Koofers

3.1 & 3.4 - Flashcards

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Class:PHIL 051 - Prin of Reasoning-Online
Subject:Philosophy
University:Howard University
Term:Fall 2011
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fallacy a defect in an argument that consists in something other than false premises alone. Usually divided into two groups: formal and informal
formal fallacy may be identified by merely examining the form or structure of an argument.
-
Forms of this include: categorical syllogisms, disjunctive syllogisms, and hypothetical syllogisms. 




syllogism A syllogism is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two or more others (the premises) of a certain form.
categorical syllogism A syllogism in which all three statements are categorical propositions.
-
All A are B.
All C are B.
All A are C.
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disjunctive syllogism a syllogism having a disjunctive statement for one or both of its premises.
A disjunctive syllogism, also known as disjunction-elimination and or-elimination, and historically known as modus tollendo ponens,, is a classically valid, simple argument form:
hypothetical syllogism a syllogism having a conditional statement for one or both of its premises.
-
If A then B.
B.             
A.
Informal Fallacies those that can be detected only by examining the content of the argument.
-
The Brooklyn Bridge is made of atoms
Atoms are invisible.                             
Therefore, the Brooklyn Bridge is invisible.
Fallacies of Relevance the common characteristic that the argument s in which they occur have premises that are logically irrelevant to the conclusion.
-
Forms: Appeal to Force, Appeal to Pity, Appeal to the People, Argument Against the Person
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- Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum) occurs whenever an arguer poses a conclusion to another person and tells that person either implicitly or explicitly that some harm will come to him or her if he or she does not accept the conclusion.
-
Child to Playmate|| Sesame Street is the best show on TV; and if you don't believe it, I'm going to call my big brother over here and he's going to beat you up.

*               = Conclusion

- Appeal to Pity (Argumentum ad Misericordiam) An informal fallacy in which someone tries to win support for an argument or idea by exploiting his or her opponent's feelings of pity or guilt.
-
Taxpayer to Judge|| Your Honor, I admit that I declared 13 children as dependents on my tax return, even though I only have 2. But if you find me guilty of tax evasion, my reputation will be ruined. I'll probably lose my job, my poor wife will not be able to have the operation that she desperately needs, and my kids will starve. Surely I am not guilty.

*               = Conclusion
- Appeal to the People (Argumentum ad Populum) An informal fallacy that occurs when an arguer plays on certain psychological needs for the purpose of getting the reader or listener to accept a conclusion. Two approaches are involved: One direct; One indirect.
-
The indirect approach includes the bandwagon argument, appeal to vanity, appeal to snobbery
•Bandwagon Argument When an arguer plays on the reader's or listener's need to feel part of a group.
-
Of course you want to buy Zing toothpaste. Why. 90 percent of America brushes with Zing.
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•Appeal to Vanity When an arguer plays on the vanity of the reader or listener
-
"The Few, the Proud, the Marines."
- the message is that if you join the Marines then you will be admires and respected like them.
•Appeal to Snobbery When the arguer plays on the reader's or listener's need to feel superior.
-
The Rolls Royce is not for everyone. If you qualify as one of the select few, this distinguished classic may be seen and driven at British Motor Cars, Ltd. (By appt. only, please.)
-
Mother to Child|| You want to grow up and be just like Wonder Woman, don't you? Then eat your liver and carrots.
- Argument Against the Person (Argumentum ad Hominem) An informal fallacy that occurs when an arguer verbally attacks the person of a second arguer for the purpose of discrediting his or her argument.
-
Occurs in 3 forms: ad hominem circumstantial, ad hominem abusive, and tu quoque.
Fallacies of Presumption Occurs when the premises of an argument presume what they purport to prove.
-
Includes: Begging the question, complex question, false dichotomy, and suppressed evidence.
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- Begging the Question (Petitio Principii) When the arguer creates the illusion that inadequate premises provide adequate support for the conclusion by leaving out a possibly false key premise, by restating a possibly false premise as the conclusion, or by reasoning in a circle.
-
Murder is morally wrong. This being the case, it follows that abortion is morally wrong.
- Complex Question Occurs when a single question that is really two or more questions is asked, and a single answer is applied to both questions.
-
Have you stopped cheating on exams? ("yes")
You were asked whether you have stopped cheating on exams. You answered, "yes." Therefore, it follows that you have cheated in the past.


