural pacemaker of the heart and is responsible for the initiation of the cardiac cycle (heartbeat).

spontaneously depolarizes and repolarizes to provide innate heart stimulus

intrinsic regulation
 atrioventricular (A-V) node:Delays impulse about .1 sec to provide sufficient time for atria to contract and force blood into ventricles'


intrinsic regulation
 A-V node orbundle of His


intrinsic regulation
 purkinje fibers:speed impulse rapidly through ventricles


intrinsic regulation
 Heart impulse transmission
SA node to atria to AV node to AV bundle ( purkinje fibers) to ventricles
 Electrocardiography (ECG)ECG can uncover four categories of heart function abnormatlites concerned with:
  1. cardiac rhythm
  2. electrical conduction
  3. myocardial oxygen supply
  4. myocardial tissue damage
 Stress test: Traditional (basic)
  • ECG
  • BP
  • symptoms
 stress test: Echo
  • ECG
  • BP
  • symptoms
  • US
 stress test: myoview
  • ECG
  • BP
  • symptoms
  • radioactive die (thallium)
 Stress test: Pharmacological ( drug induced- epinephrine
  • ECG
  • BP
  • symptoms
  • US and or Die
 extrinsic heart rate regulation
  • sympathetic influence
releases epinephrine, norepinephrine
results in tachycardia
  • Parasympathetic influences:  releases acetylcholine and results in bradycardia
 cortical influence
  • central command provides greatest control over HR: exerts its effect during PA at rest and immediate pre-PA period
produces anticipatory HR particularly apparent prior to all out physical effort
 Peripheral input
  • Mechanoreceptor and chemoreceptors- stimuli from these receptors monitor state of active muscle to create an appropriate CV response. 
 Blood distribution: physical activity effects
  • increase energy expentiture expenditure requires rapid readjustments in blood flow that effect the entire CV system
  • Vascular portion of active muscle increases through dilation of local arterioles: concurrently other vessels constrict to shut down blood flow to tissues that can temporarily compromise blood supply. 
 Blood flow regulation
  • Flow= pressure / resistance
  • three factors determine resistance to blood flow: poiseulle's law
  1. viscosity (blood thickness)
  2. length of conducting tube
  3. radius of blood vessel
  • flow= (pressure gradient times vessel radius 4) / (vessel length times fluid viscosity
 blood flow Local
  • increases in temp. CO2, acidity, adenosine, nitric oxide, magnesium and potassium ions enhance regional blood flow
 blood flow neuralsympathetic and parasympathetic portions of ANS override vasoregulation afforded by local factors to provide central vascular control
 blood flow Hormonal
  • upon sympathetic activation, adrenal glands release epinephrine and norepinephrine to cause general constrictor reponse except in heart and skeletal muscle blood vessels
 Cardiovascular dynamics: physical activity effects:cardiac output
  • most important indicator of circulatory system functional capacity to meet PA demands
cardiac output =heart rate times stroke volume
 three physiologic mechanisms increase hearts stroke volume in PA
  1. enhanced cardiac filling in diastole followed by more forceful systolic contraction
  2. neurohormonal influence causes normal ventricular filling with forceful ejection and emptying during systole
  3. training adaptations expand blood volume and reduce resistance to blood flow in peripheral tissues
 systolic emptying versus diastolic filling Preload:greater ventricular filling in diastole during the cardiac cycle from increased vernous return 
 systolic emptying versus diastolic filling afterload:resistance to flow from increased systolic pressure
  • increase in end-diastolic volume stretches myocardial fibers, causing powerful ejection strokes as the heart contracts
  • expels normal SV plus additional blood that enters ventricles and stretches the myocardium
  • frank-starling law of the heart describes this phenomenon as applied to the myocardium
 ejection function: measure of ventricular function ejection faction:faction of blood pumped fro left ventricle relative to its end-diastolic voluem
  • example: if ventricular end - diastolic volume =110 mL of blood hearts SV = 70 mL
  • ejection function computes as 70 mL /110 or .64
  • healthy individuals have ejection fractions ranging between 50 and 70%
  • depressed ejection fraction accompanies poor left ventricular function
 heart rate during physical A.
  • HR increases rapidly and levels off within several minutes during submax steady rate PA
  • HR for untrained individuals accelerates rapidly with increasing PA demands- Much smaller HR increase occurs for trained persons so they achieve a higher of exercise VO2 at a particular submax HR than sedentary person
 cardiac output differences
  • Q and VO2 remain linearly related during graded PA for young and older men and women:
  • teenage and adult females perform at any level of submax VO2 with 5% to 10% larger Q than males
  • compared to adults children have similar Q at any given submax VO2 from smaller SV
 extration of oxygen: the a-VO2 difference
  • two mechanisms for O2 supply increase VO2 capacity
  1. increased tissue blood flow
  2. use of relatively large quantity of O2 remaining unused by tissues at rest

VO2 max= Max Q times Max a-VO2 max
 VO2 max during PA
  • capacity of each dL or arterial blood to carry O2 increases during PA from increased hemoconcentration (progressive fluid movement from plasma to interstitial spaces)
  • diverting large portion of Q to active muscles influences magnitude of a-VO2 diff during max PA
  • increase in capillary to fiber ratio reflects positive training adaptation that enlarges interface for nutrient and gas exchange during PA
 factors that affect a-VO2 diff during PA
  • central and peripheral factors interact to increase O2 extraction in active tissue during PA
  • diverting Q to active muscles
  • increase in size and number of mitochondria and augmented aerobic enzyme activity
  • increase in skeletal tissue microcirculation
 cardiovascular adjustents: upper body PA
  • highest VO2 in upper body activity averages 70% to 80% VO2 max in bicycle and treadmill activity
  • HRmax and pulmonary ventilation remain lower in PA with arms from relatively smaller muscle mass activation
  • any level of submax power output produces higher VO2 with arm compared to leg movement
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