- False Dichotomy Happens when an arguer presents two non-jointly exhaustive alternatives as if they were jointly exhaustive and then eliminates on leaving the other as the conclusion.

ie. Either you let me attend the Dixie Chicks concert of I'll be miserable for the rest of my life. I know you don't want me to be miserable for the rest of my life, so it follows that you'll let me attend the concert.
- Suppressed Evidence When the arguer ignores relevant evidence that outweighs the presented evidence and entails a very different conclusion.

ie. Most dogs are friendly and pose no threat to people who pet them. Therefore, it would be safe to pet the little dog that is approaching us now.
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Fallacies of Ambiguity Occurs because of an ambiguity in the premise or conclusion.


- Equivocation Occurs because some word or group of words is used either implicitly or explicitly in two different senses.

ie. Some triangles are obtuse. Whatever is obtuse is ignorant. Therefore, some triangles are ignorant.

ie 2. A mouse is an animal. Therefore, a large mouse is a large animal.
- Amphiboly Occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the misinterpretation of a statement that is ambiguous owing to some structural defect.

ie. The tour guide said that standing in Greenwich Village, the Empire State Building could easily be seen. It follows that the Empire State Building is in Greenwich Village. 
Fallacies of Grammatical Analogy Occurs because of a grammatical similarity to other arguments that are nonfallacious.
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- Composition Occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the erroneous transference of an attribute from the parts of something onto the whole.

ie. Maria likes anchovies. She also likes chocolate ice cream. Therefore, it is certain that she would like a chocolate sundae topped with anchovies.
- Division Occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the erroneous transference of an attribute from a whole onto its parts.

ie. Salt is a nonpoisonous compound. Therefore, its component elements, sodium and chlorine, are nonpoisonous.
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 fallacya defect in an argument that consists in something other than false premises alone. Usually divided into two groups: formal and informal
 formal fallacymay be identified by merely examining the form or structure of an argument.
-
Forms of this include: categorical syllogisms, disjunctive syllogisms, and hypothetical syllogisms. 




 syllogismA syllogism is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two or more others (the premises) of a certain form.
 categorical syllogismA syllogism in which all three statements are categorical propositions.
-
All A are B.
All C are B.
All A are C.
 disjunctive syllogisma syllogism having a disjunctive statement for one or both of its premises.
A disjunctive syllogism, also known as disjunction-elimination and or-elimination, and historically known as modus tollendo ponens,, is a classically valid, simple argument form:
 hypothetical syllogisma syllogism having a conditional statement for one or both of its premises.
-
If A then B.
B.             
A.
 Informal Fallaciesthose that can be detected only by examining the content of the argument.
-
The Brooklyn Bridge is made of atoms
Atoms are invisible.                             
Therefore, the Brooklyn Bridge is invisible.
 Fallacies of Relevancethe common characteristic that the argument s in which they occur have premises that are logically irrelevant to the conclusion.
-
Forms: Appeal to Force, Appeal to Pity, Appeal to the People, Argument Against the Person
 - Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum)occurs whenever an arguer poses a conclusion to another person and tells that person either implicitly or explicitly that some harm will come to him or her if he or she does not accept the conclusion.
-
Child to Playmate|| Sesame Street is the best show on TV; and if you don't believe it, I'm going to call my big brother over here and he's going to beat you up.

*               = Conclusion

 - Appeal to Pity (Argumentum ad Misericordiam)An informal fallacy in which someone tries to win support for an argument or idea by exploiting his or her opponent's feelings of pity or guilt.
-
Taxpayer to Judge|| Your Honor, I admit that I declared 13 children as dependents on my tax return, even though I only have 2. But if you find me guilty of tax evasion, my reputation will be ruined. I'll probably lose my job, my poor wife will not be able to have the operation that she desperately needs, and my kids will starve. Surely I am not guilty.

*               = Conclusion
 - Appeal to the People (Argumentum ad Populum)An informal fallacy that occurs when an arguer plays on certain psychological needs for the purpose of getting the reader or listener to accept a conclusion. Two approaches are involved: One direct; One indirect.
-
The indirect approach includes the bandwagon argument, appeal to vanity, appeal to snobbery
 •Bandwagon ArgumentWhen an arguer plays on the reader's or listener's need to feel part of a group.
-
Of course you want to buy Zing toothpaste. Why. 90 percent of America brushes with Zing.
 •Appeal to VanityWhen an arguer plays on the vanity of the reader or listener
-
"The Few, the Proud, the Marines."
- the message is that if you join the Marines then you will be admires and respected like them.
 •Appeal to SnobberyWhen the arguer plays on the reader's or listener's need to feel superior.
-
The Rolls Royce is not for everyone. If you qualify as one of the select few, this distinguished classic may be seen and driven at British Motor Cars, Ltd. (By appt. only, please.)
-
Mother to Child|| You want to grow up and be just like Wonder Woman, don't you? Then eat your liver and carrots.
 - Argument Against the Person (Argumentum ad Hominem)An informal fallacy that occurs when an arguer verbally attacks the person of a second arguer for the purpose of discrediting his or her argument.
-
Occurs in 3 forms: ad hominem circumstantial, ad hominem abusive, and tu quoque.
 Fallacies of PresumptionOccurs when the premises of an argument presume what they purport to prove.
-
Includes: Begging the question, complex question, false dichotomy, and suppressed evidence.
 - Begging the Question (Petitio Principii)When the arguer creates the illusion that inadequate premises provide adequate support for the conclusion by leaving out a possibly false key premise, by restating a possibly false premise as the conclusion, or by reasoning in a circle.
-
Murder is morally wrong. This being the case, it follows that abortion is morally wrong.
 - Complex QuestionOccurs when a single question that is really two or more questions is asked, and a single answer is applied to both questions.
-
Have you stopped cheating on exams? ("yes")
You were asked whether you have stopped cheating on exams. You answered, "yes." Therefore, it follows that you have cheated in the past.


 - False DichotomyHappens when an arguer presents two non-jointly exhaustive alternatives as if they were jointly exhaustive and then eliminates on leaving the other as the conclusion.

ie. Either you let me attend the Dixie Chicks concert of I'll be miserable for the rest of my life. I know you don't want me to be miserable for the rest of my life, so it follows that you'll let me attend the concert.
 - Suppressed EvidenceWhen the arguer ignores relevant evidence that outweighs the presented evidence and entails a very different conclusion.

ie. Most dogs are friendly and pose no threat to people who pet them. Therefore, it would be safe to pet the little dog that is approaching us now.
 Fallacies of AmbiguityOccurs because of an ambiguity in the premise or conclusion.


 - EquivocationOccurs because some word or group of words is used either implicitly or explicitly in two different senses.

ie. Some triangles are obtuse. Whatever is obtuse is ignorant. Therefore, some triangles are ignorant.

ie 2. A mouse is an animal. Therefore, a large mouse is a large animal.
 - AmphibolyOccurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the misinterpretation of a statement that is ambiguous owing to some structural defect.

ie. The tour guide said that standing in Greenwich Village, the Empire State Building could easily be seen. It follows that the Empire State Building is in Greenwich Village. 
 Fallacies of Grammatical AnalogyOccurs because of a grammatical similarity to other arguments that are nonfallacious.
 - CompositionOccurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the erroneous transference of an attribute from the parts of something onto the whole.

ie. Maria likes anchovies. She also likes chocolate ice cream. Therefore, it is certain that she would like a chocolate sundae topped with anchovies.
 - DivisionOccurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the erroneous transference of an attribute from a whole onto its parts.

ie. Salt is a nonpoisonous compound. Therefore, its component elements, sodium and chlorine, are nonpoisonous.
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